CHAPTER 10 Motivating Employees Humanist Psychologist Abraham Maslow, • Our actions are motivated in order to achieve certain needs. • Maslow introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "a theory of human motivation“ • Interested in what makes people happy and the things that they do to achieve that aim. • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has 5 layers shaped in pyramid Physiological Needs • Things that are vital to our survival. • Food • Water • Breathing • Homeostasis • basic requirements of nutrition • air and temperature regulation • shelter and clothing. Security And Safety Needs • People want control and order in their lives, so this need for safety and security contributes largely to behaviors at this level. • Financial security • Heath and wellness • Safety against accidents and injury • Finding a job, obtaining health insurance and health care, • contributing money to a savings account, and moving into a safer neighborhood Social Needs • At this level, the need for emotional relationships drives human behavior. • In order to avoid problems such as loneliness, depression, and anxiety, it is important for people to feel loved and accepted by other people. • Friendships • Love • Family • Social & Community groups • Churches and religious organizations • sports teams, book clubs, and other group activities. Esteem Needs • Need for appreciation and respect so that their efforts/contribution are recognized. • Participation in professional activities, academic accomplishments, athletic or team participation, and personal hobbies can all play a role in fulfilling the esteem needs. • High shows feelings of confidence in their abilities, and low shows feelings of inferiority Self-actualization Needs • Need People Have To Achieve Their Full Potential As Human Beings. • "What A Man Can Be, He Must Be. • People Seem To Be Fulfilling Themselves And To Be Doing The Best That They Are Capable Of Doing • Career Ambitiousness • People Are Self-aware, Concerned With Personal Growth, Less Concerned With The Opinions Of Others, And Interested Fulfilling Their Potential. Models Of Workforce Motivation Applied By Managers DOUGLAS MCGREGOR, 1960s THEORY X AND THEORY Y See table:10.2 THEORY X • Theory X is based on pessimistic assumptions of the average worker. • An average employee dislikes work and avoids it if possible, lacks responsibility, has little ambition and seeks security above all he has little or no ambition or responsibilities. • managers believe their employees are less intelligent than the managers are, lazier than the managers are, or work solely for a sustainable income. • Due to these assumptions, Theory X concludes the average workforce is more efficient under strict supervision and authoritarian approach to management. THEORY Y • The average person likes work; its as natural as play or rest. • More committed and Responsible towards goals • Have more imagination, clever and creativity that can be applied to work. • Managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives OUCHI’S THEORY Z, 1980s THEORY Z • Japanese system of management. • Focuses on a strong company philosophy, distinct corporate culture, long range staff development and consensus decision making. • To develop a work force which has more loyalty towards staying with the company and be permanent in their career.