Uploaded by Camille Joy Pasco

Appendix A

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True/False Questions
TRUE
1. The price elasticity of demand is used to determine the markup over cost when computing the profit-maximizing price.
FALSE
2. Assume that the price elasticity of demand is less than -1. If the absolute value of the price elasticity of demand increases, the profit-maximizing
price increases.
FALSE
3. If the unit sales for one product are more sensitive to price increases than another product, then its markup over variable cost should be more
than for the other product if the company wants to maximize profit.
FALSE
4. Demand for a product is said to be elastic if a change in price has little effect on the number of units sold.
FALSE
5. The demand for products that are sold in discount stores is generally less elastic than the demand for products sold in upscale boutiques.
TRUE
6. The price elasticity of demand can be estimated using the formula ln(1 + percentage change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + percentage change in selling
price).
FALSE
7. Under the absorption approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text, all fixed costs are included in the cost base in setting a selling price.
TRUE
8. The absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing will result in attaining the company's required rate of return only if forecasted unit sales are
realized.
FALSE
9. The markup over cost under the absorption costing approach would decrease if the required rate of return increases, holding everything else
constant.
TRUE
10. The markup over cost under the absorption costing approach would decrease if the unit product cost increases, holding everything else
constant.
Multiple Choices
11. Holding all other things constant, an increase in fixed production costs will affect:
A)
the markup under the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing.
B)
the markup used to compute the profit-maximizing price.
C)
both the markup under the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing and the markup used to compute profit-maximizing price.
D)
neither the markup under the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing nor the markup used to compute profit-maximizing price.
12. Holding all other things constant, if fixed costs increase, the profit-maximizing price will:
A)
increase.
B)
decrease.
C)
remain the same.
D)
The effect cannot be determined.
13. When using the absorption approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text:
A)
all costs are included in the cost base.
B)
the “plus” or markup figure contains fixed costs and desired profit.
C)
the cost base is made up of the unit product cost.
D)
only selling and administrative expenses are included in the cost base.
14. Which of the following items are included in the cost base under the absorption approach to cost-plus pricing?
Variable Cost
Production Selling
A)
Yes
Yes
B)
No
Yes
C)
Yes
Yes
D)
Yes
No
Fixed Cost
Production Selling
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
15. Fipps Company's management believes that every 7% increase in the selling price of one of the company's products results in a 12% decrease in the
product's total unit sales. The variable production cost of this product is $38.00 per unit and the variable selling and administrative cost is $5.00 per unit.
The product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text is closest to:
A)
$47.82
Solution:
B)
$51.17
Price elasticity of demand
C)
$99.78
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
D)
$91.35
= ln(1 + −12%)/ln(1 + 7%) = −1.8894
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost
= -1/(1+ed) = −1/(1+(-1.8894)) = 1.1244
Profit-maximizing price = (1+ Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 1.1244)*($38 + $5) = (2.1244)*$43 = $91.35
(rounded)
16. Goren Company's management has found that every 3% decrease in the selling price of one of the company's products leads to a 8% increase in the
product's total unit sales. The product's absorption costing unit product cost is $12.70. The variable production cost of the product is $1.20 per unit and the
variable selling and administrative cost is $4.30 per unit.
According to the formula in the text, the product's profit-maximizing price is closest to:
A)
$9.10
Solution:
B)
$21.02
Price elasticity of demand
C)
$9.62
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
D)
$15.43
= ln(1 + 8%)/ln(1 + −3%) = ln(1.08)/ln(0.97) = −2.5267
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost
= −1/(1+ed) = −1/(1 + (−2.5267)) = 0.6550
PM price = (1+ Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 0.6550)*($1.20 + $4.30) = (1.6550)*$5.50 = $9.10
17. Inoye Company recently changed the selling price of one of its products. Data concerning sales for comparable periods before and after the price change
are presented below.
Selling Price Unit Sales
$36.00
2,500
$37.00
2,350
The product's variable cost is $21.00 per unit.
According to the formula in the text, the product's profit-maximizing price is closest to:
A)
$39.91
Percent change in price = ($37.00 − $36.00)/$36.00 = 2.78%
B)
$22.84
Percent change in total unit sales = (2,350 − 2,500)/2,500 = -6%
C)
$38.81
Price elasticity of demand
D)
$37.71
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
= ln(1 + −6%)/ln(1 + 2.78%) = −2.2565
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost
= −1/(1 + ed) = -1/(1 + (−2.2565)) = 0.7959
PM price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost/unit = (1 + 0.7959)*$21.00 = (1.7959)*$21.00 = $37.71
18. Ericksen Company's management believes that every 7% decrease in the selling price of one of the company's products leads to a 19% increase in the
product's total unit sales. The product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text is closest to:
A)
-1.39
Solution:
B)
-2.88
Price elasticity of demand
C)
-2.40
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
D)
-1.83
= ln(1 + 19%)/ln(1 + −7%) = -2.40
19. Haptas Company recently changed the selling price of one of its products. Data concerning sales for comparable periods before and after the price
change are presented below.
Selling Price Unit Sales
$24.00
6,900
$25.00
6,600
The product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text is closest to:
A)
−1.04
B)
−1.13
C)
−1.09
D)
−1.10
Percent change in price = ($24 − $25)/$25 = −4%
Percent change in total unit sales = (6,900 − 6,600)/6,600
= −4.545%
Price elasticity of demand
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
= ln(1 + 4.545%)/ln(1 + -4%) = −1.09
20. Willow Company manufactures and sells 20,000 units of Product Z each year. In order to produce and sell this many units, it has been necessary for
the company to make an investment of $500,000 in Product Z. The company requires a 20% rate of return on all investments in products. Selling and
administrative expenses associated with Product Z total $200,000 per year. The unit product cost of Product Z is $20. The company uses the absorption
costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text. The selling price for Product Z is:
A)
$25.00
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
$30.00
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
$35.00
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
D)
$40.00
Markup on absorption cost = [(20% × $500,000) + $200,000] ÷ ($20.00 × 20,000)
= [$100,000 + $200,000] ÷ $400,000 = 75.00%
Target selling price = $20.00 + (75.00% × $20.00) = $35.00
21. Kirk, Inc., manufactures a product with the following costs:
Direct materials ............................................................
Direct labor ...................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead .....................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses...............
Fixed selling and administrative expenses ...................
Per unit
$17.40
$15.10
$4.10
Per year
$696,600
$2.90
$761,400
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text. The pricing calculations are based on budgeted
production and sales of 54,000 units per year. The company has invested $420,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 12%.
The selling price based on the absorption costing approach would be closest to:
A)
$67.43
B)
$49.86
C)
$90.59
D)
$66.50
Solution:
Direct materials................................................
Direct labor ......................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead....................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ........................
Unit product cost .............................................
$17.40
15.10
4.10
12.90
$49.50
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative
expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
Markup on absorption cost = [(12% × $420,000) +
($2.90 × 54,000 + $761,400)] ÷ ($49.50 × 54,000)
= [$50,400 + $918,000] ÷ $2,673,000 = 36.23%
Target selling price = $49.50 + (36.23% × $49.50) = $67.43
22. Mahaffey, Inc., uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text to set prices for its products. Based on budgeted sales of
56,000 units next year, the unit product cost of a particular product is $63.40. The company's selling and administrative expenses for this product are
budgeted to be $1,237,600 in total for the year. The company has invested $540,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 8%.
The selling price for this product based on the absorption costing approach would be closest to:
A)
$86.27
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
$85.50
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
$68.47
D)
$116.34
÷ [Unit product cost × Unit sales]
Markup on absorption cost
= [(8% × $540,000) + $1,237,600] ÷ ($63.40 × 56,000)
= [$43,200 + $1,237,600] ÷ $3,550,400 = 36.07%
Target selling price = $63.40 + (36.07% × $63.40) = $86.27
23. Perkins Company estimates that an investment of $500,000 would be needed to produce and sell 25,000 units of Product A each year. At this level of
activity, the unit product cost would be $40. Selling and administrative expenses would total $300,000 each year. The company uses the absorption costing
approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text. If a 20% rate of return on investment is desired, then the required markup for Product A would be:
A)
10%
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
20%
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
30%
÷ [Unit product cost × Unit sales]
D)
40%
Markup on absorption cost = [(20% × $500,000) + $300,000] ÷ ($40 × 25,000)
= [$100,000 + $300,000] ÷ $1,000,000 = 40%
24. The following information is available on Morton Company's Product B:
Number of units sold each year .............
Unit product cost....................................
Investment in the product line ...............
Required return on investment...............
40,000
$25
$850,000
20%
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text and a 60% markup. Based on these data, the company's total
selling and administrative expenses associated with Product B each year are:
A)
$625,000
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
$600,000
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
$510,000
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
D)
$430,000
= [(20% × $850,000) + Selling and administrative expenses] ÷ [$25 × 40,000] = 60%
= [$170,000 + Selling and administrative expenses] ÷ $1,000,000 = 60%
Solution:
$170,000 + Selling and administrative expenses = $600,000
Selling and administrative expenses = $430,000
25. Jaap Corporation makes a product with the following costs:
Per unit
Direct materials.............................................................
$12.50
Direct labor ...................................................................
$13.10
Variable manufacturing overhead.................................
$3.80
Fixed manufacturing overhead .....................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses ...............
$2.50
Fixed selling and administrative expenses....................
Per year
$1,314,500
$869,000
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text. The pricing calculations are based on budgeted production
and sales of 55,000 units per year. The company has invested $200,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 8%.
The markup on absorption cost would be closest to:
A)
144.5%
B)
8.0%
C)
34.3%
D)
34.9%
The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ................................................................................$12.50
Direct labor ....................................................................................... 13.10
Variable manufacturing overhead .................................................... 3.80
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($1,314,500 ÷ 55,000 units)............ 23.90
Unit product cost ..............................................................................$53.30
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(8% × $200,000) + ($2.50 × 55,000 + $869,000)] ÷ [$53.30 × 55,000] = 34.9%
26. Laflam Corporation uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text to set prices for its products. Based on budgeted
sales of 55,000 units next year, the unit product cost of a product is $53.60. The company's selling & administrative expenses for this product are budgeted
to be $709,500 in total for the year. The company has invested $100,000 in this product & expects a return on investment of 15%.
The markup on absorption cost for this product would be closest to:
A)
24.1%
Solution:
B)
15.0%
Markup percentage on absorption cost
C)
24.6%
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
D)
39.1%
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(15% × $100,000) + $709,500] ÷ [$53.60 × 55,000] = 24.6%
27. Hieko Company, a manufacturer of moderate-priced time pieces, would like to introduce a new electronic watch. To compete effectively, the watch
could not be priced at more than $30. The company requires a return on investment of 15% on all new products. The plan is to produce and sell 25,000
watches each year. This would require a $500,000 investment. The target cost per watch would be:
A)
$27.00
Projected sales (25,000 units × $30 per unit) ..................... $750,000
B)
$20.00
Less desired profit (15% × $500,000) ................................
75,000
C)
$21.50
Target cost for 25,000 units ................................................ $675,000
D)
$23.00
Target cost per unit ($675,000 ÷ 25,000 units)...................
$27.00
28. Home Products, Inc., is planning the introduction of a new food dryer. To compete effectively, the dryer would have to be priced at no more than $40
per unit. An investment of $600,000 would have to be made in order to produce and sell the new dryer. The company requires a return on investment of at
least 25% on new products. Assuming that the company expects to produce and sell 30,000 dryers per year, the target cost per dryer would be closest to:
A)
$18.00
Projected sales (30,000 units × $40 per unit) ......................
$1,200,000
B)
$35.00
Less desired profit (25% × $600,000) ................................. 150,000
C)
$20.00
Target cost for 30,000 units .................................................
$1,050,000
D)
$24.67
Target cost per unit ($1,050,000 ÷ 30,000 units)................. $35.00
29. Aldose Candy Company is implementing a target costing approach for its latest new product, the “Big Glob” candy bar. The following information
relates to the Big Glob project:
Target cost per candy bar ..............................................
Expected annual sales (in units) of candy bars .............
Required investment in additional assets ......................
Desired return on investment ........................................
$0.30
400,000
$800,000
20%
Based on this information, what is Aldose's target selling price per bar for the Big Glob?
A)
$0.46
(Expected annual sales in units × Target selling price) − (Desired return on investment × Required investment)
B)
$0.50
= (400,000 × Target selling price) − (20% × $800,000) = ($0.30 × 400,000)
C)
$0.55
= (400,000 × Target selling price) = $120,000 + $160,000
D)
$0.70
= (400,000 × Target selling price) = $280,000
Target selling price = $0.70
30. The management of Giammarino Corporation is considering introducing a new product--a compact barbecue. At a selling price of $78 per unit,
management projects sales of 10,000 units. Launching the barbecue as a new product would require an investment of $100,000. The desired return on
investment is 11%. The target cost per barbecue is closest to:
A)
$86.58
Projected sales (10,000 units × $78 per unit) ...................... $780,000
B)
$78.00
Less desired profit (11% × $100,000) .................................
11,000
C)
$76.90
Target cost for 10,000 units ................................................. $769,000
D)
$85.36
Target cost per unit ($769,000 ÷ 10,000 units) ...................
$76.90
31. Hanisch Corporation would like to use target costing for a new product it is considering introducing. At a selling price of $22 per unit, management
projects sales of 50,000 units. The new product would require an investment of $400,000. The desired return on investment is 14%. The target cost per unit
is closest to:
Projected sales (50,000 units × $22 per unit) ...................... $1,100,000
A)
$22.00
Less desired profit (14% × $400,000) .................................
56,000
B)
$23.80
Target
cost
for
50,000
units
................................................
$1,044,000
C)
$20.88
Target cost per unit ($1,044,000 ÷ 50,000 units) ................
$20.88
D)
$25.08
32. A new product, an automated crepe maker, is being introduced at Knutt Corporation. At a selling price of $59 per unit, management projects sales of
70,000 units. Launching the crepe maker as a new product would require an investment of $500,000. The desired return on investment is 12%. The target
cost per crepe maker is closest to:
Projected sales (70,000 units × $59 per unit)...................... $4,130,000
A)
$59.00
Less desired profit (12% × $500,000) ................................
60,000
B)
$66.08
Target cost for 70,000 units ................................................ $4,070,000
C)
$58.14
Target cost per unit ($4,070,000 ÷ 70,000 units) ................
$58.14
D)
$65.12
Use the following to answer questions 33-35:
Diercks Company makes a product with the following costs:
Direct materials ............................................................
Direct labor ...................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead .....................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses ...............
Fixed selling and administrative expenses ...................
Per unit
$22.30
$11.00
$1.70
Per year
$1,360,800
$1.70
$733,600
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing described in the text. The pricing calculations are based on budgeted production
and sales of 56,000 units per year. The company has invested $400,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 12%. Direct labor is a
variable cost in this company.
33. The markup on absorption cost is closest to:
A)
25.0%
B)
114.2%
C)
26.4%
D)
12.0%
The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ................................................................................
Direct labor ......................................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ....................................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($1,360,800 ÷ 56,000 units) ...........
Unit product cost ..............................................................................
$22.30
11.00
1.70
24.30
$59.30
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling & administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(12% × $400,000) + ($1.70 × 56,000 + $733,600)] ÷ [$59.30 ×
56,000]
= [$48,000 + $828,800] ÷ $3,320,800 = 26.4%
34. The selling price based on the absorption costing approach is closest to:
A)
$74.10
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
$74.96
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling & administrative expenses]
C)
$44.24
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
D)
$93.66
= [(12% × $400,000) + ($1.70 × 56,000 + $733,600)] ÷ [$59.30 × 56,000]
= [$48,000 + $828,800] ÷ $3,320,800 = 26.4%
The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ................................................................................
Direct labor ......................................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ....................................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($1,360,800 ÷ 56,000 units) ...........
Unit product cost ..............................................................................
$22.30
11.00
1.70
24.30
$59.30
The target selling price is determined as follows:
Unit product cost ................... $59.30
Markup--26.4%......................
15.66
Target selling price ................ $74.96
35. If every 10% increase in price leads to an 11% decrease in quantity sold, the profit-maximizing price is closest to:
A)
$74.10
Price elasticity of demand
B)
$203.00
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
C)
$201.51
= ln(1 + −11%)/ln(1 + 10%) = −1.22268
D)
$192.18
Variable cost per unit = $22.30 + $11.00 + $1.70 +$1.70 = $36.70
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = −1/(1 + ed) = −1/(1+(-1.22268)) = 4.4907
Profit-maximizing price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1+4.4907)*$36.70 = (5.4907)*$36.70 = $201.51
Use the following to answer questions 36-37:
Alsberg Corporation's vice president in charge of marketing believes that every 2% decrease in the selling price of one of the company's products would
lead to a 3% increase in the product's total unit sales. The product's absorption costing unit product cost is $12.90. The variable production cost is $1.80
per unit and the variable selling and administrative cost is $2.20 per unit.
36. The product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text is closest to:
A)
−1.46
Price elasticity of demand
B)
−1.77
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
C)
−1.76
= ln(1 + 3%)/ln(1 + −2%) = −1.46
D)
−1.32
37. The product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text is closest to:
A)
$5.69
Price elasticity of demand
B)
$40.76
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
C)
$6.95
= ln(1 + 3%)/ln(1 + −2%) = −1.4631
D)
$12.64
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = −1/(1 + ed) = −1/(1+(−1.4631)) = 2.16
Profit-maximizing price = (1+ Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 2.16)*$4.00 = (3.16)*$4.00 = $12.64
Use the following to answer questions 38-39:
Boe Company's management believes that every 3% decrease in the selling price of one of the company's products would lead to a 9% increase in the
product's total unit sales. The product's variable cost is $11.30 per unit.
38. The product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text is closest to:
A)
−2.33
Price elasticity of demand
B)
−1.07
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
C)
−2.83
= ln(1 + 9%)/ln(1 + −3%) = −2.83
D)
−2.95
39. The product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text is closest to:
A)
$17.46
Price elasticity of demand
B)
$183.77
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
C)
$17.10
= ln(1 + 9%)/ln(1 + −3%) = −2.83
D)
$19.81
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = −1/(1 + ed) = −1/(1+(−2.83)) = 0.546
PM price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 0.546)*$11.30 = (1.546)*$11.30 = $17.46
Use the following to answer questions 40-41:
Coco Company recently changed the selling price of one of its products. Data concerning sales for comparable periods before and after the price change
are presented below.
Selling Price Unit Sales
$50.00
1,700
$47.00
1,900
The product's variable cost is $18.50 per unit.
40. The product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text is closest to:
A)
−1.24
Percent change in price = ($47.00 − $50.00) ÷ $50.00 = −6%
B)
−2.59
Percent change in quantity sold = (1,700 − 1,900) ÷ 1,700 = 11.76%
C)
−1.30
Price elasticity of demand
D)
−1.80
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
= ln(1 + 11.76%)/ln(1 + −6%) = −1.80
41. The product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text is closest to:
A)
$30.17
Percent change in price = ($47.00 − $50.00) ÷ $50.00 = −6%
B)
$94.72
Percent change in quantity sold = (1,700 − 1,900) ÷ 1,700 = 11.76%
C)
$79.77
Price elasticity of demand
D)
$41.70
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
= ln(1 + 11.76%)/ln(1 + −6%) = −1.7969
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = -1/(1 + ed) = −1/(1+(−1.7969)) = 1.254
PM price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 1.254)*$18.50 = (2.254)*$18.50 = $41.70
Use the following to answer questions 42-44:
Nance Company is about to introduce a new product. It is expected that the following costs would be incurred at an activity level of 40,000 units produced
and sold each year:
Per Unit
Total
Variable production costs .............................................
$10
Fixed production costs..................................................
$5 $200,000
Variable selling and administrative costs .....................
$2
Fixed selling and administrative costs ..........................
$3 $120,000
Nance Company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing as described in the text.
42. Assume that the company uses a markup of 75% in order to determine selling prices. The selling price for one unit of product would be:
A)
$21.00
The unit product cost is:
The target selling price is determined as follows:
B)
$26.25
Variable production cost .............................................................. $10
Unit product cost ................... $15.00
C)
$31.50
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($200,000 ÷ 40,000 units) ..........
5
Markup--75% ........................
11.25
D)
$35.00
Unit product cost ......................................................................... $15
Target selling price................ $26.25
43. Assume that the company has not yet determined a markup to use on the new product. The new product would require an investment of $1,200,000.
The company requires a 25% rate of return on investment in all new products. The markup under the absorption costing approach would be closest to:
A)
70.0%
The unit product cost is:
B)
50.0%
Variable production cost ............................................................. $10
C)
83.3%
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($200,000 ÷ 40,000 units) .........
5
D)
63.3%
Unit product cost ......................................................................... $15
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(25% × $1,200,000) + ($2.00 × 40,000 + $120,000)] ÷ [$15 × 40,000]
= [$300,000 + $200,000] ÷ $600,000 = 83.3%
44. After introducing the product, the company finds that it has excess capacity. A foreign dealer has offered to purchase 5,000 units of the product at a
special price of $21 per unit. This sale would not disturb regular business. If the special price is accepted on the 5,000 units, the effect on total profits for
the year should be:
Incremental revenue (5,000 units @ $21 per unit) ....................................
$105,000
A)
$45,000 increase
Less incremental costs:
B)
$30,000 increase
Variable production costs (5,000 units @ $10 per unit) ........................
50,000
C)
$5,000 increase
Selling and administrative costs (5,000 units @ $2 per unit).................
10,000
D)
$26,250 decrease
Total incremental cost ...............................................................................
60,000
Incremental net operating income .............................................................
$ 45,000
Use the following to answer questions 45-46:
Diewold Company has just developed a new product. At an expected sales level of 50,000 units per year, the company anticipates that the following costs
will be incurred:
Per Unit
Total
Variable production costs ......................................
$16
Fixed production costs ...........................................
$8 $400,000
Variable selling and administrative costs ..............
$4
Fixed selling and administrative costs ...................
$5 $250,000
Diewold Company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing as described in the text.
45. The new product would require an investment of $1,500,000 on which the company would like to earn a return of 18%. The markup using the
absorption costing approach would be:
A)
72%
The unit product cost is:
B)
43.3%
Variable production costs ............................................................ $16
C)
60%
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($400,000 ÷ 50,000 units)..........
8
D)
22.5%
Unit product cost ......................................................................... $24
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(18% × $1,500,000) + ($4.00 × 50,000 + $250,000)] ÷ [$24 × 50,000]
= [$270,000 + $450,000] ÷ $1,200,000 = 60%
46. After introducing the new product, the company finds that it has excess capacity. A foreign dealer has offered to purchase 3,000 units at a special price
of $26 per unit. This sale would not disturb regular business. If the special price is accepted on the 3,000 units, the company's overall net income for the
year should:
Incremental revenue (3,000 units @ $26 per unit) ....................................
$78,000
A)
increase by $6,000
Less incremental costs:
B)
decrease by $48,000
Variable production costs (3,000 units @ $16 per unit).........................
48,000
C)
decrease by $21,000
Selling
and
administrative
(3,000
units
@
$4
per
unit)
..........................
12,000
D)
increase by $18,000
Total incremental cost................................................................................
60,000
Incremental net operating income..............................................................
$18,000
Use the following to answer questions 47-48:
Eckley Company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing as described in the text to set prices for its products. Based on budgeted sales of
49,000 units next year, the unit product cost of a particular product is $51.00. The company's selling and administrative expenses for this product are
budgeted to be $1,009,400 in total for the year. The company has invested $240,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 13%.
47. The markup on absorption cost for this product would be closest to:
A)
53.4%
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
13.0%
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
41.6%
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
D)
40.4%
= [(13% × $240,000) + $1,009,400] ÷ [$51 × 49,000]
= [$31,200 + $1,009,400] ÷ $2,499,000 = 41.6%
48. The selling price based on the absorption costing approach for this product would be closest to:
A)
$71.60
Markup percentage on absorption cost
B)
$57.63
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
C)
$101.41
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
D)
$72.24
= [(13% × $240,000) + $1,009,400] ÷ [$51 × 49,000]
= [$31,200 + $1,009,400] ÷ $2,499,000 = 41.64%
The target selling price is determined as follows:
Unit product cost.................... $51.00
Markup--41.64% ....................
21.24
Target selling price ................ $72.24
Use the following to answer questions 50-52:
The management of Musselman Corporation would like to set the selling price on a new product using the absorption costing approach to cost-plus
pricing. The company's accounting department has supplied the following estimates for the new product:
Direct materials ......................................................................
Direct labor ............................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ..........................................
Fixed annual manufacturing overhead ...................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses ........................
Fixed annual selling and administrative expenses .................
Per Unit
$27
$16
$8
Total
Management plans to produce and sell 9,000 units of the new
product annually. The new product would require an investment
of $1,305,000 and has a required return on investment of 10%.
$216,000
$3
$72,000
49. The absorption costing unit product cost is:
A)
$51
The unit product cost is:
B)
$54
Direct materials ...........................................................................
C)
$75
Direct labor ..................................................................................
D)
$86
Variable manufacturing overhead ...............................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($216,000 ÷ 9,000 units) ............
Unit product cost .........................................................................
$27
16
8
24
$75
50. To the nearest whole percent, the markup percentage on absorption cost is:
A)
25%
B)
34%
C)
15%
D)
10%
The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ...........................................................................
Direct labor .................................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ...............................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($216,000 ÷ 9,000 units) ...........
Unit product cost .........................................................................
$27
16
8
24
$75
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(10% × $1,305,000) + ($3.00 × 9,000 + $72,000)] ÷ [$75 × 9,000]
= [$130,500 + $99,000] ÷ $675,000 = 34%
51. The unit target selling price using the absorption costing approach is closet to:
A)
$115
The unit product cost is:
B)
$86
Direct materials ...........................................................................
C)
$101
Direct labor ..................................................................................
D)
$83
Variable manufacturing overhead ...............................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($216,000 ÷ 9,000 units)............
Unit product cost .........................................................................
Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(10% × $1,305,000) + ($3.00 × 9,000 + $72,000)] ÷ [$75 × 9,000]
= [$130,500 + $99,000] ÷ $675,000 = 34%
$27
16
8
24
$75
The target selling price is determined as follows:
Unit product cost ...................
$ 75
Markup--34% ........................
26
Target selling price................
$101
Use the following to answer questions 52-53:
Wenner Corporation would like to use target costing for a new product it is considering introducing. At a selling price of $44 per unit, management
projects sales of 10,000 units. The new product would require an investment of $900,000. The desired return on investment is 10%.
52. The desired profit according to the target costing calculations is:
A)
$90,000
B)
$350,000
Desired profit = 10% × $900,000 = $90,000
C)
$44,000
D)
$440,000
Projected sales (10,000 units × $44 per unit) ......................
Less desired profit (10% × $900,000).................................
53. The target cost per unit is closest to:
Target cost for 10,000 units ................................................
A)
$44.00
C)
$48.40
Target cost per unit ($350,000 ÷ 10,000 units) ...................
B)
$38.50
D)
$35.00
$440,000
90,000
$350,000
$35.00
Use the following to answer questions 54-55:
The management of Rademacher Corporation is considering introducing a new product--a compact lawn blower. At a selling price of $24 per unit,
management projects sales of 30,000 units. The lawn blower would require an investment of $200,000. The desired return on investment is 12%.
54. The desired profit according to the target costing calculations is:
A)
$696,000
Desired profit = 12% × $200,000 = $24,000
B)
$24,000
C)
$86,400
D)
$720,000
55. The target cost per lawn blower is closest to:
A)
$24.00
Desired profit = 12% × $200,000 = $24,000
B)
$23.20
Projected sales (30,000 units × $24 per unit) ......................
C)
$26.88
Less desired profit (12% × $200,000) .................................
D)
$25.98
Target cost for 30,000 units .................................................
Target cost per unit ($696,000 ÷ 30,000 units) ...................
$720,000
24,000
$696,000
$23.20
Essay Questions
57. Quickel Company makes a product that has the following costs:
Per unit
Direct materials.............................................................
$10.30
Direct labor ...................................................................
$10.40
Variable manufacturing overhead.................................
$1.60
Fixed manufacturing overhead .....................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses ...............
$1.80
Fixed selling and administrative expenses....................
Per year
$429,000
$495,000
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing as described in the text. The pricing calculations are based on budgeted production
and sales of 33,000 units per year. The company has invested $100,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 12%.
Required:
a. Compute the markup on absorption cost.
b. Compute the selling price of the product using the absorption costing approach.
c. Assume that every 10% increase in price leads to a 16% decrease in quantity sold. Assuming no change in cost structure and that direct labor is a
variable cost, compute the profit-maximizing price.
Answer:
a.
Markup on absorption cost
Direct materials................................................
$10.30
= [(12% × $100,000) + ($1.80 × 33,000 + $495,000)] ÷ ($35.30 × 33,000)
Direct labor ......................................................
10.40
= [($12,000) + ($554,400)] ÷ $1,164,900 = 48.62%
Variable manufacturing overhead....................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ........................
Unit product cost..............................................
1.60
13.00
$35.30
b. Target selling price = $35.30 + 48.62% × $35.30 = $52.46
c. Price elasticity of demand
= ln(1 + % change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + % change in price)
= ln(1 + −16%)/ln(1 + 10%) = −1.83
Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = −1/(1 + ed) = −1/(1 + (−1.83)) = 1.2058
Profit-maximizing price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 1.2058)*$24.10 = (2.2058)*$24.10 = $53.16
58. Nicely Corporation's marketing manager believes that every 2% decrease in the selling price of one of the company's products would lead to a 3%
increase in the product's total unit sales. The product's absorption costing unit product cost is $23.20. The variable production cost is $1.80 per unit and the
variable selling and administrative cost is $1.30.
Required:
a. Compute the product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text.
b. Compute the product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text.
Answer:
a. Price elasticity of demand
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
= ln(1 + 3%)/ln(1 + −2%)
= −1.46
b. Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = -1/(1+ed) = -1/(1+(-1.46)) = 2.16
Profit-maximizing price = (1+ Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 2.16)*($1.30 +$1.80) = (3.16)*$3.10 = $9.79
59. Pasley Corporation recently changed the selling price of one of its products. Data concerning sales for comparable periods before and after the price
change are presented below. The product's variable cost is $22.10 per unit.
Selling Price Unit Sales
$78.00
6,500
$82.00
6,060
Required:
a. Compute the product's price elasticity of demand as defined in the text.
b. Compute the product's profit-maximizing price according to the formula in the text.
Answer:
a. % change in quantity = -6.77%
% change in price = 5.13%
Price elasticity of demand
= ln(1 + %change in quantity sold)/ln(1 + %change in price)
= ln(1 + −6.77%)/ln(1 + 5.13%) = −1.40
b. Profit maximizing markup on variable cost = −1/(1 + ed) = -1/(1+(−1.40)) = 2.49
Profit-maximizing price = (1 + Profit-maximizing markup on variable cost)*Variable cost per unit = (1 + 2.49)*$22.10 = (3.49)*$22.10 = $77.1
60. Robak Corporation manufactures a product that has the following costs:
Per unit
Per year
Direct materials.............................................................
$15.40
Direct labor ...................................................................
$17.90
Variable manufacturing overhead.................................
$1.20
Fixed manufacturing overhead .....................................
$580,800
Variable selling and administrative expenses ...............
$2.00
Fixed selling and administrative expenses....................
$919,600
The company uses the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing as described in the text. The pricing calculations are based on budgeted production
and sales of 44,000 units per year. The company has invested $160,000 in this product and expects a return on investment of 13%.
Required:
a. Compute the markup on absorption cost.
b. Compute the selling price of the product using the absorption costing approach.
Answer:
a.
Direct materials ...............................................
Direct labor ......................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ...................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ........................
Unit product cost .............................................
$15.40
17.90
1.20
13.20
$47.70
Markup on absorption cost
= [(13% × $160,000) + ($2.00 × 44,000 + $919,600)]
÷ ($47.70 × 44,000)
= [($20,800) + ($1,007,600)] ÷ $2,098,800 = 49.00%
b. Target selling price = $47.70 + 49.00% × $47.70 = $71.07
61. The management of Landstrom Corporation would like to set the selling price on a new product using the absorption costing approach to cost-plus
pricing. The company's accounting department has supplied the following estimates for the new product:
Direct materials.......................................................................
Direct labor .............................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead...........................................
Fixed annual manufacturing overhead ....................................
Variable selling and administrative expenses .........................
Fixed annual selling and administrative expenses ..................
Per Unit
$28
$12
$9
Total
$132,000
$4
$30,000
Management plans to produce and sell 6,000 units of the new product annually. The new product would require an investment of $1,036,200 and has a
required return on investment of 10%.
Required:
a. Determine the unit product cost for the new product.
b. Determine the markup percentage on absorption cost for the new product.
c. Determine the target selling price for the new product using the absorption costing approach.
Answer:
a. The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ...........................................................................
Direct labor..................................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ...............................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($132,000 ÷ 6,000 units) ...........
Unit product cost .........................................................................
c. The target selling price is determined as follows:
Unit product cost ............... $71.00
Markup--37% ....................
26.27
Target selling price ............ $97.27
$28
12
9
22
$71
b. Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(10% × $1,036,200) + ($4.00 × 6,000 + $30,000)] ÷ [$71 × 6,000] = 37%
62. Bohmker Corporation is introducing a new product whose direct materials cost is $25 per unit, direct labor cost is $13 per unit, variable manufacturing
overhead is $9 per unit, and variable selling and administrative expense is $4 per unit. The annual fixed manufacturing overhead associated with the
product is $18,000 and its annual fixed selling and administrative expense is $9,000. Management plans to produce and sell 1,000 units of the new product
annually. The new product would require an investment of $110,500 and has a required return on investment of 10%. Management would like to set the
selling price on a new product using the absorption costing approach to cost-plus pricing.
Required:
a. Determine the unit product cost for the new product.
b. Determine the markup percentage on absorption cost for the new product.
c. Determine the target selling price for the new product using the absorption costing approach.
Answer:
a. The unit product cost is:
Direct materials ................................................................................
Direct labor.......................................................................................
Variable manufacturing overhead ....................................................
Fixed manufacturing overhead ($18,000 ÷ 1,000 units) ..................
Unit product cost ..............................................................................
b. Markup percentage on absorption cost
= [(Required ROI × Investment) + Selling and administrative expenses]
÷ [Unit product cost × Units sales]
= [(10% × $110,500) + ($4.00 × 1,000 + $9,000)] ÷ [$65 × 1,000] = 37%
$25
13
9
18
$65
c. The target selling price is determined as follows:
Unit product cost ............... $65.00
Markup--37% ....................
24.05
Target selling price ............ $89.05
63. Lodholz Corporation would like to use target costing for a new product that is under consideration. At a selling price of $93 per unit, management
projects sales of 10,000 units. The new product would require an investment of $900,000. The desired return on investment is 17%.
Required: Determine the target cost per unit for the new product.
Projected sales (10,000 units × $93 per unit)......................
Less desired profit (17% × $900,000) ................................
Target cost for 10,000 units ................................................
Target cost per unit ($777,000 ÷ 10,000 units)...................
$930,000
153,000
$777,000
$77.70
64. The management of Thebeau, Inc., is considering a new product that would have a selling price of $72 per unit and projected sales of 40,000 units. The
new product would require an investment of $600,000. The desired return on investment is 19%.
Required: Determine the target cost per unit for the new product.
Projected sales (40,000 units × $72 per unit)......................
Less desired profit (19% × $600,000) ................................
Target cost for 40,000 units ................................................
Target cost per unit ($2,766,000 ÷ 40,000 units) ................
$2,880,000
114,000
$2,766,000
$69.15
65. Management of Niemczyk Corporation is considering a new product–an outside speaker–that would have a selling price of $31 per unit and projected
sales of 10,000 units. Launching the new product would require an investment of $700,000. The desired return on investment is 16%.
Required: Determine the target cost per unit for the outdoor speaker.
Projected sales (10,000 units × $31 per unit)................
Less desired profit (16% × $700,000) ..........................
Target cost for 10,000 units ..........................................
Target cost per unit ($198,000 ÷ 10,000 units).............
$310,000
112,000
$198,000
$19.80
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