The Legacy of the Roman Empire …and the Fall of Rome What does this mean? • Roman Empire Contributions or Achievements • The end of the empire in Western Europe. Become the “Legacy of Rome” how it is remembered. • The “Fall of Rome” or the Fall of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. Roman Art Statues • Imitated Greek sculpture • Good at making lifelike busts and statues • Mosaics: artwork where tiny patches form a bigger picture • Decorated homes of wealthy families Frescoes • Paintings over wet plaster with water based paint • Like looking out a window, 3- dimensional • Murals of landscapes • Blown Glass: highly decorative bottles • Gem cutting and metalworking • Cameos: carved decoration showing a portrait or a scene Roman Architecture Borrowed from the Greeks • Arches: used throughout the empire, on buildings and bridges • Columns: Used in buildings, for support Vault • An arch used to support a ceiling Dome • A vault in the shape of a half-circle that rests on a circular wall Roman Engineering • Aqueducts: carried water from the country into the cities • Bridges: Romans built bridges across rivers and streams that did not block the water; they used columns and arches • Plumbing: Romans used running water in houses, used pipes to bring in water • Foundations: Roman houses had concrete foundations • Baths: Romans built bath houses Language and Writing • Latin was used by scribes to record important documents • Roman proverbs still used ex. E. pluribus unum out of many, one • Money picture • Factoid: In the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, the Wizard, who was blown into Oz from a state fair in Kansas, never refers to the United States by name, but calls it "the land of E pluribus unum." Roman Numerals • Roman numerals I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X • Solve the following problems. • Create a new problem and test your neighbor! Practice: IX + IV_ ? VIII x X ? Latin roots used in English Words Latin Prefixes Used in English Words Latin Root Meaning English Word Latin Prefix Meaning English Word(s) anima life, breath, soul animal in, im, il not inactive, impossible, illogical civis citizen, community civic inter among, between international com, co together, with communicate, cooperate lex, legalis law, legal legislature manus hand manual pre before precede militare to serve as a soldier military post after, behind postpone portare to carry portable re back, again remember unus one united semi half semicircle urbs city suburb sub under, less than, inferior to submarine verbum word verbal trans across, through transportation Philosophy • Stoicism: adopted by most upper class • “Living rightly” meant living in a way that agreed with nature • Believed in good character, self-control and courage Law & Justice • Roman law covered many parts of daily life • Believed in universal idea of justice • Citizens had rights, courts made decisions that are fair and just “Natural Law” Government • Republic: Constitutional government, citizens elect officials • Political Rights: to vote, and hold office • Civil Rights: freedom, ability to trade, to own property, to be married Roman Citizens • Citizen: Lived in Roman State, had full political & civil rights • Municipia: Lived outside Roman State, had civil rights, paid taxes, joined army The Roman Empire Fall of the Roman Empire By the 400’s Rome was too large to rule efficiently. It was difficult to defend. Why? Corruption – the decay of people’s values was widespread and common …..This made the government ineffective Slaves were being used to work land Landowners created their own armies to take power Rich landowners left Rome for the country When Emperor Constantine moved the capital to the east Byzantium (Constantinople) he took much of the power and strength with him. It shifted power to the east. Constantinople (Byzantium) WEST ROME EAST Economic Reasons for the Fall of Rome: • • • • People paid heavy taxes Prices rose very high Trade declined Many people lived in poverty Barbarians like Atilla the Hun kept attacking Rome. Barbarian leaders overthrew the last emperor of Rome in 476 and took power. The Western Roman Empire falls in 476 CE - “The Fall of Rome” Western Europe CONSTANTINOPLE ROME Eastern Europe The Eastern Roman Empire continues until 1453… also known as the Byzantine Empire.