Cultural studies LECTURE 3 ANATOMY OF CULTURE P H D , A S S I S TA N T- P R O F E S S O R Z H A N AT D O S K H O Z H I N A Presentation outline Main forms of culture Three-dimensional model of culture Categories of culture Three faces of culture Cultural scenarios Axiology principles Axiological typology of person Axiology of daily life Social types of human character Deviant Behavior as a fatal culture component Class discussion Main forms of culture Cultural forms - ways in which the conditions necessary for the satisfaction and development of human needs materialized. Myth Art Religion Morals Law Politics Science Technics Three-dimensional model of culture Cultural space is a space formed by many cultural phenomena interacting with each other Three mutually intersecting "coordinate axes“: X – “cognitive” axis Y – “axiological” axis Z – “regulative” axis Categories of culture Five logic structures based on the text analysis Continued… INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES INDUCTION DEDUCTION Three faces of culture 1. Spiritual culture – religion, art, philosophy (creative activity); 2. Social culture – morality, law and politics (social ideals, norms and values); 3. Technological culture – science, technics (development and processing any material) Libido Cultural scenarios desire for creation (love, generosity, joyful work, art, progeny) Mortido desire for destruction (enmity, hate, blind anger and terrible pleasures) Axiology principles Final values (human life, freedom, justice, beauty, happiness, love, friendship, honor and dignity of the person, legality, humanism) Instrumental values (books, sport, art, job) Derivative Values (effects or expressions of other values) Axiological typology of person “Theoretical” person • The highest value is True. Rational and critical worldview. Highly developed intellect and devotes himself to scientific activity. “Economic” person • The highest value is benefit. Don`t accept abstract knowledge. “Aesthetic” person • The highest value are beauty, harmony. Love to art. “Social” person • The highest value is love of society. Altruism and self-sacrifice. “Political” person • The highest value is power. The desire to rule and control people. “Religious” person • Comprehending the unity to the world and search for the meaning of existence Axiology of daily life • Consumerism • Sensory hunger • Repression of person Emotional discharge and thirsty of thrill “To have” does not mean “to be” Make money for spend money Culture gives to human ability to create meaning of life – existential questions • Life meaning problem Social types of human character Receptive type Exploitative type Accumulative type Market type Productive type • Passive and dependent • Not able to do anything without help • Trusting and sentimental • More strives to be loved than to love • Self-confident • Strives to gain authority and use people • Not capable to creation • Self-centered, aggressive, impulsive • Seeks to possess as many material wealth, power, love as possible • Not able to change his views • Conservative, suspicious and very careful • Unstable behavior • Consider everything and everybody as a stock market • Motto: “I'm such as you want to see me” • Detachment from deep feelings • Able to create • Honest, responsible for his actions, humanу, concern for the welfare of others • Independent and free Deviant Behavior as a fatal culture component R. Merton – any society needs in deviant and delinquent behavior. It comes as a “compensation” for not satisfied needs Deviant behavior is relative Socio-cultural norms Resisting DB Class discussion 1. How do you think what are the main reasons of criminal situation in our country? 2. How criminality is connected to culture?