GE 5 Unit 1-3

Unit 1: Language and Communication
 Language can be called a language if it has a
system of rules (grammar), a sound system
(phonology) and a vocabulary (lexicon).
 When people use language, they can
understand each other because they belong to
the same speech community.
 The language acquired while growing up are
known as mother tongue or first language.
 Second language is learned by studying in
school or informally on their own.
 Language change is a result of language
 Communication is generally defined as the
exchange of thoughts, ideas, concepts and
views between two or more people.
Types of Communication
 Context is the circumstance or environment in
which communication takes place.
 Communication is classified according to
communication mode, context, purpose and
 A message can be conveyed via verbal-non
verbal and visual.
 Verbal-Non Verbal begins with a proper gesture
and facial expression then speaking.
 Visual Communication uses visuals to convey
information. Examples are signs, symbols,
imagery, maps, graphs, chart, etc.
 Communication may be also classified according
to context: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal,
Extended, Organizational Communication and
Intercultural Communication.
 Intrapersonal Communication: Intra- means
within or inside. It means talking to oneself.
 Interpersonal Communication: inter- means
between, among and together. Interpersonal
talks are meant for maintaining social
relationships, transactional talks aim to
accomplish or to resolve something at the end
of the conversation. Example in the book 
 Extended Communication involves the use of
electronic media. With the use of electronic
media, messages are transmitted quickly.
 Organizational Communication, the focus is on
the role that communication plays in
organizational contexts. Organization
compromise individual who work for the
 Formal Organization, allows communication to
take place via designated channels of message
between positions in the organization.
Four approaches of formal organization,
Upward, downward, horizontal and crosswise
 Downward Communication, upper to lower
positions. Ex. President to Janitor
 Upward Communication, bottom to up. Ex.
Manager to CEO
 Horizontal Communication is lateral in
approach as it takes place among people
belonging to the same level but coming to from
different departments.
 Crosswise Communication, employees from
different units or departments working at
various levels communicate with each other.
 Informal Communication comes from unofficial
channels of message flow. Also known as
“grapevine’ messages coming from different
levels of organization are transmitted.
 Organizational Culture, culture of different
 Intercultural Communication, it is a
communication between or among people
having different linguistic, religions, ethnic,
social and professional backgrounds.
 Types of Communication according to purpose
and style also has two types; Formal
Communication and Informal Communication.
 Formal Communication, employs language
delivered orally or in written form Ex. Lectures,
Public Talk, etc.
 Informal Communication, Involves personal
and ordinary conversation with friends, family,
Communication Model
 Aristotle’s Communication Model, three
variables in communication process: speaker,
speech and audience. No response from the
audience only non-verbal like nodding, clapping,
 Laswell’s Communication Model, Harold
Dwight Laswell described communication as
being focused on the ff W’s: Who says What in
Which channel to Whom with What effect.
Shannon- Weaver’s Communication Model, it
was conceptualized for the functioning of the
radio and television serving as a model for
technical communication an later on, adopted
in the field of communication. Noise, Reception,
destination and feedback are identified.
Berlo’s Communication Model, most well
known among the communication model. Other
name is SMCR stands for Sender, Channel,
Medium and Receiver.
 Globalization, is the process by which people
and goods move easily. BAL-AN MO NANA LOL.
Local and Global Communication in Multicultural
 High Context, leave much of the message
unspecified, to be understood through context,
non-verbal cues and between the lines
interpretation of what is actually said.
 Low Context, expect messages to be explicit
and specific.
 Sequential cultures, give full attention to one
agenda item after another.
 Synchronic cultures, the flow of time is viewed
as a sort of circle, with the past, present, and
future. “ Long-term” planning.
 Neutral, do not telegraph their feelings but kept
them carefully controlled and subdued.
 Affective, shows their feelings plainly by
laughing, smiling, grimacing, scowling, etc.
Varieties and registers of spoken and written language
General Principles of effective communication,
1. Know your purpose, 2. Know your audience,
3. Know your topic,
4. Adjust your speech, 5. Work on the feedback
given on you.
 Principles of effective oral communication, 1.
Be Clear, 2. Be complete, 3. Be concise, 4. Be
natural, 5. Be specific and timely with your
 7C’S, 1. Be clear, 2. Be concise, 3. Be concrete,
4. Be correct, 5. Be coherent, 6. Be complete,
7. Be corteous.
Ethics of Communication
 Face to face interaction, it is an informal or
casual conversation between two or more
 Video, web cameras are used so that two or
more people who cannot interact face to face
can communicate.
 Audio, means transmitted sounds. In this mode
only the voice of the speaker is heard.
 Text-based communication, has a wider reach
and can disseminate information to a bigger
audience quickly.
Acrolect, comes closest to the standard.
Basilect, digresses thoroughly from acrolect and
comes closer to the pidgin.
 Mesolect, ot the middle variety is midway
between the acrolect and basilect.
 Register, a variety of language defined
according to its use in social situations.
 Field, may be analyzed in terms of the social
setting and the communicative purpose in
which the text is produced.
 Tenor, may be described in terms of roles
acquired of the writers and readers including
the cultural values shared by both.
 Mode, could be explained in light of knowledge
of other texts required of speaker/listeners as
regards the genre including the formal text
 Language register, refers to the formality of
language which one speak.
 Formal register, is used in formal speaking and
writing situations.
Sources of misunderstanding, 1. Ambiguity, 2.
Performance, 3. Language, 4. Gaps in the world
knowledge, 5. Local Context.
Cultural Diversity, People having different
languages, lifestyle, and ways of thinking,
speaking and behaving.