Unit 1: Language and Communication Language can be called a language if it has a system of rules (grammar), a sound system (phonology) and a vocabulary (lexicon). When people use language, they can understand each other because they belong to the same speech community. The language acquired while growing up are known as mother tongue or first language. Second language is learned by studying in school or informally on their own. Language change is a result of language contact. Communication is generally defined as the exchange of thoughts, ideas, concepts and views between two or more people. Types of Communication Context is the circumstance or environment in which communication takes place. Communication is classified according to communication mode, context, purpose and style. A message can be conveyed via verbal-non verbal and visual. Verbal-Non Verbal begins with a proper gesture and facial expression then speaking. Visual Communication uses visuals to convey information. Examples are signs, symbols, imagery, maps, graphs, chart, etc. Communication may be also classified according to context: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Extended, Organizational Communication and Intercultural Communication. Intrapersonal Communication: Intra- means within or inside. It means talking to oneself. Interpersonal Communication: inter- means between, among and together. Interpersonal talks are meant for maintaining social relationships, transactional talks aim to accomplish or to resolve something at the end of the conversation. Example in the book Extended Communication involves the use of electronic media. With the use of electronic media, messages are transmitted quickly. Organizational Communication, the focus is on the role that communication plays in organizational contexts. Organization compromise individual who work for the company. Formal Organization, allows communication to take place via designated channels of message between positions in the organization. Four approaches of formal organization, Upward, downward, horizontal and crosswise communication. Downward Communication, upper to lower positions. Ex. President to Janitor Upward Communication, bottom to up. Ex. Manager to CEO Horizontal Communication is lateral in approach as it takes place among people belonging to the same level but coming to from different departments. Crosswise Communication, employees from different units or departments working at various levels communicate with each other. Informal Communication comes from unofficial channels of message flow. Also known as “grapevine’ messages coming from different levels of organization are transmitted. Organizational Culture, culture of different organization. Intercultural Communication, it is a communication between or among people having different linguistic, religions, ethnic, social and professional backgrounds. Types of Communication according to purpose and style also has two types; Formal Communication and Informal Communication. Formal Communication, employs language delivered orally or in written form Ex. Lectures, Public Talk, etc. Informal Communication, Involves personal and ordinary conversation with friends, family, etc. Communication Model Aristotle’s Communication Model, three variables in communication process: speaker, speech and audience. No response from the audience only non-verbal like nodding, clapping, etc. Laswell’s Communication Model, Harold Dwight Laswell described communication as being focused on the ff W’s: Who says What in Which channel to Whom with What effect. Shannon- Weaver’s Communication Model, it was conceptualized for the functioning of the radio and television serving as a model for technical communication an later on, adopted in the field of communication. Noise, Reception, destination and feedback are identified. Berlo’s Communication Model, most well known among the communication model. Other name is SMCR stands for Sender, Channel, Medium and Receiver. UNIT 3: INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Globalization, is the process by which people and goods move easily. BAL-AN MO NANA LOL. Local and Global Communication in Multicultural Context High Context, leave much of the message unspecified, to be understood through context, non-verbal cues and between the lines interpretation of what is actually said. Low Context, expect messages to be explicit and specific. Sequential cultures, give full attention to one agenda item after another. Synchronic cultures, the flow of time is viewed as a sort of circle, with the past, present, and future. “ Long-term” planning. Neutral, do not telegraph their feelings but kept them carefully controlled and subdued. Affective, shows their feelings plainly by laughing, smiling, grimacing, scowling, etc. Varieties and registers of spoken and written language General Principles of effective communication, 1. Know your purpose, 2. Know your audience, 3. Know your topic, 4. Adjust your speech, 5. Work on the feedback given on you. Principles of effective oral communication, 1. Be Clear, 2. Be complete, 3. Be concise, 4. Be natural, 5. Be specific and timely with your feedback. 7C’S, 1. Be clear, 2. Be concise, 3. Be concrete, 4. Be correct, 5. Be coherent, 6. Be complete, 7. Be corteous. Ethics of Communication READ SIZT. PAGE 41 CHOS. HAAHAHAHAHA. UNIT 2: MODES OF COMMUNICATION Face to face interaction, it is an informal or casual conversation between two or more people. Video, web cameras are used so that two or more people who cannot interact face to face can communicate. Audio, means transmitted sounds. In this mode only the voice of the speaker is heard. Text-based communication, has a wider reach and can disseminate information to a bigger audience quickly. Acrolect, comes closest to the standard. Basilect, digresses thoroughly from acrolect and comes closer to the pidgin. Mesolect, ot the middle variety is midway between the acrolect and basilect. Register, a variety of language defined according to its use in social situations. Field, may be analyzed in terms of the social setting and the communicative purpose in which the text is produced. Tenor, may be described in terms of roles acquired of the writers and readers including the cultural values shared by both. Mode, could be explained in light of knowledge of other texts required of speaker/listeners as regards the genre including the formal text features. Language register, refers to the formality of language which one speak. Formal register, is used in formal speaking and writing situations. CHALLENGES OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Sources of misunderstanding, 1. Ambiguity, 2. Performance, 3. Language, 4. Gaps in the world knowledge, 5. Local Context. Cultural Diversity, People having different languages, lifestyle, and ways of thinking, speaking and behaving.