Function/Content Words Function Words -have little meaning on its own and are chiefly used to indicate a grammatical relationship •Prepositions of, at, in, without, between •Pronouns he, they, anybody, it, one •Determiners the, a, that, my, more, much, either, neither •Conjunctions and, that, when, while, although, or •Auxiliary verbs be (is, am, are), have, got, do Content Words -are words that carry the content or the meaning of a sentence -bears reference to the world independent of its use within a particular sentence •Nouns John, room, answer • Adjectives happy, new, large, grey •Main verbs search, grow, hold, have •Adverbs really, completely, very, also, enough Differences between content and function words: Closed Class VS Open Class The class of function words is closed. Languages do not easily add new words to this set. •Closed-class words. •English has ~300 closed class words. The class of content words is open. Words invented in 2012 that won categories at the Annual Meeting of the conference American Dialect Society (Content words) WORD OF THE YEAR hashtag – a word or phrase preceded by a hash symbol (#), used on Twitter to mark a topic or make a commentary MOST USEFUL -(po)calypse, -(ma)geddon – hyperbolic combining forms for various catastrophes MOST CREATIVE gate lice: airline passengers who crowd around a gate waiting to board MOST UNNECESSARY amazeballs – slang form for “amazing.” MOST EUPHEMISTIC job creator – a member of the top one-percent of moneymakers. MOST LIKELY TO SUCCEED marriage equality: legal recognition of same-sex marriage LEAST LIKELY TO SUCCEED YOLO: acronym for “You Only Live Once,” often used sarcastically or self-deprecatingly Parts of Speech Review Noun • Adjective a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. • modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying nouns. • Adverb • modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, and indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree. Answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much". Pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. • Verb express actions, events, or states of being Parts of Speech Review Preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Conjunction link words, phrases, and clauses to form a complete sentence. (FANBOYS) Interjection word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.