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1- Introduction

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CIVL2010 Engineering Geology and
Rock Mechanics
Dr Sérgio D.N. Lourenço & Dr Jun Yang
Lecture 1: Introduction
Dr Sérgio D.N. Lourenço
Venue and time
1st part – Engineering Geology: Sérgio D.N. Lourenço (7
weeks)
2nd part – Rock Mechanics: Dr Jun Yang (7 weeks)
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
Mondays – 14:30-15:20 MB167
Thursdays – 13:30-15:20 MB167
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3
Learning outcomes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4
Describe the main minerals, rock types (metamorphic,
igneous and sedimentary) and surface deposits, the
processes responsible for their formation and occurrence.
Outline the geology of Hong Kong, recognize its relevance
to civil engineering and acknowledge ground variability.
Interpret geological maps, construct elementary geological
cross-sections and plot stereonets.
Understand the fundamentals of stresses and strains in rocks
and the major techniques for measuring in situ stresses.
Describe the behaviour and properties of rocks as an
engineering material, including failure and strength of intact
rock, rock discontinuity and rock mass.
Apply rock mechanics in engineering practice, including rock
slope stability and stabilization, excavations in rocks, and
rock foundations.
Content
Engineering Geology (1st part)
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5
Hard rock geology: minerals, igneous rocks and metamorphic
rocks, structural geology (folds and faults)
The sedimentary system: sedimentary rocks and depositional
environments, principles of stratigraphy
Earth surface processes: geomorphological processes,
weathering and soil formation, landslides and other geohazards,
environmental change
Applied geology: hydrogeology (aquifers) and geology in
engineering (geological controls of engineering works)
Geological maps, cross-sections and geology of Hong Kong
Rock masses, discontinuities and stereonets
Content
Rock Mechanics (2nd part)
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6
Fundamentals of stresses and strains and their relations
In situ stresses in rocks and measurements
Laboratory testing techniques for rocks
Failure of intact rock, rock discontinuity and rock mass;
strength theory
Rock slopes and stabilisation
Excavations in rocks, rock foundations
Assessment
Assessment Type
Percentage of Total
Assessment (%)
10
Description
Practical work
20
Mineral and Rock Laboratory
identifications; geological field trip;
rock mechanics tests.
Written
Examination
70
3-hour written examination
Continuous
Assessment
Assignments/Tutorial
A pass mark is needed for each assessment type
7
Assessment
Continuous assessment (10%)
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
Engineering Geology
Stereonets
Fieldtrip + fieldtrip report
1.
2.
Two groups of students
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
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Rock Mechanics
1.
2.
3.
8
Group 1 (~44 students)
TBC, 2019
9:00 am @ Library Extension
Coach to Ma Shi Chau
4:00 pm return
Group 2 (~44 students)
TBC, 2019
9:00 am @ Library Extension
Coach to Ma Shi Chau
4:00 pm return
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Tutorial
Personal and Protective Equipment
1) Each student has to bring and wear
his/her own safety footwear for all site visits
2) At the gathering point, each student must
be checked to make sure that he/she wears
safety shoes.
3) Those students who do not do so shall be
turned away and NOT allowed to join the
site visit.
4) For a compulsory site visit, they shall in
turn receive zero marks for this part of the
assessment.
5) No makeup site visit shall be arranged for
them.
Assessment
Practical work (20%)


Engineering Geology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Rock Mechanics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
9
Identification of mineral specimens & rock mineral slices (report 1)
Identification of rock specimens & orientation of planes (report 2)
Venue: Laboratory HW LG4
Time: 9:30-12:30 (check Moodle)
Groups of 8 students (check Moodle)
Uniaxial Compressive Strength (report 3)
Brazilian test (report 4)
Venue: Laboratory HW LG4
Time: 9:30-12:30 (check Moodle)
Groups of 8 students (check Moodle)
Assessment
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Examination (70%)
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Two parts
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10
Engineering Geology 50%
Rock Mechanics 50%
3 hours
Closed-book
Engineering Geology
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What is it?
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11
Investigation, study and solutions of
problems that arise from the interaction
between geology and man’s activities
Engineering Geology
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What is it?
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12
Application of geology to engineering
practice
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and
civil engineering:
a) Transport
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13
Bridges and waterways
bridges
waterways
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and
civil engineering:
a) Transport
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14
Tunnels, railways and roads
railways
roads
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and
civil engineering:
b) Water supply
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15
Dams and pipelines
Glen Canyon dam
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and
civil engineering:
c) Waste disposal
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Landfills, nuclear waste storage
landfill
16
nuclear
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and
civil engineering:
d) Urban development
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17
Office buildings, warehouses, housing
Engineering Geology
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Subject at the interface of geology and civil engineering:
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY: draws heavily on structural
geology, petrology, sedimentology, geomorphology
Associated fields:
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soil mechanics
rock mechanics
hydrogeology
applied geophysics
spatial characterization
dyke
fault
18
Engineering Geology
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What do Engineering Geologists do?
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19
Ground investigation
Dam & bridge foundation design
Tunnel & road design
Mining & quarrying
Assessment of contaminated land
Remediation of old mine workings
Geophysical surveying/remote sensing/GIS
Engineering Geology
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THIS COURSE:
Will it make you an engineering geologist?
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No. You’ll need to follow an MSc.
What will you learn?
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20
the language of the geologist
some basic geology concepts
how basic geology knowledge is applied in civil engineering
Engineering Geology
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Most engineering geologists have degrees in Geology or
Civil Engineering
GEOLOGISTS: prefer to solve a problem intuitively,
indirectly and qualitatively, often preferring the problem
to the results. Complexities emphasized. Reluctant to
simplify the problem. Trained to entertain alternative
hypotheses.
21
Engineering Geology
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Most engineering geologists have degrees in Geology or
Civil Engineering
ENGINEERS: trained to be analytical. Rely on numerical
data. Want to simplify in order to get numerical results.
22
Engineering Geology
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GEOLOGIST:
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23
“thick bedded, crossbedded micaceous
sediments. Deltaic
environment, easterly
current directions, plant
remains, scour structures.
Well jointed, with cleavage
is finer-grained material.
Thin conglomerate lenses,
etc, etc.”
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ENGINEER:
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“sandstone, strong,
permeable, 2 sets of
discontinuities”
Engineering Geology
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ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST:
Is able to translate traditional geological information into
the language used by engineer. Boils down complexities
into simpler model of reality, emphasising relevant aspects
for engineer.
Must know geological and engineering terminology.
24
Lectures plan
Jan 14: Introduction to engineering geology (1h)
FUNDAMENTALS
 Jan 17: Plate tectonics, volcanism, mineralogy (2h)
 Jan 21: Igneous petrology (1h)
 Jan 24: Formation of sedimentary rocks, principles of stratigraphy, earth surface
processes (2h)
 Jan 28: Sedimentary petrology (1h)
 Jan 31: Tectonics, structural geology, metamorphic petrology, HK geology (2h)
 Feb 11: Weathering (1h)
METHODS
 Feb 14: Maps & cross-sections - I (2h)
 Feb 18: Maps & cross-sections - II (1h)
 Feb 21: Rock masses, discontinuities, stereonets (2h)
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
 Feb 25: Natural hazards: landslides (1h)
 Feb 28: Geology for engineering (2h)
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25
Reading
26
Download from HKUL
Reading
27
Download from HKUL
Reading
28
Download from HKUL
Reading
29
Download from HKUL
Next lecture

FUNDAMENTALS: Plate tectonics, volcanism, mineralogy
30
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