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Colonization and Exploration Study Guide

Colonization and Exploration Study Guide
Name: __________________________
Directions: Use your notes to answer the questions.
1. Explain the connection between the Silk Road and European exploration. European explorers began
looking for new water routes because the Silk Road became too dangerous.
2. What impact did the Renaissance have on exploration? The Renaissance, as well as the Crusades,
sparked new interest in traveling and luxury goods.
3. What areas of the Americas did the Portuguese explore? Portugal colonized the eastern portion of South
America. Their colonies bordered those of Spain.
4. What areas of the Americas did Spain explore? Spain colonized the western portion of South America. They
were also responsible for the colonization of the southern portion of North America as well as Florida
and the islands south of Florida.
5. What areas of the Americas did France explore? The French colonized portions of North America. This
includes eastern colonies in what is now the United States and portions of Canada.
6. What were the four types of colonies? The four types of colonies are trading post, settler, plantation, and
penal colonies. Trading post colonies were established by the French to trade fish and furs. The settler
colonies were established by the English as permanent settlements. Plantation colonies were established
by Spain to grow cash crops.
7. What was the purpose of the penal colonies? Penal colonies (Georgia & Australia) were established as a
punishment for criminals in Europe.
8. Who was Ferdinand Magellan and Vasco de Gama? Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to sail
around the world (circumnavigate). He died along the way and his crew had to finish the journey. Vasco
de Gama was the first European to sail around the south of Africa and reach India.
9. What were the mother countries? How were these countries able to explore, compared to other
countries? Spain, Portugal, France, England, Netherlands… these countries were able to explore because
they were wealthy and had new technology.
10. Who was Christopher Columbus? Where did he explore? Christopher Columbus was the first European
to sail west searching for a water route to Asia. West Indies (Cuba) - thought he was on the coast of
11. New technology helped the explorers with navigation. What were these technologies? Explain. The
compass had a magnetic needle which always points North to help with navigation. The astrolabe
allowed explorers to navigate using the stars. The caravel was a new style of sailing ship which allowed
explorers to travel faster. Gunpowder was used in weapons as well as moving rocks and trees. Cannon
were also used as weapons.
12. What were the three reasons (3 G’s) why explorers wanted to explore? Gold, Glory, and God.
13. Explain the Columbian Exchange and the Triangular Trade. The Columbian Exchange was the
widespread exchange transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and
ideas between the Old World and the New World. The Triangular Trade was the trade routes taken to
trade raw materials, finished products (manufactured goods), and African slaves. The Middle Passage
was the part of the journey from Africa to the Americas.
14. Why did the colonists want the African slaves? They wanted non-wage labor… they did not want to
have to pay anyone to work the land.
15. What impact did the slave trade have on Africa? The male population in Africa decreased and war
among African kingdoms increased.