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Name _________________________
Unit 11—Solutions
Factors affecting solvation
The Solvation Process
 _______________________ forces exist among the particles of all substances
Examples: ___________________________________, ____________________________________, and
 If the attractive forces between the solute and the solvent are _____________________ than the attractive forces
holding the solute particles together, the solute _______________________in the solvent
 _______________________is the process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a
 Solvation in water is called _______________________
 For ionic compounds that dissolve in water, the attraction between _______________________ (partially charged
ends) of a water molecule and the _______________________ (charged particles) of a crystal are
_______________________than the attraction among ions of a crystal.
How do you know if a substance will dissolve?
The general rule is “_________________dissolves _____________________.”
Polar will dissolve _______________________ (or ionic)
Nonpolar will dissolve _______________________
Is oil polar or nonpolar?
Since it does not dissolve in water, and water is ___________________, oil is _____________________
Sucrose (sugar) molecules have several O–H bonds, which become sites for _____________________________with
water molecules. That’s why sugar _______________________in water.
During solvation, the solute must separate into particles and move apart, which requires _______________________
The overall energy change that occurs during solution formation is called the heat of _______________________.
When energy is released, it is an _______________________process and feels _______________________.
When energy is absorbed, it is an _______________________process and feels _______________________.
Factors that affect rate of dissolving of solid in liquid
1. Agitation
_______________________or _______________________moves dissolved particles away from the contact
surfaces more quickly and allows new _______________________to occur.
This is why you _______________________your tea after you put sugar in it.
2. Surface area
Breaking the solute into small pieces increases ___________________________and allows more
_______________________to occur.
This is why you use _______________________sugar instead of sugar cubes
3. Temperature
As temperature increases, rate of solvation _______________________.
Particles are moving _______________________.
This is why sugar dissolves _______________________in hot tea than in iced tea.
Solubility depends on the nature of the _______________________and _______________________.
Solubility is affected by increasing the temperature of the solvent because the _________________________________
of the particles increases.
Solubility of solids in liquids
Generally _______________________with an increase in temperature (some exceptions)
Not affected by _______________________
Solubility of gases in liquids
 _______________________with an increase in pressure (Henry’s Law)
 This is how _______________________beverages are made and why they go ___________ if left open
Scuba diving
o As the diver goes deeper in the water, pressure _______________________, allowing
______________gases (N2) to dissolve in his blood
o If the diver goes to the surface too quickly, the gases will un-dissolve in his
_______________________________instead of his _______________________
o This results in the bends (decompression sickness, caisson’s disease. . .)
How is the solubility of gases affected by temperature?
 Solubility of gases _______________________with an increase in temperature
 This is why soda at room temperature goes flat _______________________than soda in the refrigerator
Thermal pollution
 What do fish breathe?
If these cooling towers dump hot water into the lake, what happens to the temperature of the water?
What happens to the O2 dissolved in the water?
What happens to the fish?
There are now regulations on how much the temperature of water can be affected by dumping hot water
that was used for cooling
Summary of factors that affect solubility:
Solubility of solids in liquids
Increase temperature
Increase pressure
p. 511 127-129, 86-88, 93, 94
Solubility of gases in liquids