86. The Peace of Paris, 1919 Overview: Russia took no part in negotiations – were consumed with Bolsheviks in 1919. German and Austro-Hungarian empires were in defunct, revolutionary regimes try to take over them. New republics along Baltic Coast and in Danube, but no effective governments. Central Europe is chaos with Russian-style revolution threatening. Allied blockade continued – then victors assembled to write the Peace of Paris in 1919 – 5 treaties – St. Germain w/ Austria, Trianon w/ Hungary, Neuilly w/ Bulgaria, Sevres w/ Turkey, Treaty of Versailles w/ Germany. Woodrow Wilson: Europeans had awe and fear for the president of the U.S. – Wilson – lone eminence and universal prestige – everyone admitted that the U.S. ultimately stopped the war – respected for higher cause, looks to him for everlasting security and freedom – reached Europe in 1919. The Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles: Established 14 points – principles for peace – no secret treaties and discussion, freedom of the seas, no international barrier or inequalities for trade, reduction of armaments with all parties, evacuation of occupied territories w/ selfdetermination, and an international organization. A new era: Treaties were seen as sinister in nature, diplomacy blamed for war – treaties based on politics of power, with unrealistic ideals and bargains without regard to other people – new era was thought to be one of mutual confidence. Wilson had difficulty persuading Allied govs to accept 14 points – French wanted $ reparations, British want the control of the sea – Germans thought that the 14 points would serve a general guideline with few changes, and that the fact that they were ruled by socialists and democrats who were anti-Kaiser thought they would be treated with moderation. 27 nations were included, but the big 4 mattered – Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando. Clash of personality – Wilson was aggressive and righteous, Lloyd, unpredictable, Clemenceau a patriot, and Orlando a phenomenon of Italian ptx. Difference in agenda – Clemenceau was an extreme nationalist, George was concerned with domestic reforms, Orlando and Wilson are professors. Wilson had sense of mission, but lacked knowledge about other people. A League of Nations: Wilson fought hard for LoN – permanent international body with all nations – meet to discuss and settle disputes w/o war. Few European leaders had confidence in the League, but it was written into the treaty w/ Germany. Wilson made concessions to George, Clemenceau, Orlando, and the Japanese – compromised idealism of his 14 points. Compromise necessary when it came to things like colonies and self-determination – Wilson thought disputes could be corrected by the League later on. Wilson wanted it to cover anti-discrimination laws on religion, and Japanese wanted to extend to race – but race would affect immigration policy – in the end, both ideas were abandoned. Alsace and Lorraine: French just wanted security from Germany – French wanted to stop more wars on French soil. Wanted to cut down military – and establish Germany west of the Rhine an independent state. Lloyd and Wilson object – an angered Germany more conflicts later on. France yields with the agreement of the U.S. and GB that they will unconditionally ally with France if attacked ever again. Treaty signed – France gets the coal mines of Saar for fifteen years, and the League would administer – Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France, and Rhineland was thouroughly controlled by Allies with no German military allowed. In the East, it was thought necessary to extablish buffer zone from the Bolsheviks – sympathy for Poland. Several German-Polish areas were given to Poland, and they were given a sea that cut off Germany from East Prussia. Danzig becomes a free country. Silesia was given to Poland. In Austria and among Sudeten Germans of Bohemia, there was no Habsburg empire, feeling developed for the annexation to Germany – but feeling was unstable and Allies would never allow. Austria was turned into a small state with Vienna detached, and Czechoslovakia was made a separate country. Germany loses its colonies: Germany lost all colonies – they were given to the League for distribution to administer to maintain internationalism. Belgian Congo Britain, France gets Union of South Africa, Italy, nothing, Japan gets Pacific Islands, Australia gets New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and Samoa. Japan took over German rights in China – China tries to get extraterritorial protections off, but no one listens. As a compromise, Japan gets half of the rights – both sides angry. Ho Chi Minh tries to talk about abuse of power in Indochina, but no one gives up colonialism during Peace. Germany disarmed, fleet controlled by the allies – but crew went to Scapa Flow. Military reduced to 10000 people, and no military conscription – roused German national spirit. Germany forbidden to have heavy artillery in the country. War damages: French, Belgians, British wanted “total reparation”. Wilson observes that this is literally impossible – very impractical. No one knew the amount, but that it had to be made with German exports – which would benefit the Allied economies. Germany offers to pay for physical damages. The Allies were maddened by the war and debts to the U.S. – payed no attention to economic reason – thought reparations were a way of righting a wrong and further disarming of Germany. First treaty made so that Germans had to surrender marines, give up all property owned by German citizens abroad, etc. The “war guilt” clause: Germans forced to accept that they had caused the war and were responsible for all of the damages – but most Germans felt this was untrue building block for future tension, and Germans regarded treaty as something that had to be overturned. The Treaty of Versailles: Completed in 3 months – Russia and Germany were not present, and Wilson was willing to concede several things for the League of Nations - far faster process. Germany refused to sign, Allies introduce hostilities – crisis in Berlin. Finally, Social Democratic group and Catholic parties agree to sign. New treaties laid out a map for Eastern Europe and accounted for decline of countries – Russia, Ottoman Empire, Austrian. New independent nations include Czechoslovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Yugoslavia. Romania was enlarged, Greece was as well at the expense of Turkey. Austria and Hungary were separate small states. Zone of several states was considered cordon sanitaire – buffer zone that prevented communism’s spread into Europe. The new countries mostly fulfilled Slavic wishes, but Italy’s annexation of Trieste and Dalmatian Islands angered some. Sevres transformed the ptx of the Middle East – Ottoman disappears, Turkey emerges – countries fall under Allied rule – Syria and Lebanon France, Iraq and Palestine GB. Iraq = some trouble, but GB manages to quell uprisings and cooperate with the gov to put King Faisal into power. Hejaz in Arabia was recognized as independent. The breakup of the Ottoman empire left the Middle East unsettled in ptx. Significance of the Paris Peace Settlement: National Self-Determination: Each country set up by language – Czechoslovakia was a special case (Czecho-slovakia). The big 4 didn’t have much choice – some nations already declared their independence. They didn’t care about moving populations to better categorize ethnicity, so there were alien nationalities in all countries problems. Germans in Sudentenland in Czech cause the Munich crisis, and Germans became the example for postwar political boundaries. The Failure of Versailles: Too moderate to disarm Germany – too severe to conciliate, too mild to disarm Germany completely. France had restored Bourbons when Napoleon was defeated – German Republic was given the same amount of punishment that German Empire might have – Social Democrats were the ones who bore the “Shame of Versailles”. Germans showed no implication of desiring to uphold the treaty, and the terms were too severe for the Allied powers to enforce. Treaty was quickly made under pressures from propaganda and other things in all countries, so the Allied forces made terms that weren’t enforceable in the long run. Many German agitators declared Versailles unfair and unworkable, Allied unwillingness to uphold reinforces this – one of them was Adolf Hitler. Victors’ Uneasiness: British ended up more afraid of communism and the Bolsheviks than Germany, Italians were angry about not receiving parts of Africa and the Middle East, China is dissatisfied, Russia didn’t participate until later, when they were forced to accept new terms. The U.S. never ratifies the Treaty – more isolationism causes Senate to refuse the Treaty – Anglo-French-American treaty is never ratified. France is angry, deprived of the Rhineland and the treaty, and try to suppress Germany that causes complications later on. The League of Nations: League of Nations fails – U.S. never enters, Germany and Russians admitted until later. Only the “Great Powers” make the decisions – heavily West-European based, meaning it no longer reflected the real world circumstance. This meant that other countries only saw it as a peace between Britain and France, and regarded the League practically useless.