Parts of speech Mariam Mushtaq What is speech and what are its parts? Noun Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas. Example Noun Continue.. Types of Noun 1. Common Name of general or nonspecific people, places, things, or ideas. Examples: man, city, religion, airline 2. Proper Name of specific people, places, things, or ideas. Examples: Imran Khan, Lahore, Islam, PIA Continue.. Conti.. 3. Abstract The name of something that you cannot perceivewith your five senses. Examples: happiness, love, pride, religion, belief 4. Concrete The name of something that you can perceive with your five senses. Examples: eyes, lion, suitcase, flower, chocolate Continue.. Conti.. 5. Countable Noun can be counted. Examples: clock/clocks and pencil/pencils, movie, train 6. Uncountable Noun cannot be counted. Examples: milk, rice, snow, rain, water, food andmusic Continue.. Conti.. 7. Compound Noun are made up of twoor more smaller words. Examples: eyeglasses, New York, sunflower 8. Collective Noun refers to a group of things as onewhole. Examples: bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family Continue.. Conti.. 9. Singular Noun refers to one person, place, thing, oridea. Examples: cat, ship, hero, monkey, baby 10. Plural Noun refers to more than one person, place, thing,or idea. Examples: cats, ships, heroes, monkeys, babies Continue.. Conti.. 11. Possessive Noun shows ownership. Examples: Dad's car, the student's books and Ali's hat Pronoun Pronouns make up a small subcategory of nouns. The distinguishing characteristic of pronouns is that they can be substituted for other nouns. Examples- I, you, me, his, we, she, he, her, they, it etc. Personal Pronoun Personal Pronouns are those which stand for the names of persons. They take the place of nouns and are used as the subject of the verb in a sentence. Examples: • I got a free pass. • My aim is high. • Rosy is the daughter of mine. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns are those which are objects and which refer to the same persons as the subjects of the verbs. They end in self & selves. Examples • I washed myself. • We organized the party all by ourselves. • Be careful not to cut yourself with that knife. Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns are those which point out things, as this, these, that and those. Because they convey a high degree of specificity and distinctiveness in pointing out ("demonstrating") a referent; They are showing words. Examples • This is my answer. • That was too much for me. • These are good mangoes. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns make up another class of pronouns. They are used to connect relative clauses to independent clauses. Often, they introduce additional information about something mentioned in the sentence. Relative pronouns include that, what, which, who, and whom. Traditionally, who refers to people, and which and that refer to Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns are used when you need to refer to a person or thing that doesn’t need to be specifically identified. Some common indefinite pronouns are one, other, none, some, anybody, everybody, and no one. • Everybody was late to work because of the traffic jam • Nobody knows the trouble I’ve seen. Intensive Pronoun Intensive Pronoun look the same as reflexive pronouns, but their purpose is different. Intensive pronouns add emphasis. • Did you yourself see Loretta spill the coffee? Possessive Pronouns Those designating possession or ownership. Examples include: mine, its, hers, his, yours, ours, theirs, whose. • This cat is mine. • Are these bananas yours? • Is the fault theirs or yours Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used in questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, what, which, and whose. • Who wants a bag of jelly beans? • What is your name? • Which movie do you want to watch? • Whose jacket is this? Adjective A word which modifies noun or pronoun. It enhances the impactof noun or pronoun. Examples: Adjective modifying noun: • Large elephant • Empty house Adjective modifying pronoun: • He is brave • they are good students. Placement of Adjective: • It takes its place before as well as after the noun or pronoun which it modifies. Example: 1. He is a brave man. 2. House was empty. Degrees of Adjective: • There are three degrees of adjective. 1) POSITIVE 2) COMPARATIVE 3) SUPERLATIVE The Verbs: • A verb denotes an action, feeling or being of a subject (noun). • The train moves. • The guest arrived yesterday. Importance: The verb plays a sole of backbone of a sentence without a verb you never complete your sentence. Types of Verb Transitive verb. Intransitive verb. Auxiliary verb. Transitive Verb: The verb in which an action Transit or transmit itself from subject into object is called transitive verb. Examples:Subject Function Object Ali killed a tiger. Farhan played hockey. Transitive Verb Examples: Major Aziz Bhatti won Nisha-e-Haider. Question: Who was Nisha-e-Haider? Answer: Major Aziz Bhatti (Subject). Question: Major Aziz Bhatti won what? Answer: Nisha-e-Haider (Object). Intransitive Verb: The verb in which an action that performs by a subject does not transmit itself into object and is still continue (action or verb)is called intransitive verb. In the other words the verb in which only subject exist is called intransitive verb. Examples: She looks pretty. No objects He works well. Not Auxiliary Verb: Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs. They are used to help the principal verbs. Auxiliary Verb Examples: You werecycling. I shall thrash you. Pakistan has defeated India. Cycling, Thrash and Defeated are main or principle verbs. Were, Shall and Has are Auxiliary verbs. Adverb Adverb • Basically, most adverbs tell u how ,where or when some thing is done. In other words, they describe the manner, place or time of an action. Some Examples of Adverbs are : • She sings sweetly. • He writes neatly. • Ahmad smiled cheerfully. Types of Adverb • Place determining adverb. • Manner determining adverb. • Time determining adverb. • Frequency determining adverb. • Quantity/Degree determining adverb. • Purpose/Reason determining adverb. • Affirmative/Negation Adverb of place Some adverbs and adverbs phrases answer the question “where?”. They are called adverb of place. Examples: • • • • The boys are playing upstairs. The dog is in the garden. It’s very sunny but cold outside. I’ve lived here for about twoyears. Adverb of Manner Some adverbs and adverb phrases describe the way people do things. Examples: • He was driving carelessly. • The plane landed safely. • Ali plays guitar skillfully. • The girls answered all the questions correctly. • The team played wonderfully. Adverb of Time Some adverbs and adverb phrases answer the question “when?” They are called adverb of time. Examples: • The train has already left. • We moved into our new house lastweek. • Our favorite T.V.program starts at 6’o clock • We shall now begin to work. • He comes here daily. Adverb of Frequency Some adverbs and adverb phrases answer the question “how often an action isdone” They are called adverb of frequency. Examples: • The children always go to school on the bus. • I clean my bedroom everyday. • Dad polishes his shoes twice a week. Adverb of Quantity/Degree It shows how much , or in what degree or to what extent. Examples: • The sea is very stormy. • I am fully prepared. • These mangoes are almost ripe. • He was too careless. Adverb of Purpose/Reason The adverb which tells about a reason is called adverb of reason. Examples: • He is hence unable to refute the charge. • He therefore left school. • We all go for a picnic just for enjoyment. Adverb of Affirmation/Negation The adverb which says yes if it is yes and no if it is no. Examples: • I don’t know. • Surely you are mistaken. • He certainly went. Formation of Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding –ly to their corresponding adjectives. Examples are: kindly(kind),slowly(slow),hardly(hard),sweetly (sweet) etc. She is very beautiful (adjective). She is beautifully (adverb) dressed. He is a strange (adjective) person. He behaved strangely (adverb). Points to be Noted 1) If the adjective end in –y, replace it with –i and then add –ly examples are: Happily • Happy Angrily • Angry • Lucky Luckily 2) If the adjectives ends in –able, -ible or –le, replace the –e with–y. Examples are: Probably • Probable Gently • Gentle Horribly • Horrible Conti.. 3) If the adjective ends in –ic, add –ally. Examples are : Basically • Basic Economically • Economic This rule ,however, has an exception. The adverb formed from public is publicly, not publically . CONJUNCTION Conjunction : • The word which joins two phrases, clauses or sentences. • For example: Types of conjunction • Coordinate conjunction Coordinate conjunction is to join words, phrases and clauses together, which are usually grammatically equal. Example: Pizza and burgers are my favorite snacks. I wanted tobuy a car but I had no money. Subordinate conjunction • These conjunction are those that introduce subordinate clause and join them to mainclauses. Example: She cannot come back because she is ill. The patient had died before the doctor came. Interjections Interjections are the words that express strong feelings or emotions which are not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence. Stop! Oh, no! Ouch! Wow! Interjections They can show happiness(Hurrah!),sorrow (alas!),anger(grrrr!),surprise(aha!) or other emotions. Interjections ***Use an Exclamation mark(!) If the emotion is strong*** • Wow! I won thelottery! ***Use a Comma(,) if the emotion is not strong*** • Wow, Ihave a peanut and jelly sandwich for lunch. Common interjections Ouch! Oops! LOL! shit! Oh! Hurrah! wow! Aha! Alas! Aw! Other interjections Word or phrase Meaning Aha! Surprise, satisfaction Alas! Sorrow Hurrah! Excitement Oops! Recognition of mistake Exclamation of pain Ouch! Importance • Express the writer’s feelings. • May be in the end or beginning of a sentence • Followed by exclamation mark. • Placed between commas. • Used in informal writing. Prepositions Prepositions A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation with something else in the sentence. Conti.. Based on their use in a sentence,the prepositions are divided into categories of: •Preposition of place •Preposition of time •Preposition of movement Preposition of Place Preposition of place refer to those preposition which can be used to show where something is located. Conti.. Here are some examples for preposition ofplace: Above, up, after, on, before, against, by, behind, below, along, near, down, in, at, across, inside, between, over • The aero plane is flying above the clouds. • The dog buried the bone under theground. • Our house is at the end of the street. • The cat ran across the road. Preposition of Time A preposition of time helps to link the noun or pronoun with a time value. It functions as an indicator as to what point of time did an event occur. Conti.. Here are some examples for preposition of time: About, before, for, by, around, in, ago, at, past, since, to, on, after, until, between, during The train is about an hourlate. The class begins at 8 o’ clock. Pakistan has been independent since1947. Preposition of Movement A preposition of movement is movement to or from aplace. used to show Conti.. Here are some examples for preposition of movement: Down, past, into, behind, up, onto, through, off, over, on, across, at, by, for, after, towards • The cat has climbed up a tree. • The children got off the bus. • She ran along the pavement. • The bus goes towards the market Based on the construction of prepositions themselves, the prepositions are of fourdifferent kinds: • Simple Prepositions •Double Prepositions •Compound Prepositions •Participle Prepositions Simple Prepositions Prepositions that consist of one word and are very simple to understand. These are the most basic prepositions and are used frequently. Simple Prepositions Here are some examples for simple prepositions: Above, under, around, through, after, on, before, about, among, behind, along, near, down, in, at, across, between, over • The paper is on my desk. • The man was standing under the tree. • I will meet you near your house at 5 p.m. Double prepositions Double prepositions are two prepositions, but are joined to make a whole new one. Conti.. Here are some examples for double prepositions: Inside, outside, into, onto, upon, up to, within, without, amid Outside the house lies a beautiful garden. It is up to us to find a way out. The dog jumped onto the bed. Compound prepositions Compound prepositions are two word prepositions. Unlike double prepositions, compound prepositions are not joined and turned into one word. They remain as two differentwords. Conti.. Here are some examples for compound prepositions: According to, apart from, close to, because of, far from, next to, rather than, instead of, out of, due to, relating to, in front of • • • My car is parked in front of the house. Rita was never close to her parents. She cannot stay here as of now. • His behavior is far from normal. Participle prepositions Participle prepositions are basically participles used as prepositions. A participle is actually a verb that ends with ‘-en’ or ‘-ing’. Conti… Here are some examples for participle prepositions: Concerning, during, excluding, given, following, failing, respected, provided, pending, considering, notwithstanding, including • Ram is always curious about anything concerning Shyam. • Everybody was invited to the function barring Articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun. An article is used to indicate the reference that is made to a noun whether the noun refers to something specific or not. There are only three articles in English: a, an and the. Types of Articles • The Definite Article [the] • The Indefinite Article [a and an] The Definite Article [the] Definite articles imply that the noun is 'specifically identifiable', there is only one definite article, and its "the." We use "the" for uncountable, singular and plural nouns. We use the when the thing spoken about is already mentioned. The Indefinite Article [a and an] Indefinite refers to 'identifiable in general.' The indefinite article a/an, occurs when the listener is not expected to identify the object specifically. A and an are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before. If a word begins with a vowel sound, use"an," and if it begins with a consonant sound use"a." THANKYOU!