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Crusades

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THE
CRUSADES
BREIF HISTORY
BY.
TOOBA NADEEM.
473/FBAS/BSBI/F-15.
Crusades (‫)صلیبی جنگیں‬
What are crusades?
Crusades are any of the military expeditions undertaken by
Christian powers in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to
win the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Although the main goal of the Crusades was to take control
of Jerusalem away from the Muslims, there were many
reasons why European knights and others were willing to
travel and fight a war in a foreign land.
Reasons for Europeans to fight Crusades:






The desire to take control of Jerusalem away from
Muslims.
The belief that fighting in a crusade would give
them forgiveness of sins.
The chance to travel and make money.
The desire to defend the Byzantine empire from
the Turks.
The opportunity for younger sons of European
nobles to get new land in the Middle East.
The possibility of opening up new trade routes
between Europe and the Middle East.
DATED HISTORY OF CRUSADES
1096-1099
First crusade.
1145-1149
Second crusade.
1189-1192
Third crusade.
1202-1204
Fourth crusade.
1213-1221
Fifth crusade.
1228-1229
Sixth crusade.
1248-1254
Seventh crusade.
1270-1270
Eighth crusade.
1271-1272
Ninth crusade.
Background:
In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem – the most holy of holy places for Christians. Jesus
had been born in nearby Bethlehem and Jesus had spent most of his life in Jerusalem. He was
crucified on Calvary Hill, also in Jerusalem. There was no more important place on Earth than
Jerusalem for a true Christian which is why Christians called Jerusalem the “City of God”.
However, Jerusalem was also extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of
the Muslim faith, had been there and there was great joy in the Muslim world when Jerusalem was
captured. A beautiful dome – called the Dome of the Rock – was built on the rock where Muhammad
was said to have sat and prayed. The rock was so holy that no Muslim was allowed to tread on it
or touch it when visiting the Dome.
Thus the Christians fought to get Jerusalem back while the Muslims fought to keep Jerusalem.
These wars were to last nearly 200 years.
Who won the crusades?
The crusades were ultimately won in the East by the Muslims when the Bahri Mamluks conquered
Acre in 1291.
How long did the Crusades last?
The Crusades lasted 196 years, from 1095 to 1291. The Turks had taken over Jerusalem in 1065,
killing 3,000 Christians. Pope Urban II called for the first Crusade, which began in 1095 and ended
in 1099. It succeeded in establishing the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The final Crusade ended in
1291 with the fall of the city of Acre, the last Christian city to fall. According to some historians,
the time of the Crusades extended to 1298, although 1291 is the traditionally accepted end.
What was the results of the Crusades?
One result of the Crusades was a major shift in the way that the European economy and political
attitudes were structured during the 1100s and 1200s. Not only did these conflicts lead to a growing
complicity between church and state, but opening the door to the Muslim world also led to shifts in
the European economy that would open the door to new wealth. Major effects of the Crusades were
that the kings' authority increased and the Europeans learned about new things from the Muslims
they encountered
“The Holy Land”
REFRENCES:
http://www.datesandevents.org/events-timelines/24-timeline-of-war.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval-england/the-crusades/
https://www.reference.com/history/won-crusades-c8cd0eb95f63ea27
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