Uploaded by International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

IRJET-Finger Vein Presentation Attack Detection using Total Variation Decomposition

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Finger Vein Presentation Attack Detection using Total Variation
Srija. S.K1, Sowmiya Preethi. S2, Vaishnavi. S3
Dept. of Electronics and communication Engineering, Jeppiaar SRR Engineering college,
Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract - Finger vein is a developing biometric strategy for
Even though the above attributes have been effectively
exploited by biometric frameworks in various applications,
for example, movement freedom, budgetary installments, get
to control frameworks, and buyer hardware, they are
defenseless against introduction assaults, which can
considerably diminish their dimension of security.
individual verification that has earned extensive consideration
in the previous decade. Although appeared to be compelling,
late investigations have uncovered that finger vein biometrics
is additionally helpless against introduction assaults, i.e.,
printed adaptations of approved individual finger vein
pictures can be utilized to access offices or administrations. In
this paper, given that both fogginess and the clamor
circulation are somewhat extraordinary among genuine and
fashioned finger vein pictures, we propose a proficient and
vigorous technique for distinguishing introduction assaults
that utilization produced finger vein pictures (print relics). To
begin with, we utilize complete variety (television)
regularization to deteriorate unique finger vein pictures into
structure and commotion segments, which speak to the
degrees of haziness and the clamor circulation. Second, a
square nearby paired example (LBP) descriptor is utilized to
encode both structure and clamor data in the disintegrated
parts. At long last, we utilize a fell probabilistic help vector
machine (PSVM) demonstrate for order, by which finger vein
introduction assaults can be viably recognized. To assess the
execution of our methodology, we developed another finger
vein introduction assault database. Broad exploratory
outcomes gathered from the two-finger vein introduction
assault databases and a palm vein introduction assault
database demonstrate that our strategy plainly outflanks best
in class techniques.
For instance, facial acknowledgment frameworks are
possibly parodied by phony photos, recorded recordings, and
three-dimensional fake face models. Also, iris
acknowledgment frameworks can be tricked by phony iris
pictures. Unique mark and palm print acknowledgment
frameworks are likewise defenseless against assaults by
means of fashioned pictures produced using normally
accessible materials, for example, gelatin and earth. With
such a wide cluster of biometric procedures being used,
improving their introduction assault recognition (Cushion)
capacities has turned out to be progressively critical for
genuine applications. To address this issue, many Cushion
procedures for biometric frameworks dependent on
perceiving a face, iris, unique mark, and palm print have been
Likewise, vein acknowledgment, including both finger
vein acknowledgment and palm vein acknowledgment, is one
of the most recent developing biometrics procedures, getting
more consideration from analysts given its potential
applications. Since vein designs are practically undetectable
to the exposed eye under common lighting conditions and
must be obtained utilizing infrared brightening, analysts trust
that vein-based biometric frameworks can adequately avoid
endeavored parody assaults; notwithstanding, late
examinations have demonstrated that finger vein
acknowledgment frameworks are additionally powerless
against introduction assaults from printed vein pictures, with
a satirizing false acknowledgment rate as high as 86%.
Henceforth, exploring Cushion techniques has turned out to
be progressively vital for finger vein biometrics in the
previous three years.
Key Words: Presentation attack detection, Total variation,
Local binary pattern, Probabilistic support vector machine
and Finger vein.
Lately, biometric procedures have pulled in expanded
consideration in different applications where right
personality evaluation is vital. When all is said in done, by
exploiting natural physiological or extraneous conduct
qualities of people for vigorous individual confirmation,
biometric strategies have indicated critical focal points over
customary verification components, for example, passwords,
keys, individual distinguishing proof numbers, and brilliant
cards. In the previous three decades, numerous human
characteristics have been examined top to bottom for use
with biometric methods, including the face, iris, unique finger
impression, voice, palm print, and mark.
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
A few finger vein Cushion techniques have been proposed
which can be isolated into two classifications, i.e., surface
based and liveness-based. Surface based techniques
investigate the distinctions in picture quality among genuine
ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal
Page 2824
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Further, nearby parallel examples is a straightforward
and proficient surface descriptor that has been generally
connected to numerous PC vision errands, including facial,
outward appearance, palm vein, and finger vein
acknowledgment. LBP likewise performs well in the field of
biometric PAD, for example, face PAD, iris PAD, and unique
finger impression PAD. In view of both TV regularization and
the LBP descriptor, we propose a novel PAD conspire, named
TV-LBP, for finger vein PAD. A flowchart of our proposed TVLBP strategy is appeared in Fig. 1. To start with, we use TV
regularization to break down an information finger vein
picture into two parts, explicitly the structure and clamor
segments. The structure segment essentially catches the
fundamental vein structure and fogginess data, while the
clamor segment principally holds the commotion data.
Second, we utilize a square LBP descriptor to separate
discriminative highlights from the over two parts and to use
the structure data reflecting finger thickness and finger joint
attributes. Next, we apply a fell help vector machine as a
classifier to stay away from shared obstruction between the
two parts and improve the speculation capacity of our
proposed strategy. At last, as indicated by the test convention
depicted in, vein tests can be isolated into two classes, i.e.,
those containing full unique pictures with no preparing and
those containing just areas of-intrigue (ROIs) edited from
their unique pictures. We outline the fundamental
commitments of our investigation as pursues. In the first
place, we propose a novel and hearty finger vein PAD
calculation, called TV-LBP. In our strategy, square LBP
highlights are removed from structure and clamor segments
deteriorated by TV regularization, which together have solid
discriminative power for finger vein PAD. To the best of our
insight, our proposed strategy is the first to use both the
structure and commotion segments for finger vein PAD.
Second, we acquaint with the examination network another
finger vein introduction assault database containing 7200
pictures. More explicitly, we built another finger vein
introduction assault database, called the South China
University of Technology (SCUT) finger vein introduction
assault database (FVD). Contrasted with the Idiap Research
Institute (IDIAP) introduction assault database FVD [4], the
fashioned vein pictures inside SCUT-FVD contain less printing
ancient rarities and clamor, and consequently, gives a higher
level of constancy for improving the methodology for creating
the database. The SCUT-FVD database will be freely
accessible not long after it is additionally extended and
Fig-1 Block diagram of finger vein presentation
and produced veins, which are principally reflected in the
surface goals and commotion dimension of the pictures.
Liveness-based techniques decide if a finger vein is genuine
by distinguishing proof of the fundamental indications of the
finger. Such strategies can be more precise and solid than
surface-based techniques. Through our own inside and out
examination, we found that surface-based strategies perform
well in avoiding printed assaults because the produced finger
vein pictures contain printing ancient rarities and other
commotion starting from the printing and imaging preparing,
bringing about marginally extraordinary surface highlights
among genuine and manufactured pictures.
Most surface-based strategies just endeavor clamor
highlights or concentrate includes straightforwardly from
unique pictures, ignoring other unmistakable data, for
example, haziness. More haziness will in general happen in
fashioned vein pictures than in genuine pictures because of
the poor goals of the manufactured pictures, defocus, and
other comparable elements. In this investigation, we found
that haziness and clamor data vary to some degree among
fashioned and genuine vein pictures. Subsequently,
completely using both these highlights can additionally
improve the discriminative intensity of surface-based
techniques. Given the abovementioned, our goal is to discover
an answer that viably removes both fogginess and
commotion highlights from fashioned and genuine vein
pictures, and after that consolidates these two highlights to
more likely recognize finger vein introduction assaults. In flag
preparing, all out variety (TV) regularization, otherwise
called absolute variety denoising, gives an astounding answer
for clamor end. Television regularization depends on the rule
that signals with intemperate and possibly misleading
subtleties have a high complete variety, which is
characterized as the fundamental of the total angle of the flag.
This commotion evacuation strategy has points of interest
over straightforward methods, for example, direct smoothing
or middle separating, which decrease clamor as well as
smooth away edges to a more noteworthy or lesser degree.
More explicitly, TV regularization is astoundingly successful
at all the while safeguarding edges while sifting through
commotion in level areas, even at low flag to-clamor
proportions (SNRs). We along these lines abuse TV
regularization to disintegrate unique finger vein pictures.
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
Third, we directed escalated probes two finger vein
introduction assault databases and a palm vein introduction
assault database. Our proposed TV-LBP strategy obviously
beats cutting edge strategies. Specifically, TV-LBP
accomplishes 100% PAD on every one of the three of the
given databases, which is a promising outcome.
ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal
Page 2825
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
In this segment, we present the strategies for TV
regularization, LBP, and SVMs in detail. Note that
preprocessing, for example, picture separating and
improvement, which would almost certainly lead to the loss
of some discriminative data, is precluded from our proposed
strategy to ensure its adequacy in PAD.
2.1 Image decomposition using TV regularization
Albeit manufactured pictures created by printing finger
vein pictures are instinctively like the relating genuine
pictures, there are still a few contrasts as far as picture
quality, fogginess, and clamor level. Fogginess data is
essentially amassed in the low-recurrence run, while clamor
is fundamentally dispersed in the high-recurrence extend. On
the off chance that fogginess and commotion are
straightforwardly extricated as one element from the first
pictures, they may meddle with each other, hence
incompletely lessening the discriminative power. In this
manner, extricating fogginess and commotion data
independently in the element extraction organize is a
superior decision. Traditional denoising calculations, for
example, Gaussian separating, mean sifting, middle sifting,
and TV regularization, have diverse attributes. For instance,
Gaussian and mean separating will in general haze pictures,
while middle sifting lessens intense edges and line fragments
to some degree. Television regularization can adequately
expel commotion as well as hold surface subtleties, for
example, edges, in the reproduced picture.
Fig-2 Cascaded SVM model
In any case, we find from close perception that
regularities show up in all finger vein pictures. For instance,
as represented in Figure, a high-brilliance locale with a little
zone dependably shows up on the correct side of a vein
picture, which is the situation of the distal interphalangeal
joint (set apart with a green strong box in the furthest left
picture of Figure), though a high-splendor locale with a
bigger zone dependably shows up on the left half of the
picture, which is the situation of the proximal
interphalangeal joint (set apart with a red dashed box in the
furthest picture of Figure). Moreover, the natural tissue
varieties between the portions of a finger cause uneven
splendor circulations in the finger vein pictures. To exploit
this basic data, we likewise receive a square LBP technique
in our proposed strategy. Our analyses exhibit that
separating the picture into 1 × 1 and 2 × 2 squares can
accomplish better execution.
2.2 Feature extraction using block LBP
LBP is a powerful surface descriptor that has been
effectively connected to various vision assignments and
gives superb outcomes in the field of biometric PAD.
Motivated by the work depicted in, which investigates LBP
for PAD, we likewise use LBP to extricate highlights from
two separate parts. The first LBP administrator names every
pixel of a picture by thresholding the qualities in its
neighborhood of pixels with its own esteem and linking all
the twofold outcomes in a specific request to frame a decimal
number. The general recipe for processing the LBP code of a
pixel (xc, yc) with P neighboring pixels at a range R from the
middle point.
2.3 Impact of deep learning finger vein
Profound learning approaches have indicated brilliant
improvement in FVR and different other research areas as far as
execution. Late writing exhibits that profound learning approaches
have been effectively connected and improve finger vein
acknowledgment techniques. Highlight extraction is one of the
primary strides in FVR. Profound learning approaches are vigorous
to gain includes specifically from crude pixels, without the
requirement for high quality descriptors, which incredibly
improves coordinating execution. Be that as it may, in traditional
methodologies handmade descriptors (Curvature, Gabor filter,
Radon change, Information limit, and so on.) are utilized to
extricate highlights from finger vein pictures. Furthermore,
acquainting profound learning with finger vein acknowledgment
can diminish the all-out handling time of acknowledgment.
Conversely, traditional finger vein identification requires much
calculation time to process distinctive strides of finger vein
acknowledgment. Individual precision is as yet a difficult
issue in finger vein calculation. Customary finger vein
acknowledgment strategy needs complex preprocessing,
with much exertion expected to evacuate commotion,
concentrate and upgrade the highlights before performing
separation-based coordinating technique. In these cases, be
that as it may, a little adjustment can diminish
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal
Page 2826
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
acknowledgment precision. Be that as it may, a profound
learning approach does not require over-complex
preprocessing and picture handling. Besides, profound
learning techniques are hearty to clamor and misalignment
issues. Although the dataset for finger vein acknowledgment
is little, the execution of profound learning finger vein
acknowledgment is exceptional. Profound learning finger
vein identification strategy execution can be upgraded by
utilizing substantial datasets, so there is a requirement for a
huge finger vein imaged at asset. Besides, applying profound
learning techniques to Presentation Attack Detection (PAD)
methodologies can likewise upgrade the discovery execution
of introduction assault of finger vein picture. Moreover,
template size of finger vein requires more memory space.
Hence, most of the conventional methods are proposed to
reduce template size but none of them perform well enough.
To determine this, the CNN profound learning strategy with
managed discrete hashing method are proposed, which
perform to decrease the layout size to 2000 bits. Besides, the
strategies accelerate the coordinating procedure of finger
vein method.
proposed in References realizes exceptionally low equivalent
mistake rate of 0.61 and 0.055 on 100 and 156 subject's
databases separately. The majority of the customary finger
vein acknowledgment procedures show exceptional
execution regarding precision and equivalent blunder rate;
anyway, the absolute computational expense of the
traditional finger vein calculation is excessively high. Shows
the execution of regular ordinary FVR strategies in part of
exactness, EER, FAR, FRR, Correct Classification Rate (CCR).
3.2 Traditional Machine Learning Finger Vein
Recognition Methods
Some machine learning techniques (e.g., SVM, neural
network and fuzzy logic) have been used in the element
extraction and coordinating phase of biometrics. These sorts
of systems have likewise ended up being efficient for
highlight extraction, coordinating and upgrading the
execution of the FVR technique. In most FVR procedures, AI
classifier-based techniques were utilized amid the
coordinating phase of FVR. In any case, ordinary finger vein
approaches utilize remove based strategies amid the
coordinating stage. Precision rate of practically all the
proposed AI finger vein calculations is near 100%. Records
the current writing on customary AI procedures related
finger vein acknowledgment
Execution Analysis We can see the primary strides of the
finger vein framework are steady, however they have diverse
kinds of technique. Execution assessment is an imperative
method to perceive whether these calculations are fortunate
or unfortunate. In this area, first the benchmarks in the
assessment of FVR execution are recorded, and after that the
execution of different FVR strategies was inputted to a noncoordinating format in the dataset. Collector Operating
Characteristic bend (ROC) instinctively speaks to the parity
(FAR)and (FRR). The threshold issued to make a decision on
the coordinating calculation. On the off chance that the edge
is diminished, FAR or false match rate (FMR) expanded and
FRR or False Non-Match Rate (FNMR) diminished. So also, the
higher limit builds the FRR or FNMR and diminishes the FAR
or FMR. Level with blunder rate (EER) esteem can be
essentially accomplished from Receiver Operating Curve
In this paper, we audit all the handling ventures of FVR:
picture procurement, preprocessing, include extraction and
coordinating. Additionally, in Section 4 we likewise examine
the execution of customary, AI and profound learning
calculations in the FVR space. Albeit profound learning FVR
strategies are perceived as very efficient, there are a few
issues which still should be unraveled. The first issue is
identified with the first venture of picture preprocessing ROI
extraction technique for finger vein acknowledgment
strategies. Yang et al. utilized a super-pixel-based limit
identification technique for ROI extraction, which is vigorous
towards picture variety, for example, dim dimension and
foundation commotion to a constrained degree.
Notwithstanding, the trial exhibits that the super-pixel-based
extraction technique does not flawlessly choose the
following point to identify the finger limit. Besides, in the
greater part of the ROI extraction technique there is an issue
of vein data misfortune. Thus, there is a need for a robust
ROI extraction method to overcome the problem of
information loss and improve the execution of finger vein
3.1 Conventional Finger Vein Recognition Method
Ordinary finger vein approaches were less hearty to
commotion and misalignment than AI approaches; hence,
picture preprocessing strategies were normally connected in
front of highlight extraction and coordinating to beat the
previously mentioned issues. Various traditional finger vein
identification strategies have been grown, yet a few
techniques [5] have accomplished exceptional improvement.
In 2010, Lie et al. proposed a finger vein verification
approach, and acquired exactness of 97.8% for identification.
In term of exactness, poly directional neighborhood line
paired example calculation achieved 99.21% precision on a
dataset of 1902 pictures [2]. In addition, as far as equivalent
mistake rate, traditional finger vein strategy additionally
accomplished some huge accomplishments. The technique
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
Moreover, regular factors additionally influencing the
nature of the picture are picture obscuring, non-uniform
brightening, low differentiation, temperature, stickiness,
sexual orientation, thickness of fat and so on. Thus, debased
execution is as yet the primary issue for finger vein
acknowledgment frameworks. Numerous tradition Image
quality assessment, picture improvement and reclamation
ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal
Page 2827
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
strategies have been created to beat these picture quality
issues. These techniques upgrade the finger vein picture to
some degree; anyway, little consideration has been given to
components of finger tissue (fat, tissue, muscle, water, and so
forth.) which result in low quality of finger vein picture. This
is yet an open issue; a worthy dimension of acknowledgment
execution has not yet been accomplished. Subsequently,
increasingly ground-breaking profound learning picture
quality strategies are as yet expected to manage the nature
of picture.
Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1705-1720, 2010.
T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää,
“Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant
texture classification with local binary patterns,” Pattern
Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions
on, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 971-987, 2002.
Srija.S. K
In this paper, we proposed a novel technique called TVLBP for finger vein PAD. As far as anyone is concerned, it is
the first occasion when that both the level of fogginess and
the commotion dispersions of genuine and manufactured
pictures are treated as various highlights. Given this, we
found that we can extricate discriminative highlights as
criteria for PAD. We utilized TV regularization to break down
a unique picture into structure and commotion parts,
speaking to the level of fogginess and the clamor
appropriation. We at that point misused square LBP
descriptors and a fell SVM model to encode and group
applicant finger vein pictures. We additionally built another
finger vein introduction assault database for execution
assessment. Next, we led broad tests utilizing three
databases, including our own FVD, an open FVD, and an open
PVD. The outcomes demonstrate that our proposed strategy
can accomplish total separation utilizing both edited and full
size genuine and manufactured pictures, beating best in class
strategies in both intra-database and between database test
situations. In our future work, we mean to build a vast agent
database with less contrasts among genuine and produced
pictures and to direct comparing investigations utilizing this
new database to all the more completely meet the
prerequisites of genuine applications.
Sowmiya Preethi.S
"SC37-Biometrics—Presentation Attack Detection," in
ISO/IEC Standard FDIS 30107-3”. An Overview At:
/Busch-PADstandards-170329.pdf, 2017.
H. Qin, and M. A. El-Yacoubi, “Deep Representation
based feature extraction and recovering for Finger-vein
verification,” IEEE Transactions on Information
Forensics and Security, 2017.
T. Jabid, M. H. Kabir, and O. Chae, "Local directional
pattern (LDP) for face recognition," in Consumer
Electronics (ICCE), 2010 Digest of Technical Papers
International Conference on, 2010, pp. 329-330.
J. Chen, S. Shan, C. He, G. Zhao, M. Pietikäinen, X. Chen,
and W. Gao, “WLD: A robust local image descriptor,”
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal
Page 2828