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Take An African Safari

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Take A Musical
Safari To Africa
By Stacey Kirschenman
Characteristics of Africa
2nd largest continent with a population of
approximately 700 million people
Geography – deserts (Sahara), rain forest
jungles, mountains, rivers & lakes, & the
Great Rift Valley
Mostly tropical climate
Animals – elephants, gorillas,
chimpanzees, monkeys, crocodiles,
rhinoceroses, giraffes, and lions
Over 800 languages and cultures
African Music
Call & Response
– generation to generation
Alternates between a soloist and a
group
Call (leader) changes and the
response (group) remains the same
Purpose of Music
Recreation
- singing, dancing, drumming, and
concerts
Rituals & Ceremonies
– celebrating
Occupational
- work songs, preparing food
Social
- child care, story telling, social
games, and parties
Language
- drumming and signaling are
used to send messages
Gives birth to many forms of music
Jazz & Rock
African Musical style and practice
Taught and learned orally
Sing & play together easily (teamwork)
- rhythmic singing & clapping children’s
games
Most common form
- call & response
Texture is complementary
- many rhythms occurring at the same time
Syncopation – off-beat phrasing
Music is part of most activities
- music and movement are linked to each
other
Buzzy tone quality
African Instruments
Classified into these categories
- Idiophones (main parts vibrate)
- Membranophones (membrane vibrates)
- Chordophones (Strings vibrate)
- Aerophones (Blow into instrument)
Aerophones
Musical instruments which produce their sound by
using air as the principal vibrating factor: air may
be unconfined by the instrument or enclosed
within a tube
Flute, Horn Trumpet, Pan Pipes,
Side Blow Horn, Whistles
Idiophones
Musical instruments which produce sound from
their own substance: can be struck, plucked,
blown, or vibrated by friction
Rattles, Bells, Sistram, Thumb Piano,
Xylophone
Membranophones
Musical instruments which produce sound
from tightly stretched membranes, either
struck or 'singing'
Drums and Tamborine
Chordophones
Musical instruments which produce sound by
means of strings stretched from one point to
another
Berimbau,
Harps, Lute, Lyre,
Ramkie, Valiha
Internet Links for Musical Instruments
Audible Artworks
UDU Gallery
Chains Performance
African Instruments
New world African Instruments
African Musical Instruments
N’kosi sikelel’i Africa
In 1897, Enoch Mankayi Sontonga wrote the
following hymn, “N’kosi sikelel’I Africa.” It was
originally performed at public meetings in
South Africa. Today, it is sung in many
languages and dialects throughout Africa.
African National Anthem
African Drums
Widely Used in African Music
-Communication & Celebration
Language of the drum takes years of
practice
Master Drummer holds the most honored
position in African societies
Bata Drum
Nigeria
Two headed drum played with both hands
or struck with a flexible piece of leather
Part of the religious life of some of the
Yoruba people
Characteristics
Syncopation
Type of rhythm in which stressed sounds occur
between beats instead of on beats.
Example:
Messages in Sound
Master Drummer
- Children begin studying to become master drummers at a very
early age. Has the highest position in African societies
African Proverb
- Wise sayings passed down from generation to generation.
Important in many parts of Africa
Griot
- Talking regional newspaper. Wandering musician/storyteller
responsible for passing along news about what has happened in the
community.
Harmony
Two or more pitches sounding at the same time
African Art & Culture
Museum of African Art
Resources
http://echarry.web.wesleyan.edu/africother.html
http://www.canteach.ca/elementary/africasong.html
http://home.earthlink.net/~debrajet/list.html
http://polyglot.lss.wisc.edu/afrst/outreach/k-12.html
http://www.thepothole.com/soukous/
http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts//509.html
http://wus.africaonline.com/AfricaOnline/music/
http://wus.africaonline.com/AfricaOnline/music/Safrica.html
http://www.cnmat.berkeley.edu/~ladzekpo/Foundation.html
http://www.afropop.org/
http://www.coraconnection.com/
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/aoi/events/music/marabi.html
http://www.africanmusic.org/
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/aoi/events/music/pan.html
http://www.rootsworld.com/rw/villagepulse/
http://www.nmafa.si.edu/
http://www.cat.nyu.edu/~andruid/chains/
http://www.cnmat.berkeley.edu/~ladzekpo/Ensemble.htm
l
http://ntama.uni-mainz.de/~ama/
http://www.udu.com/udu_html/udugalry.html
http://www.nmafa.si.edu/exhibits/aud_art/index.htm
http://biochem.chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~endo/africa.html
http://www.acslink.aone.net.au/christo/histmain.htm
www.dia.org/collections/aonwc/ africanart/82.29med.jpg
www.earthvibemusic.com/ kambala/Balaphon.jpg
www.namibweb.com/piano.JPG
World Music Drumming textbook
Share the Music textbook pp. 28-33, 64,
68-69, 112-115, 154-155, 250-251, 357
African Music by Cheryl Lavender
Abiyoyo by Michael Hayes
Clip Art Resources
Print Artist
http://www.dia.org/collections/aonwc/africanart/82.29.html
www.earthvibemusic.com/ kambala.htm
http://www.namibweb.com/piano.htm
http://www.intcon.net/~songbird/
http://www.shirleykaiser.com/skimages/index.html
http://webclipart.miningco.com/cs/msub42m/