APEURO Name: Marrisa Walsh Reading Guide: Ch. 18 Life in the Era of Expansion Marriage and the Family 1. What changes occurred in marriage and the family in the course of the eighteenth century? What were the reasons for these changes? The changes that occur in the 18th century were that people were getting married when they were older because they wanted to have their own house, as well as be able to support themselves and the family they would have. New laws had been made and some people needed there landowners’ permission to marry and that was hard to get. There was also very rare of times a three-generation family. 2. How did late marriage give Europe an economic advantage over other areas of the world? This gave them an advantage because the men and women had time to mature and they had developed social status money and lessons and skills they could pass on to there kids and this was more efficient. 3. Describe the occupations of men and women in the eighteenth century. They started working at a young age around there house guys plowed and girls tended to the cows and spun. Some men would afford it entered apprenticeships and could soon if they were lucky to be called into a guild and start making real money ut poor man couldn’t afford that so they ended up being farmers. Women left to work but their opportunities were limited. They had jobs like a seamstress or linen draper, or midwife as time passed women were needed for skills and hired into guilds. Women were also usually servents and mistreated. 4. What issues did females face as servants? They were physically mistreated by there mistresses at the young age of 15. They had many hard tasks and kept in a very close eye by the mistresses. Their work was endless and many were harassed by males and became pregnant than shunned from there family. Premarital Sex and Community Controls 5. Define: a. Community controls a combination of low rates of illegitimate birth with large numbers of pregnant brides b. Charivari a public degrading ritual, young couples misdeeds would be screamed as they sat on a donkey sitting the wrong way as the food was thrown at them. 6. What factors account for the low rates of illegitimate births? The people humiliated the people who had sex before they got married and they people inforced and reminded young people not to do this unjust in their eye thing. New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy 7. What significant change occurred regarding marriage in the late eighteenth century? What accounts for this change? People could choose who they married. This made birth rates skyrocket because young people were sexually active. APEURO 8. What was the illegitimacy explosion? What are the reasons for the illegitimacy explosion? This was the drastic increase in out of wedlocks birth and it was caused by the low wages and the breaking down of community controls. 9. How did the illegitimacy explosion impact some women? Many men didn’t pull through with there promise. They engaged in sexual contact with men and they wouldn’t stick with there promise of marrying them so this left pregnant women alone. Children and Education 10. What was life like for children, and how did attitude toward childhood evolve (CHANGE) over time? If the child lived they were very nurtured. As time passed people became focused on building elementary schools in the hope kids would be educated. But only a few kids had access to this education. Many children didn’t live but nursing was seen to help them stay alive and make it passed ten and people slowly began to see that. 11. What were the dangers of childbirth for both the mother and infant? The dangers for the mother in childbirth consisted of blood loss, shock, infection, and manly death. The dangers for the child was not being able to fight off diseases, infections, and many abies died of dehydration due to diarrhea. 12. What accounted for varying levels of infant mortality across Europe? If mothers breastfeed their kid and gave them the nutrients that are in there milk to keep them alive. 13. How did child rearing differ for the poor vs. wealthy? Child-rearing for the wealthy was just paying someone to nurse your child and have a stay at home wet nurse or they fed their kid milk from cows or goats. Poor people usually nursed their own babies and this leads to the greatest infant survival rates by doing so. 14. What were the dangers of wet-nursing a baby? As demand increased for them there were not enough mothers so some babies had to be moved to where that wet nurse was and the journey could kill the baby. As well as there were simply not enough wet nurses for babies to have because there were so many that wet nurses had to nurse other babies and try to nurse there’s and most babies didn’t get enough food they needed. 15. How did Enlightenment thinkers criticize wet-nursing? they said that wetnursing robbed Europeans of there full potential and though the population was decreasing so they said this was because kids were not getting nurtured. Foundlings and Infanticide 16. What “options” did women have for unwanted children? Women’s options for unwanted children were they had to keep there pregnancy a secret give birth and many smothered their baby to death. Abortions were illegal and rare back then. Attitudes Towards Children APEURO 17. Why did many scholars believe that parents were indifferent or negligent with their children? Do historical sources support this? Explain. 18. What was the attitude towards child discipline in the early eighteenth century? How did the Enlightenment affect attitudes towards child rearing? 19. Describe Rousseau’s ideas on child rearing? How did he treat his own children? The Spread of Elementary Schools 20. Describe how schools increased over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? What role did religion play in education? Popular Culture and Consumerism 21. What is the consumer revolution? (592) Who did it impact the most? Explain HOW. The consumer revolution is when many new products come into the market fast and many people found them useful and all people benefited as well as prices were more accessible for the lower class. This benefited the lower class the most because things are more affordable for them. These are goods that you don’t need but they improve your quality of life and the wealthy already had these products and could get them with ease but now the lower class can get something that makes them happy and is extra but worth it and it comes in handy. 22. How did increasing literacy impact peoples’ lives? What types of literature did the common people read? Increasing literature made it more normal for people to read and get an education and the need for it grew and it became easier to get access to books. The common people began to read books about doing everyday things like crafts making, household repairs, and similar matters. As well as books on evil government. Fairy tales, crime books, thrillers, and other genres were common amongst the people. 23. How did commoners become exposed to Enlightenment thinking? Commoners became exposed to enlightenment thinking because of the rumors and gossip that spread through the streets. As well as pamphlets were being sold that translated some of the enlightenment talk or books and helped them letter understand what people were talking about and what they were reading. Leisure and Recreation 24. How did the culture of the village remain the same (CONTINUITY) despite increasing levels of literacy? APEURO The culture of the village remained the same because during the cold time’s peasant families would gather around the fire and sing, tell stories, and do work because despite the increasing number of literature published people still were cold and needed a source and stuck to there human interactions and tradition in those times. As well as drinking always brought people together to talking and art was loved by many. 25. What activities emerged in villages and towns partially as a result of the consumer revolution? They had things such as pleasure gardens, theatres, lending libraries, and fairs. 26. What are blood sports? Bloodsports are bullbaiting and cockfighting that involve inflicting violence and bloodshed on animals. 27. What is carnival and how is this an example of a cultural CONTINUITY in Europe? 28. Why did educated elites begin to criticize the recreational activities of the common people in the alte eighteenth century? New Foods and Appetites? 29. What is meant by the term “just price”? 30. What made up the diet of a typical European commoner in the eighteenth century? 31. How did the diet of the middle and upper classes differ from those of the commoners? 32. What crops were introduced from the Americas? 33. What was the most substantial dietary change in eighteenth century Europe? 34. Why were colonial products popular among the masses? APEURO Toward a Consumer Society 35. How did patterns of consumption impact notions of individuality? Explain? 36. How was demand created for consumer goods? 37. What factors led to the changes made in clothing consumption during the eighteenth century? 38. What were the gender distinctions in clothing? 39. How did peoples’ homes change during the eighteenth century? What new items of comfort and convenience did people acquire? 40. How did standards of hygiene change? APEURO Religious Authority and Beliefs 41. How did religion remain a constant in most Europeans’ lives in the eighteenth century? 42. How was the local parish a social as well as religious institution? 43. How did both Protestant and Catholic states impose control over religion? Provide specific examples. Protestant Revival 44. Why were many Protestant churches in a state of complacency by the eighteenth century? 45. What is Pietism and what factors explain its appeal? 46. Who is John Wesley? How was he similar to Martin Luther? Discuss how he acquired his beliefs and developed the Methodist movement. John Wesley was a catalyst for a popular religious revival in Europe. He was similar to Martin Luther because he was tensely troubled about his salvation. He acquired his beliefs after he encountered these Moravians. Their society reflected a productive, peaceful, and pious world. That resembled the values of the first apostles. After this, he said he was emotionally moved while reading Lutheran’s preface. He believed that any person no matter what can also encounter such a moving touch from god and also get the same reassurance. So he then said that anyone who earnestly sought salvation shall receive it and he developed his Methodist movement. Catholic Piety 47. What major differences can be seen between Protestant and Catholic practices? Some major differences between Protestant and Catholic practices are that Catholics have statues, images, figures, and artwork all over there church, while most protestant churches have bare walls and are very plain. The Catholic church was popular in the fact that the had an integral role in community life and culture. APEURO 48. What is Jansenism? Jansenism was a sect of Catholicism originating with Cornelious Jansen that emphasized the heavyweight of original sin and accepted the doctrine of predestination; it was outlaws as heresy by the pope. Marginal Beliefs and Practices 49. How did peasants’ religious practices continue to reflect older superstitions? Peasant’s religious practices continued to reflect their old superstitions. They did old traditions like jumping over a fire to hope crops grow and feed their animals salt. Peasants didn’t understand and just saw the church as attacking age-old faith and they were angered by this. 50. How did religious leaders attempts to rid people of their superstitions? Religious leaders tried to rid people of their superstitions by using rationalization they sought to purify popular spirituality. They used or attempted to use denouncing of old traditions to help the people from going insane. These superstitions were what they believed so the church just tried to show them they didn’t need to do these things because there were forgetting about what the religion was all about. Medical Practice 51. How did the Enlightenment impact medical practices? What conditions did not change much from those of the Middle Ages? Provide specific examples. Surgeons began studying the human body very closely and improved there art. Conditions such as sanitation. Many people stilled died in surgery because they didn’t know about bacteria. There was an increased “ number of practitioners but the techniques did not differ.” Many were willing to experiment with new methods. The conditions of thinking bloodletting could heal all were still in practice. The deaths of people may have lessened by not drastically. 52. Why did surgery remain a dangerous undertaking? Surgery remained a dangerous undertaking because surgeons didn’t have painkillers and anesthesia was too dangerous so people usually died from shock or pain. As well as where the surgery took place were extremally unsanitary. So even the simplest of wounds touched by a surgeon could lead to death. 53. What were the functions of a midwife? Midwives delivered an overwhelming number of babies. They assisted in delivery and the labor process as well as treated women’s periods, breastfeeding difficulties, infertility, and diseases in the women’s privates. 54. How did the invention of forceps begin to change childbirth and midwifery? This invention changed midwifery because it made them challenge if they were worthy of being able to participate or even if they were smart enough or qualified because most midwives were poor. This as an attempt to stop them but women fought back and won and showed there worth and that they deserve and should help other women and are just as capable as doctors. Forceps were used to help ease childbirth and were used by midwives to help the process as well as help the baby and more babies lived because they could be taken out a little faster. The Conquest of Smallpox 55. How many Europeans died of smallpox in the eighteenth century? About 60 million Europeans died from smallpox. APEURO 56. How was the smallpox vaccination developed in Europe? The vaccination was developed in Europe by a man named Edward Jenner who was a doctor. There was a belief that dairymaids who had cowpoxs didn’t get smallpox. So going off the belief he practiced for 18 years collecting data and did a test on a boy using matter taken from someone with cowpox and it was successful and this quickly spread all over and smallpox disappeared.