(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) around fertile river valleys in rain forests and their peripheries in mountainous areas along dry coastal areas in grassy plains 17. The polis is most closely associated with which of the following societies/civilizations? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The Mauryan Empire Athens Han China Babylonia Persian Empire 18. All of the following are accurate comparisons of Athens and Sparta EXCEPT: (A) Sparta demanded more subordination of its male citizens to the demands of the state. (B) The Athenians emphasized the importance of poetry, art, and philosophy; the Spartans did not. (C) Spartan women did not have as many freedoms as did Athenian women. (D) The Spartans placed the military at the center of their society; Athens generally did not. (E) Both Sparta and Athens dominated the countryside around them and were two of the largest city states. 19. All of the following are important principles of Greek culture that had wide influence on later civilizations EXCEPT: (A) new religious concepts that redefined the nature of god(s) (B) an interest in political theory that sought the best forms of government (C) an emphasis on the importance of human effort and ability to shape future events (D) celebration of human achievement, including the ideal human form (E) a philosophical and scientific tradition that emphasized the use of logic 20. The approximate date of the map is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 20,000 BCE 10,000 BCE 5,000 BCE 3,500 BCE 300 BCE 21. Which of the following is the most probable reason for the migrations shown on the map? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Nutrients from the soil were being rapidly depleted. Explorers were seeking gold and other riches, Hunters were following their herds to better pasture. Humans were escaping from powerful new breeds of carnivores. Humans were seeking warmer climates. 22. All of the following are accurate descriptions of trade along the Silk Road before 600 C.E. EXCEPT: (A) The Chinese traded silk, pottery, and paper for horses, alfalfa, and a variety of crops. (B) The Silk Route linked China to the Mediterranean world via Central Asia, Persia and Mesopotamia. (C) Silk Road trade did not significantly affect the lifestyles of Turkic nomads, the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia. (D) The breeding of hybrid camels developed along with the burgeoning Silk Road trade. (E) Trade along the Silk Road network was stimulated by Roman demands for luxury goods such as silk. 23. Which of the following technologies most directly contributed to increased overland travel starting around 300 B.C.E.? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) stirrups camel saddles wheeled chariots horse collars iron plows 24. Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India? (A) Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with. (B) The barbarian attacks destroyed more physical property and vital public works in Rome. (C) Roman emperors had more power than did Han or Gupta emperors, so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire. (D) Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/philosophical traditions to provide continuity. (E) The Romans were economically more self-sufficient than the Han or Gupta, so they had no long-distance trade to cushion their fall 25. Which sailing technology allowed the sailors on the Indian Ocean to travel long distances by taking advantage of monsoon winds? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) the square sail the wooden rudder the lateen sail the caravel lightweight masts 26. Which of the following was one of the most valuable commodities added to established trading systems by the trans-Saharan trade? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) manufactured goods copper pottery salt spices 27. Why did the majority of the Chinese population during the Han dynasty live in eastern China? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) They wanted access to sea trade and its accompanying wealth. The best farmland was concentrated along rivers in eastern China. They were more isolated from invasion from nomad peoples there. The best Buddhist centers were in eastern China. The Tibetans held control in the west, and they did not welcome Chinese settlement in their area. 28. The people who transported goods across the Sahara and dominated trade across the desert for centuries were the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Berbers Bedouins Malays Ghanans Bantu 29. Which of the following characteristics contributed most directly to a tendency toward political disunity in ancient India? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) weak religious traditions lack of foreign trade weak social structure lack of strong political leaders diverse geographical features 30. Buddhists believe that a state of grace or nirvana may be reached by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) changing one's karma following the moral duties of one's caste being reincarnated as a Brahman following the eightfold path renouncing asceticism 31. What central feature of Hinduism did Buddhism reject? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) union with the universal spirit as a major goal use of missionaries to spread the religion the caste system the importance of ethical decision making reincarnation 33 Which of the following is a significant difference between early Christianity and early Judaism? (A) Judaism was originally polytheistic, Christianity was not. (B) Christianity put more emphasis on missionary work, converting others to the religion. (C) The Roman Empire sought to eradicate Christianity but not Judaism.