Uploaded by Mihir Kandarpa

Podcast Notes Imperialism 2.0

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Podcast #4 Imperialism 2.0
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Second wave imperialism in Modern History
o After New World Colonization (Gold, God, Glory)
o Silver, conversion, Haciendas, etc.
Need by NICs:
o Expansion of many European nations
 Ie. GBR
o Massive amounts of raw materials
o Markets
US: expanded
o Conquered Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Pacific Islands from Spain
in 1898 war
Spain: contracted
o Lost colonies in Central/South America
England: expanded
o EIC taken over by crown
o Raj in India
o Opium smuggling to China
Ottomans: contracted
o Lost territory
China-England Trade
o Hong traders would force international tradesman to meet in Canton
and pay tributes (in silver or trade)
o England could not pay for the trade (they didn’t even have goods that
the Chinese would accept)
o Britain smuggled in opium produced in India
 This became profitable for British as Chinese became addicted
to the drug
 British no longer had to pay in silver and they were making
profits off the opium
o Opium wars:
 Britain= “free trade”. Really was to sell opium
 China was no match to the industrial country
o Treaty of Nanjing:
 Unfair
 Extra territoriality (Diplomatic immunity)
 5 ports had to be open to GBR
 Allow missionaries in
o Taipeng Rebellion:
 Religious movement motivated by change in perspective of
history
 Qing was weakening from rebellion (lent a hand to
decentralization)
 Asked local warlords to crush rebellion
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 30 million died
o Self strengthening movement:
 Shipbuilding yard
 Industry
 Modernize military
 Foreign dept (International relations)
 Translate western texts (scientific/mathematic texts)
o Spheres of Influence
 Regions that were controlled by other nations (ie. Those listed
below)
 Japan
 Germany
 France
 GBR
o 100 Days or Reform:
 Attempt to reform Chinese education (most western
education) and streamline bureaucracy
 Manchu leaders and conservative Confucians wanted to crush
rebellion so they executed those involved.
o Boxers (trained in martial arts. Had religious)
 They wanted to stop the western influence on China
(particularly in North, near Russia)
 They were defeated by Russians in a battle
 They were also executed by local warlords
o Decentralization of China
 Local warlords were splitting the empire
 Last civil service examination in 1905
 Final emperor deposed in 1911
 China’s future unsure (entered tumultuous future)
Japan
o Had to impose reforms
 China vs Japan:
 China began 1800s as it normally had (A lot of
Neoconfucianism). Secular government
 Japan was ethnically homogeneous
 Japan was even more secluded (Dutch port in Nagasaki)
o Where they learned about Western ideas
 Japan was demanded unequal treaty by US
o Demanded extraterritoriality
o Ended this and with other nations in 1898
 Maji Restoration (Incredible reforms greater than RUS/CHN)
 Ended feudalism
 Political power centralized (give power back to
emperor)
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Did not make major changes but subtle changes that
seemed to fit into normal Japanese society (while
Western ideas were implemented)
Parliament (German style. Emperor could appoint his
ministers)
Banned samurai class (But had them learn trade and
business in US and Europe)
Rapid industrialization
o One of fastest most successful
o Cartel families (very powerful). Came from
Samurai
o Yashuda Family (Yashuda Maji owns many
insurance companies today)
o Mitsubishi
Members of parliament were responsive to needs of
wealthy
o Because 5% of men voted (and were wealthiest
men)
Sino Japanese War
o Japan vs. China for control of Korea
Baltic Fleet (Russian)
o Japanese sunk fleet in 5hrs
Asian power had defeated a NIC European power