Uploaded by Grace Nyaga

Development of computers

Historical development of computers can be
traced back to the time human beings were
struggling to invent non – electronic tools to
simplify arithmetic such as Abacus and
Napier bones
It is a Chinese counting instrument which
dates back to 3000 BC.
It has bead-like parts that move along rods.
Each bead above the middle bar stands for
five units.
Each bead below stands for one unit.
Napiers bones was developed by John Napier,
a scotitsh mathematician in the 17th century.
It helps in multiplication and division
It was designed by an English mathematician,
Charles Babbage in 1832.
The engine is recognized as the first real
computer and Babbage as the father of
These computers are classified into five
generations depending on the technology
used to develop them.
These computers were huge, expensive and
often broke down.
They were slow compared to today's
computers their internal storage capacity was
Cards were used to enter data into
the computer.
 They used vacuum tubes or
thermionic valves to control internal
 They were used for payroll
processing and billing e.g. IBM 650,
Electronic Numeric Integrator and
Calculator (ENIAC) and Electronic
Discrete Variable Automatic
Computer (EDVAC)
 Vacuum
tube technology made
possible the advent of electronic
digital computer.
 These computers were the fastest
calculating devices at their time.
 They
were too bulky
 They were unreliable as they
broke down easily
 Had limited memory
 They generated a lot of heat
 Consumed a lot of power
They used transistors for internal operations and
magnetic card as a primary storage medium.
They had increased storage capacity compared to
first generation.
They had great reduction in size and heat
generation, increased processing speed and
reliability compared to first generation.
Examples IBM 1401, Honeywell 200, CDC 1604 etc
Were smaller in size compared to first
They generated less heat
They were less prone to hardware failure
Required air conditioning to cool them down .
Required frequent maintenance
Commercial production was difficult and
These computers used integrated circuits,
Integrated circuits consist of thousands of small
transistors etched on a semiconductor called
silicon chip.
They had increased storage capacity,
They were smaller in size
They emitted less heat
Easier to program, use and maintain compared to
their predecessors.
Examples IBM, System 360, Burroughs B5500 etc
They were smaller in size.
Were more reliable as they were not breaking
down often.
They emitted less heat.
Maintenance cost was low because hardware
failures were rare.
They required less power
Highly sophisticated technology required for
the manufacture of integrated circuit
They were costly
These computers use large scale integrated
circuit (LSIC) and very large scale integrated
circuits (VLSIC) in their processor.
They have large storage capacity and work at
a high speed.
Examples are IBM 4300, Burroughs B7700
They are smaller in size because of high
component density
Generate negligible heat
Much faster in computation
They are not prone to hardware failure
They are portable because of their small size
Highly sophisticated technology required for
manufacturer of LSI chips.
This generation is characterized by the merging of
telecommunication with computer technology.
 Scientists are working on this generation to bring
machines with genuine I.Q, the ability to reason
logically and with real knowledge of the world. The
anticipated computer will have the following
It is expected to do parallel processing
It's expected to make use of artificial intelligence
iii. Superior hardware and software
iv. Very small in size
Connectivity to the internet.