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281 Study Guide Quiz 1

Quiz 1 Study Guide
Chapter 1:
The pioneers of IO Psychology (Munsterberg & McKeen Cattell)
o How they diverged from Wundt
they wanted to focus on individual differences
How IO psychologists played a role in World War I & World War II
World War I:
Walter Dill Scott &Walter Van Dyke Bingham: They developed selection &
training methods
World WarⅡ:
1. Human Engineering applied to aircraft cockpit design.
2. Henry Murraydeveloped the first US Assessment Center for the Office of
Strategic Services– how to pick spies
3. Assessed personality and ability
What scientific management is; what its key principles are
o What “time and motion” studies are
Scientific management: Enhance productive by finding ONE BEST WAY to do a
 The most important principle: Maximize efficiency!
 Principles
 1.Find the most efficient way to do a task
 2.Train employees on the most efficient method
 3.Monitor them
 4.Reward them with money
“Time and motion: Break down a job into its core movements Time each movement.
Use this information to figure out more time-efficient ways of doing the job(Lillian
Gilbreth & Taylor)
What the Humans Relation movement was; how this movement differed from scientific
 workers valued things such social interaction and that their attitudes (not just the
work environment, workflow, and financial incentives) are important for
 Good relationships are the MOST important determinant of productivity
 Social factors will override financial considerations in many cases
Chapter 2:
What the important characteristics of science are
•Marked by logical investigation (e.g., the scientific method)
•Depends upon data.
•Must be communicable, open, and public.
•Sets out to disprove hypotheses, not prove them.
•Expectation that scientists are disinterested
The difference between an independent variable, dependent variable, moderator, and
Dependent (outcome, also called “criterion”)
Independent (also called “predictor”)
The difference between a mediation hypothesis and moderation hypothesis
Mediation hypothesis: A variable that explains the relationship between the IV and the
Moderation hypothesis: A variable that influences the strength of the relationship
between two variables
The differences between the 3 basic types of designs (experimental, quasi-experimental,
and non-experimental/correlational)
o What are the pros/cons of each
 Has an experimental manipulation
 Random assignment to conditions
Pros:High Experimental Control
Cons: Lower generalizability(The extent to which the results of a study can be
applied to other participants or situations. ) & Elimination of context
 Has an experimental manipulation
 But NO random assignment to conditions
 typically use pre-existing groups
Pros: Moderate Experimental Control
Cons: Lower generalizability
Non-experimental/correlational /Observation
 NO experimental manipulation
 NO Random assignment to conditions
Pros: High generalizability
Cons: Cannot determine causation(Only correlational relationship) & Low
experimental control (must use statistical)
Research Design
Random Assignment?
Experimental Control?
it is not mimic r
eal world
broad populatio
What generalizability, control, and causality are
 Generalizability:The extent to which the results of a study can be applied to other
participants or situations.
 Control:the ability to eliminate ‘distracting’ or confounding variables that might
influence your ability to see the ‘true’ relationship between your variables of interest
via features of the study design.
 Causality:the ability to determine the cause and effect relationship between two variables
of interest.
 What a correlation is and how to interpret the strength and magnitude
 Correlation: describes the relationship between two continuous variables. (the line of
best fit)
 Correlation Coefficient: A statistical value which provides information about both the
magnitude (numerical value) and the direction ( or ) of the relationship between two
 Correlations have two components:
Direction: The sign (+ or -)
This describes if the relationship is:
Positive – an increase in X leads to an INCREASE in Y
Negative – an increase in X leads to a DECREASE in Y
Magnitude: the number after the sign indicating the strength of the relationship. (actual
Zero is the lowest value possible, and 1 the highest.
What measurement is
 Measurement: The assignment of numbers to aspects of objects or events based on a rule
or convention.
The difference between a construct and an operationalization
o What the different types of operationalizations are, how to distinguish between
 The difference between a construct and an operationalization:
Construct: hypothetical, abstract variables of interest
Examples: Intelligence, Emotions, Satisfaction, Personality
Operationalize: a process of defining the measurement of a construct that is not
directly measurable.
 The difference between measurement reliability and validity
 Measurement reliability:The consistency of a measurement instrument or its stability
over time (一致性) & The extent to which a measure is free of random error
 Measurement validity: Whether a measure accurately and completely represents what
was intended to be measured. (准确性)
 The different types of measurement validity
 Content validity
Extent to which the measure provides a good sample of the domain it is intended to
 Face Validity
Does this measure seem or look like it measures what we are trying to measure?
This validity seems less consequential, but we will talk later about why it is also
 Criterion Validity
Empirical relationship between predictor and criterion