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parts of speech ppt

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Parts of speech
Mariam Mushtaq
What is speech and what are its parts?
Noun
 Nouns are words that name people,
places, things, or ideas.
Example
Noun
Continue..
Types of Noun
1. Common
Name of general or nonspecific people, places, things,
or ideas.
Examples:
man, city, religion, airline
2. Proper
Name of specific people, places, things, or ideas.
Examples:
Imran Khan, Lahore, Islam, PIA
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Conti..
3. Abstract
The name of something that you cannot perceivewith
your five senses.
Examples:
happiness, love, pride, religion, belief
4. Concrete
The name of something that you can perceive with your
five senses.
Examples:
eyes, lion, suitcase, flower, chocolate
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Conti..
5. Countable Noun can be counted.
Examples:
clock/clocks and pencil/pencils, movie, train
6. Uncountable Noun cannot be counted.
Examples:
milk, rice, snow, rain, water, food andmusic
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Conti..
7.
Compound Noun are made up of twoor more
smaller words.
Examples:
eyeglasses, New York, sunflower
8.
Collective Noun refers to a group of things as
onewhole.
Examples:
bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family
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Conti..
9.
Singular Noun refers to one person, place, thing,
oridea.
Examples:
cat, ship, hero, monkey, baby
10. Plural Noun refers to more than one person,
place, thing,or idea.
Examples:
cats, ships, heroes, monkeys, babies
Continue..
Conti..
11. Possessive Noun shows ownership.
Examples:
Dad's car, the student's books and Ali's hat
Pronoun
Pronouns make up a small subcategory
of nouns. The distinguishing characteristic
of pronouns is that they can be
substituted for other nouns.
Examples- I, you, me, his, we, she, he,
her, they, it etc.
Personal Pronoun
Personal Pronouns are those which
stand for the names of persons. They
take the place of nouns and are used as
the subject of the verb in a sentence.
Examples:
• I got a free pass.
• My aim is high.
• Rosy is the daughter of mine.
Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns are those which are
objects and which refer to the same persons
as the subjects of the verbs. They end in self
& selves.
Examples
• I washed myself.
• We organized the party all by ourselves.
• Be careful not to cut yourself with that knife.
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns are those which
point out things, as this, these, that and
those. Because they convey a high
degree of specificity and distinctiveness in
pointing out ("demonstrating") a referent;
They are showing words.
Examples
• This is my answer.
• That was too much for me.
• These are good mangoes.
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns make up another class
of pronouns. They are used to connect
relative clauses to independent clauses.
Often, they introduce additional
information about something mentioned in
the sentence.
Relative pronouns
include that, what, which, who,
and whom. Traditionally, who refers to
people, and which and that refer to
Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns are used when you
need to refer to a person or thing that
doesn’t need to be specifically identified.
Some common indefinite pronouns
are one, other, none, some, anybody,
everybody, and no one.
• Everybody was late to work because of
the traffic jam
• Nobody knows the trouble I’ve seen.
Intensive Pronoun
Intensive Pronoun look the same as
reflexive pronouns, but their purpose is
different. Intensive pronouns add
emphasis.
• Did you yourself see Loretta spill the
coffee?
Possessive Pronouns
Those designating possession or
ownership.
Examples include: mine, its, hers, his,
yours, ours, theirs, whose.
• This cat is mine.
• Are these bananas yours?
• Is the fault theirs or yours
Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used in
questions. The interrogative pronouns
are who, what, which, and whose.
• Who wants a bag of jelly beans?
• What is your name?
• Which movie do you want to watch?
• Whose jacket is this?
Adjective
A word which modifies noun or
pronoun. It enhances the impactof
noun or pronoun.
Examples:
Adjective modifying noun:
• Large elephant
• Empty house
Adjective modifying pronoun:
• He is brave
• they are good students.
Placement of Adjective:
• It takes its place before as well as after the
noun or pronoun which it modifies.
Example:
1. He is a brave man.
2. House was empty.
Degrees of Adjective:
• There are three degrees of adjective.
1) POSITIVE
2) COMPARATIVE
3) SUPERLATIVE
The Verbs:
• A verb denotes an action, feeling or being of
a subject (noun).
• The train moves.
• The guest arrived yesterday.
Importance:
The verb plays a sole of backbone of a
sentence without a verb you never complete
your sentence.
Types of Verb
 Transitive verb.
 Intransitive verb.
 Auxiliary verb.
Transitive Verb:
The verb in which an action Transit or transmit
itself from subject into object is called
transitive verb.
Examples:Subject
Function
Object
 Ali killed a tiger.
 Farhan played hockey.
Transitive Verb Examples:
 Major Aziz Bhatti won Nisha-e-Haider.
 Question: Who was Nisha-e-Haider?
 Answer: Major Aziz Bhatti (Subject).
 Question: Major Aziz Bhatti won what?
 Answer: Nisha-e-Haider (Object).
Intransitive Verb:
 The verb in which an action that performs by a
subject does not transmit itself into object and is
still continue (action or verb)is called intransitive
verb.
 In the other words the verb in which only subject
exist is called intransitive verb.
 Examples:
 She looks pretty.
No objects
 He works well.
Not
Auxiliary Verb:
Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs.
They are used to help the principal verbs.
Auxiliary Verb Examples:
 You werecycling.
 I shall thrash you.
 Pakistan has defeated India.

Cycling, Thrash and Defeated are main or
principle verbs.
 Were, Shall and Has are Auxiliary verbs.
Adverb
Adverb
• Basically, most adverbs tell u how ,where or
when some thing is done. In other words,
they describe the manner, place or time of
an action.
Some Examples of Adverbs are :
• She sings sweetly.
• He writes neatly.
• Ahmad smiled cheerfully.
Types of Adverb
• Place determining adverb.
• Manner determining adverb.
• Time determining adverb.
• Frequency determining adverb.
• Quantity/Degree determining adverb.
• Purpose/Reason determining adverb.
• Affirmative/Negation
Adverb of place
Some adverbs and adverbs phrases answer the
question “where?”.
They are called adverb of place.
Examples:
•
•
•
•
The boys are playing upstairs.
The dog is in the garden.
It’s very sunny but cold outside.
I’ve lived here for about twoyears.
Adverb of Manner
Some adverbs and adverb phrases describe the
way people do things.
Examples:
• He was driving carelessly.
• The plane landed safely.
• Ali plays guitar skillfully.
• The girls answered all the questions correctly.
• The team played wonderfully.
Adverb of Time
Some adverbs and adverb phrases answer the
question “when?”
They are called adverb of time.
Examples:
• The train has already left.
• We moved into our new house lastweek.
• Our favorite T.V.program starts at 6’o clock
• We shall now begin to work.
• He comes here daily.
Adverb of Frequency
Some adverbs and adverb phrases answer the
question “how often an action isdone”
They are called adverb of frequency.
Examples:
• The children always go to school on the bus.
• I clean my bedroom everyday.
• Dad polishes his shoes twice a week.
Adverb of Quantity/Degree
It shows how much , or in what degree or to
what extent.
Examples:
• The sea is very stormy.
• I am fully prepared.
• These mangoes are almost ripe.
• He was too careless.
Adverb of Purpose/Reason
The adverb which tells about a reason is called
adverb of reason.
Examples:
• He is hence unable to refute the charge.
• He therefore left school.
• We all go for a picnic just for enjoyment.
Adverb of
Affirmation/Negation
The adverb which says yes if it is yes and no if
it is no.
Examples:
• I don’t know.
• Surely you are mistaken.
• He certainly went.
Formation of Adverbs
Most adverbs are formed by adding –ly to their
corresponding adjectives. Examples are:
kindly(kind),slowly(slow),hardly(hard),sweetly
(sweet) etc.
She is very beautiful (adjective).
She is beautifully (adverb) dressed.
He is a strange (adjective) person.
He behaved strangely (adverb).
Points to be Noted
1) If the adjective end in –y, replace it with –i
and then add –ly examples are:
Happily
• Happy
Angrily
• Angry
• Lucky
Luckily
2) If the adjectives ends in –able, -ible or –le,
replace the –e with–y. Examples are:
Probably
• Probable
Gently
• Gentle
Horribly
• Horrible
Conti..
3) If the adjective ends in –ic, add –ally.
Examples are :
Basically
• Basic
Economically
• Economic
This rule ,however, has an exception. The adverb
formed from public is publicly, not publically
.
CONJUNCTION
Conjunction :
• The word which joins two phrases,
clauses or sentences.
• For example:
Types of conjunction
• Coordinate conjunction
Coordinate conjunction is to join words,
phrases and clauses together, which are usually
grammatically equal.
Example:
 Pizza and burgers are my favorite snacks.
 I wanted tobuy a car but I had no money.
Subordinate conjunction
• These conjunction are those that introduce
subordinate clause and join them to mainclauses.
Example:
 She cannot come back because she is ill.
 The patient had died before the doctor came.
Interjections
Interjections are the words that express
strong feelings or emotions which are
not grammatically related to the rest of
the sentence.
Stop!
Oh, no!
Ouch!
Wow!
Interjections
They can show
happiness(Hurrah!),sorrow
(alas!),anger(grrrr!),surprise(aha!)
or other emotions.
Interjections
***Use an Exclamation mark(!) If
the emotion is strong***
• Wow! I won thelottery!
***Use a Comma(,) if the emotion is not
strong***
• Wow, Ihave a peanut and jelly sandwich
for lunch.
Common interjections
Ouch!
Oops!
LOL!
shit!
Oh!
Hurrah!
wow!
Aha!
Alas!
Aw!
Other interjections
Word or phrase
Meaning
Aha!
Surprise, satisfaction
Alas!
Sorrow
Hurrah!
Excitement
Oops!
Recognition of mistake
Exclamation of pain
Ouch!
Importance
• Express the writer’s feelings.
• May be in the end or beginning of a
sentence
• Followed by exclamation mark.
• Placed between commas.
• Used in informal writing.
Prepositions
Prepositions
A preposition is a word which is placed
before a noun or a pronoun to show its
relation with something else in the sentence.
Conti..
Based on their use in a sentence,the
prepositions are divided into
categories of:
•Preposition of place
•Preposition of time
•Preposition of movement
Preposition of Place
Preposition of place refer to
those
preposition which can be used to show
where something is located.
Conti..
Here are some examples for preposition ofplace:
Above, up, after, on, before, against, by,
behind, below, along, near, down, in, at,
across, inside, between, over
• The aero plane is flying above the clouds.
• The dog buried the bone under theground.
•
Our house is at the end of the street.
• The cat ran across the road.
Preposition of Time
A preposition of time helps to link the
noun or pronoun with a time value. It
functions as an indicator as to what point
of time did an event occur.
Conti..
Here are some examples for preposition of time:
About, before, for, by, around, in, ago, at, past,
since, to, on, after, until, between, during
The train is about an hourlate.
The class begins at 8 o’ clock.
Pakistan has been independent since1947.
Preposition of Movement
A preposition of movement is
movement to or from aplace.
used to show
Conti..
Here are some examples for preposition of
movement: Down, past, into, behind, up, onto,
through, off, over, on, across, at, by, for, after,
towards
• The cat has climbed up a tree.
• The children got off the bus.
• She ran along the pavement.
• The bus goes towards the market
Based on the construction of prepositions
themselves, the prepositions are of fourdifferent
kinds:
• Simple Prepositions
•Double Prepositions
•Compound Prepositions
•Participle Prepositions
Simple Prepositions
Prepositions that consist of one word and
are very simple to understand. These are
the most basic prepositions and
are used frequently.
Simple Prepositions
Here are some examples for simple
prepositions: Above, under, around,
through, after, on, before, about, among,
behind, along, near, down, in, at, across,
between, over
• The paper is on my desk.
• The man was standing under the tree.
• I will meet you near your house at 5
p.m.
Double prepositions
Double prepositions are two prepositions,
but are joined to make a whole new one.
Conti..
Here
are
some
examples
for
double
prepositions: Inside, outside, into, onto,
upon, up to, within, without, amid
Outside the house lies a beautiful garden.
It is up to us to find a way out.
The dog jumped onto the bed.
Compound prepositions
Compound prepositions are two
word
prepositions. Unlike double
prepositions,
compound prepositions are not joined and
turned into one word. They remain as two
differentwords.
Conti..
Here are some examples for compound
prepositions: According to, apart from, close to,
because of, far from, next to, rather than, instead
of, out of, due to, relating to, in front of
•
•
•
My car is parked in front of the house.
Rita was never close to her
parents.
She cannot stay here as of now.
•
His behavior is far from normal.
Participle prepositions
Participle prepositions are basically participles
used as prepositions. A participle is actually a
verb that ends with ‘-en’ or ‘-ing’.
Conti…
Here are some examples for participle
prepositions: Concerning, during,
excluding, given, following, failing,
respected, provided, pending,
considering, notwithstanding, including
•
Ram is always curious about anything
concerning Shyam.
•
Everybody was invited to the function barring
Articles
specify the grammatical definiteness of
the noun. An article is used to indicate the
reference that is made to a noun whether
the noun refers to something specific or
not. There are only three articles in
English: a, an and the.
Types of Articles
• The Definite Article [the]
• The Indefinite Article [a and an]
The Definite Article
[the]
Definite articles imply that the noun is
'specifically identifiable', there is only one
definite article, and its "the." We use
"the" for uncountable, singular and plural
nouns. We use the when the thing
spoken about is already mentioned.
The Indefinite Article [a
and an] Indefinite refers to 'identifiable in
general.' The indefinite article a/an,
occurs when the listener is not expected
to identify the object specifically.
A and an are used before nouns that
introduce something or someone you
have not mentioned before. If a word
begins with a vowel sound, use"an," and if
it begins with a consonant sound use"a."
THANKYOU!
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