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Ch15L2 A

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BELL WORK ACTIVITY
Define the following key terms:
1. Digestion
2. Mechanical Digestion
3. Chemical Digestion
4. Enzyme
Answer question below:
1. What do you think is the main role of the digestive system?
2. Do you think the digestive system varies between animals?
3. Do you think bacteria has any role in the digestion process of food?
Chapter 15 Lesson 2
OBJECTIVES
 What does the digestive system do?
 How do the parts of the digestive system work together?
 How does the digestive system interact with other systems?
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Og5xAdC8EUI
1. Ingestion – the act of eating, putting food in the mouth
2. Digestion – is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
into small particles and modules that your body can absorb and
use
3. Absorption – occurs when the cells of the digestive system
take in small molecules of digested food.
4. Elimination – the removal of undigested food and other wastes
from the body
TYPES OF DIGESTION
Before your body can absorb nutrients
from food, it must be broken into small
molecules by digestion.
 Mechanical digestion: food is
physically broken into smaller
pieces
 Chemical digestion: chemical
reactions break down pieces of
food into smaller molecules
ENZYMES
DIGESTION
Enzymes: proteins that help break down larger molecules into
smaller molecules
 They also speed up, or catalyze, the rate of chemical reactions.
 Without enzymes, some chemical reactions would be to slow or
would not occur at all.
 Chemical digestion cannot occur without enzymes
 There are many kinds of enzymes, each specialized to help break
down a specific molecule at a specific location.
WHAT ARE ENZYMES?
 Nutrients in food are made of different molecules, such as
carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Many of these molecules
are too large for your body to use.
 Because these large molecules are made of long chains of
smaller molecules joined together, they can be broken down
into smaller pieces.
THE ROLE OF ENZYMES IN DIGESTION
The digestive system produces enzymes that are
specialized to help break down each type of food
molecule.
 AMYLASE  Helps break down carbohydrates
 PEPSIN and PAPAIN  Help break down proteins
 LIPASE  Help break down fats
ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 There are two parts to your digestive system:
1. The digestive tract
2. The organs that help the body break down and absorb food.
 Digestive track:
 Extends from the mouth to the anus.
 It has different organs that are connected by tube-like structures.
 Each of these organs is specialized for a certain function.
Other organs:
 Include the tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
THE MOUTH
 Mechanical digestion of food begins in your
mouth.
 Your teeth and tongue mechanically digest food
as you chew.
 But even before chewing begins, your salivary
glands produce saliva at the thought of food.
 They produce more than 1 L of saliva every day.
 Saliva contains enzymes that help break down
carbohydrates.
 It also contains substances that neutralize acidic
foods and a slippery substance that makes food
easier to swallow.
ESOPHAGUS
 When you swallow a bite of food, it enters your esophagus.
 The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the
stomach.
 Food moves through the esophagus and the rest of the digestive
tract by waves of muscle contractions called peristalsis.
 Muscles in the esophagus contact and relax. This action pushes
partially digested food down the esophagus and into the
stomach.
STOMACH
 Partially digested food leaves the esophagus and enters the
stomach.
 The stomach is a large, hollow organ.
 One function of the stomach is to store food. This allows you to go
many hours between meals.
 The stomach is like a balloon. It can stretch when filled
 An adult stomach can hold about 2 L of food and liquid.
STOMACH
 The stomach also helps with chemical digestion.
 The walls of the stomach are extremely folded. These folds enable
the stomach to expand and hold large amounts of food.
 The cells in these folds produce chemicals that break down
proteins.
STOMACH
 The stomach contains an acidic fluid called gastric juice.
 Gastric juices makes the stomach acidic. Acid helps break down
some of the structures that hold plant and animal cells together.
 Gastric juice also contains pepsin.
 Pepsin is an enzyme that helps break down the proteins in foods
into amino acids.
 Food and gastric juices mix as muscles in the stomach contract
through peristalsis.
 As food mixes with gastric juice in the stomach, it forms a thin,
watery liquid called CHYME.
THE SMALL INTESTINE
THE SMALL INTESTINE
 Chemical digestion begins in the mouth and the
stomach. But most chemical digestion occurs in the
small intestine.
 The small intestine is a long tuve that is connected to
the stomach.
 Chemical digestion and nutrient absorption take
place in the small intestine.
 The small intestine is named for its small diameter
– about 1.5 cm. However, it is about 7 m long!
THE SMALL INTESTINE
 Chemical digestion takes place in the first part of the small
intestine, called the duodenum.
 The remainder of the small intestine absorbs nutrients from
food.
 Like the stomach, the wall of the intestine has many folds.
These fingerlike projections called villi.
 Each villus contains small blood vessels. Nutrients in the
small intestine diffuse into the blood through these blood
vessels.
 The pancreas produces the enzyme amylase and a
substance that neutralizes stomach acid. The enzyme
amylase helps bread down carbohydrates.
 The liver produces bile. Bile makes it easier to digest fats.
The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small
intestine.
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