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IMPROVING THE READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY BY APPLYING THE COOPERATIVE INTEGRATED READING AND COMPOSITION (CIRC)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 828–836, Article ID: IJMET_10_03_086
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
IMPROVING THE READING
COMPREHENSION ABILITY BY APPLYING
THE COOPERATIVE INTEGRATED READING
AND COMPOSITION (CIRC)
Martono Martono
FKIP Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak
Eva Purwanti
FKIP Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak
M. Syukri
FKIP Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak
Soeharto Soeharto
University of Szeged
Muh Barid Nizarudin Wajdi
STAI Miftahul Ula Nganjuk
ABSTRACT
Reading comprehension is a very important skill to support the student learning
process and is very useful when they are working on test questions. Apart from the
importance of understanding reading skills, there are still many students who have not
been able to master this skill well. This research is classroom action research (CAR)
by applying the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) learning
model because it has been proven to improve the students' reading comprehension
skills. This study was carried out with 2 cycles to find out how the implementation and
evaluation of learning to read comprehension of the CIRC type cooperative model that
can improve comprehension reading skills in class VII A students of SMP Negeri 1
Singkawang. The results of this study were analyzed by quantitative and qualitative
analysis. The results of this study cannot be generalized to other subjects. The
research results suggest further implementation of the CIRC model into different
subjects and problems..
Key words: CIRC, Reading Comprehension, Improving.
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Martono Martono, Eva Purwanti, M. Syukri, Soeharto Soeharto, Muh Barid Nizarudin Wajdi
Cite this Article: Martono Martono, Eva Purwanti, M. Syukri, Soeharto Soeharto,
Muh Barid Nizarudin Wajdi, Improving the Reading Comprehension Ability by
Applying the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC), International
Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 828–836.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
Reading is one of four very important English language skills. Not only for the needs of
learning, everyday subject matters, reading skills are tested in both formative and national
exams[1]. Even at the junior and senior high school level, most of the questions given in the
national exam are about reading discourse texts. Students will fail the exam if they do not
have proficiency for reading skills. Because of this, reading skills are very important for
students.
But the reality is still found the students who have difficulty understanding the text of the
discourse. This happened in Singkawang 1 Public Middle School class VII A. The facts on
the ground showed that there were still many students who had difficulty in the process of
reading comprehension. Many students have not been able to answer questions that are in
accordance with the content of the discourse, determine the main ideas, and conclude the
reading, so the learning outcomes are not good.
The teacher factor is also one of the determinants of the failure of teaching and learning
activities. The teacher does not use reading methods that are of the interest to the students in
reading comprehension learning. If there is no serious attention, the above facts can harm the
students concerned. They will experience difficulties in completing the tasks given by the
teacher, which cannot be separated from reading activities.
The competency standards for reading skills are understanding the written discourse
through intensive reading activities and reading scans. The basic competence is finding the
main ideas in the reading text. The indicators to be achieved are, (1) able to express the main
ideas in each paragraph in a reading text, (2) able to conclude the contents of the reading
based on the main sentence in one paragraph.
The minimum completeness criteria (KKM) of indicator is above 69. The KKM is set at
the beginning of the school year. Criteria for determining the determination of the KKM pay
attention to (1) complexity (difficulty and complexity), (2) carrying capacity, including
availability of personnel, education facilities and infrastructure that are badly needed, school
management, concern of school stakeholders, (3) student intake namely average ability
student.
The results of the pretest implementation showed that only 7 people were complete
(22.58%) of the 31 students in answering questions, determining the main points and
concluding the reading in one paragraph. The remaining 24 students have not yet completed
(77.42%). Based on the observations, this is because the students have not found the right way
to get the information. One way to overcome the above problem is to apply a learning model
that can provide a pleasant learning experience and be able to improve students' reading skills.
Teacher's accuracy in determining the learning model becomes increasingly important,
because learning is a complex process in which involves various dynamic elements. By using
the right model, readers can understand what is being read, even though the reader has
difficulty reading. The accuracy in using the learning model affects the reading process.
To overcome the problems that occur in Singkawang Junior High School 1, class action
research (PTK) is carried out by applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
(CIRC) model learning, which is an alternative model that can be used to improve
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Improving the Reading Comprehension Ability by Applying the Cooperative Integrated Reading and
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comprehension reading skills.. CIRC learning model is a cooperative learning that conditions
students learning in groups and the teacher provides material for students to understand, then
students rearrange the understanding of the material that has been discussed with the group
then poured in its own sentence.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Finocchiaro & Bonomo (1973)[3], reading is the process of picking and
understanding the meaning contained in written language. Juel & Leavell (1988) means that
reading is a process of recognizing words and combining the meaning of words in sentences
and reading structures. The end result of the reading process is that someone is able to make
the essence of the reading.
According to McDonald (1976), reading is a complex series of responses, including
cognitive responses, attitudes and manipulation. Reading can be divided into several subskills, which include: sensory, perception, sequencing, experience, thinking, learning,
association, affective, and constructive. According to him, reading activity can occur if some
of the sub-skills are carried out together in an integrated whole.
Reading ability according to Burn, Roe, & Ross (1996) depends on several determinants
of which are:

Sensory, it is the aspect of the ability to see and absorb written symbols;

Perceptual, it is the ability to capture and interpret what is seen as a symbol or word;

Sequence, it is the ability to follow the order patterns, logic, and grammar of the text;

Association, it is the ability to introduce the relationship between symbols and sounds and the
words presented;

Eksperential, it is the ability to connect words with the experience that has been owned to give
kara meaning;

Learning, it is the ability to remember what has been learned and connect with ideas and facts
that have just been learned;

Thinking, it is conceptual ability in making inferences and evaluating the material being
studied;

Affective, that is, aspects relating to readers' interest in reading.
Reading is a process carried out by the reader to build the meaning of a message conveyed
through writing. In this process, the reader integrates information or messages in writing with
the knowledge or experience already possessed. Messages or meanings obtained from the
results of understanding reading vary, can be in the form of information, knowledge, even
expressions of feeling, pleasure, or sadness. This depends on the type of text that is read, such
as books, magazines, journals, newspapers, or novels.
Based on these explanations, it is clear that in understanding a text there is a need for
various skills and sub-skills. All of these skills and sub-skills work simultaneously, not
individually. Therefore, one cannot understand one aspect alone as underlying the idea
without understanding the other aspects such as the meaning of words, sentence structure, and
supporting ideas, it would prove that the skills of reading is a skill the language can not stand
on its own.
M. B. Finocchiaro (1986)[8] argues that there are three factors that influence a person to
understand reading, those are intellectual ability, broad knowledge, reading strategies.
Intellectual ability can be used to relate the facts in the reading, so that the reader can draw
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conclusions relating to the content of the reading correctly. The extensive knowledge is
needed to help interpret the information in the reading. The use of appropriate and affective
strategies in understanding reading can affect reading comprehension.
Rubin (1993) defines that reading comprehension is a complex thought process to build a
number of knowledge. Building a number of knowledge can be literal, interpretive, critical,
and creative.
According to Syafi’ie (1999), literal understanding is an understanding of what the writer
said or mentioned in the reading text. This understanding is obtained by understanding the
meaning of words, sentences and paragraphs in the context of the reading as it is.
interpretative understanding must be preceded by a literal understanding whose activities are:
drawing conclusions, making generalizations, understanding causal relationships, making
comparisons, finding new relationships between the facts mentioned in the reading. Critical
reading is a reading that aims to provide an assessment of a reading text by involving itself as
well as possible into the reading text. This critical reading expert is seen as a separate type of
reading.
According to Burn et al. (1996), critical reading is evaluating the written material, namely
comparing ideas included in the material with known standards and drawing conclusions
about accuracy, and suitability. The critical readers must be able to read actively, ask
questions, examine the facts, and rely on judgments / decisions until they consider all
material. The creative reading is the level of reading comprehension at the highest level.
Readers at this level must think critically and must use their imagination
According to Slavin, Lake, Chambers, Cheung, & Davis (2009) the cooperative learning
type of CIRC includes one cooperative learning model which is an integrated cooperative
teaching of reading and writing. In terms of language it is defined as a cooperative learning
model that integrates a reading thoroughly and then composes it into important parts.
The CIRC (Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition) learning model is defined
as one type of cooperative learning model that is specifically designed for reading
comprehension learning. The students learn the subject matter and work individually in small
heterogeneous groups. The students check each other's work with their friends and help other
friends learn lesson material and do assignments. Group scores are based on the number of
task units that can be completed and the accuracy of the work.
In the CIRC learning model or integrated learning, each student is responsible for group
assignments. Each group member brings out ideas to understand a concept and complete a
task, thus forming an old understanding and learning experience.
In Learning CIRC, students are placed in small heterogeneous groups, consisting of 4 or 5
students. This group is not distinguished by gender, ethnicity, or level of intelligence of
students. So in this group there should be students who are smart, moderate or weak, and each
student feels suitable with each other.
3. METHOD
The research method used in this study is Classroom Action Research (CAR). PTK is
practical research intended to improve classroom learning. This research is one of the efforts
of teachers or practitioners in the form of various activities carried out to improve and or
improve the quality of learning in the classroom[12]–[14]
Classroom action research is research conducted by the teacher in his own class by (1)
planning, (2) implementing, and (3) reflecting the actions in a collaborative and participatory
manner with the aim of improving his performance as a teacher, so that student learning
outcomes can improve. This action research was carried out through several procedures using
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Kurt Lewin's design. The main concept of classroom action research according to Kurt Lewin
in Kusumah (2009) consists of four components, namely: planning, acting, observing, and
reflecting. The teacher whose invited to collaborate is two Indonesian teachers
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The results of observations in cycle I include several things, the first is the observation of the
teacher activities in carrying out learning. The implementation of learning activities in this
first cycle has not been carried out optimally. There are several aspects that the teacher has
not done, those are: 1) The teacher does not explain in detail the complete steps of integrated
reading and composition cooperative learning., 2) The teacher has not explained in detail the
material related to learning, 3) The teacher does not motivate students to ask questions if they
encounter difficulties, 4) Teachers do not give guidance and direction to all groups at the time
of the task group, 5) Teacher gives student's motivation is less in response to the results of the
working groups that perform in front of the class, 6) Teachers don't manage time efficiently
and effectively and 7) Teachers do not do a reflection of learning by engaging students.
The second is the observation of student activities in the implementation of learning
activities. During the learning process, not all activities can be carried out according to the
plan, some of which are: 1) Students did not fully understand the CIRC learning steps, 2)
When the teacher explained the material, some children did not listen carefully to the teacher's
explanation., 3) There were still students who looked out of the classroom, 4) When there is a
question and answer between the teacher and students about the text shown through the LCD,
some students still look passive and shy to answer the teacher's questions, 5) Students do not
focus on recording work orders that are displayed on the LCD, 6) Some students appear
passive in their group , 7) The discussion was not run smoothly in the group, because students
were engrossed in their respective discourses, 8) Some students did not hold discussions when
they experienced difficulties, 9) The teacher did not carry out the learning according to the
time allocation determined and students could not take advantage of the available time and
10) Teachers and students have not concluded the learning material.
Researcher's observations of students' attitudes in cycle I can be seen in the following
table.
Table 1 The Percentage of Average Attitudes of Students in Following Learning Reading
comprehension Through CIRC Cycle 1 Learning Model
The
number
of
students
31
Students
Student Attitude Category
Very
Active
7 Students
(22,58%)
Active
enough
Less active
3 Students
(9,68%)
16 Students
(51,61%)
Active
5 Students
(16,13%)
Inactiv
e
-
Category
of
students
belonging
to
learning
31
Students
(100%)
The results of observations of Learning Implementation in cycle 2 are two things. The first
is about the activities of teachers implementing learning. The implementation of learning
activities in the second cycle has begun to increase compared to cycle one even though there
are some activities that have not been maximally seen. As for things that have not been
carried out optimally, such as 1) The teacher does not give the opportunity to all groups to
report as a whole the results of group work in front of the class, 2) The teacher has not
discussed the overall difficulties experienced by students in carrying out tasks, and 3) The
teacher does not give motivation to students who look silent (passive).
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The second is about student activities towards the implementation of learning activities.
During the learning process, there are still activities that do not work according to the planned
scenario. Some activities were not carried out well in cycle 2, namely: 1) Some students still
seemed passive in their group, so the discussion did not run smoothly in the group, possibly
because they had to readjust to the new group; 2) In the question and answer activity only a
few groups responded; 3) There are still students who are in their group doing individual
tasks; and 4) Still seen students ashamed and hesitant to express their opinions in group
discussions.
The Researcher's observations on students' attitudes can be seen in the following table.
Table 2 The Average Attitudes of Students Following Reading Learning understanding Cycle 2
Student Attitude Category
Number
of
Students
Very
Active
Active
31
Students
10 Students
(32,26%)
12 Students
(38,71%)
Active
Enough
5 Students
(16,13%)
Less Active
4 Students
(12,90%)
Not
active
-
Category
of
students
belonging
to
learning
31
Students
(100%)
4.2. Learning Outcomes
The Learning Outcomes include an assessment of student learning outcomes reading
comprehension using the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model
covering the results of tests per group and individual, and process assessment.
In cycle 1, the results of reading group understanding can be seen in the following table.
Table 3 The Acquisition of Reading comprehension scores in cycle 1 group
Group
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Total
Earnings
Score
9
9
10
13
13
13
12
10
89
Ideal
Score
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
120
Percentage
Description
60%
60%
66%
86%
86%
86%
80%
66%
74%
As for the results of the reading comprehension of the individual in cycle 1 can be seen in
appendix 1. When viewed from the results of the evaluations undertaken (appendix 1), turns
on this first cycle of the achievement of the learning results indicators the first 75% of the
students answered correctly, 25% of students are still answered wrong. The second indicator,
to determine the main idea is still not good. 60% only answered correctly, 40% answered
incorrectly, the third indicator, to make a conclusion was also not good, the answer correctly
was only 50%, 50% answered incorrectly.
Classically the average value obtained by students is 62.58. The results show that it is still
below the minimum set. Students who have completed only 12 people or 38.71%, while those
who have not completed are 19 people or 61.29%.
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Table 4 Frequency distribution data value of comprehension reading ability in cycle 1
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
Interval Nilai Frekwensi Prosentase %
Kategori
Keterangan
39 - 48
5
16,13%
sangat rendah Tidak tuntas
49 - 58
5
16,13%
sangat rendah Tidak tuntas
59 - 68
9
29,03%
rendah
Tidak tuntas
69 - 78
10
32,26%
sedang
Tuntas
79 - 89
2
6,45%
tinggi
Tuntas
90 - 100
0
0,00%
The assessment of the learning process of reading comprehension uses the Cooperative
Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model of cycle 1, namely the observation of the
attitudes of students following learning is an assessment of the process in the cycle 1. The
observations on students' attitudes are grouped into five categories, they are students who are
very active, students who active, quite active, less active and inactive. Look at the results of
the assessment process in cycle 1 learning to read comprehension using a model of
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC,) very active students totaling 7
people or 22.58%, active students amounted to 5 people or 16.13%, students who quite active
3 people or 9.68%, less active students numbered 16 people or 51.61%, there were no
students in the inactive category due to 100% student attendance.
For cycle 2, the assessment of student learning outcomes of reading comprehension using
the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model of the group can be seen
in the following table:
Table 5 The acquisition of comprehension reading scores in cycle 2 group
Group
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Earning
score
13
13
14
11
13
13
13
11
101
Ideal
score
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
120
Percentage
Description
87%
87%
93%
73%
87%
87%
87%
73%
84%
Group reading comprehension results on cycle 2 are high with an average score of 84.
Compared to cycle 1, cycle 2 has experienced an increase of 10% from cycle 1. Completeness
in classical terms above groups have been achieved. Teacher's activity when guiding has been
evenly distributed to all groups. The teacher gives direction to students how to do a
cooperative learning so that some students are already getting used to the CIRC learning step.
The results of reading individual understanding can be seen in appendix 2. When viewed
from the results of the evaluation carried out, it turns out that this second cycle has increased
the achievement of learning outcomes per indicator compared to cycle 1. This can be seen
from the first indicator 79% of students answered correctly, 21% of students still answered
incorrectly. The second indicator is to determine the main idea is also good: 72% answered
correctly, 28% answered wrongly, the third indicator, to make the conclusion which was
rather unfavorable, which answered correctly only 52%, 48% still answered incorrectly.
Classically the average value obtained by students is still low at 68.82. This value is still
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below the predetermined KKM that is 69. In conclusion, the students who have just finished
are 18 people or 58%, while the unfinished number is 13 people or 42%.
Table 6 The frequency distribution data of the ability to read comprehension of the following cycle 2:
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
Interval Nilai Frekwensi Prosentase %
Kategori
Keterangan
39 - 48
2
6,45%
sangat rendah Tidak tuntas
49 - 58
1
3,23%
sangat rendah Tidak tuntas
59 - 68
13
41,94%
rendah
Tidak tuntas
69 - 78
8
25,81%
sedang
Tuntas
79 - 89
5
16,13%
tinggi
Tuntas
90 - 100
2
6,45%
Sangat Tinggi Tuntas
5. CONCLUSIONS
The results showed that in cycle 1, the learning plan still did not meet the criteria very well.
The teachers are less coherent and systematic in delivering teaching materials. The suitability
of time allocation with CIRC learning stages cannot be used properly by the teachers and
students. in Cycle 2 there has been an improvement, but there is still some time allocation that
is provided by some students. The skills of teachers in planning reading comprehension
learning using the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model have a
positive impact on improving the student learning outcomes. The implementation of learning
has also increased. The teacher is able to guide the students to understand reading with the
steps of CIRC learning well, the students seem enthusiastic in carrying out the discussion.
Students are motivated and more enthusiastic to take part in learning to read an understanding
of the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) model.
Regarding the learning outcomes, the group learning completeness per cycle increases
(from cycle 1 to 74%, cycle 2 to 80%,). The students in group are more enthusiastic about
carrying out discussions, all begin to be involved in conveying their ideas. There is an
increase in individual learning completeness and the average value obtained by students also
increases each cycle (62.58 to 68.82). The student activity also increased. The visible
students who are very active in the process of reading comprehension learning in cycle 1
totaling 7 people or 22.58%, active 5 people (16.13%), quite active 3 people or 9.68%, less
active 16 people or 51.61% . In Cycle 2, the students who are very active become 10 people
or 32.26%, active students as many as 12 people or 38.71%, students who are quite active as
many as 5 people or 16.13%, students who are less active as many as 4 people or 12, 90%.
After a series of research actions to improve students' reading comprehension ability
through the CIRC learning model implemented, a number of suggestions can be delivered,
and those are: 1) In teaching and learning activities teachers are expected to make the
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) learning model as an alternative in
reading comprehension material for increase student activity and learning outcomes; 2)
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition learning model (CIRC) in principle can be
flexibly applied in any lesson, not just language (reading aspect); 3) Students are expected
with the introduction of the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)
learning model they are more motivated and enthusiastic to learn; and 4) The school should
prepare infrastructure to support the innovative learning in schools. For other researchers,
they can use the results of this study as a research model with a similar research focus to make
modifications in accordance with the context and problems being faced.
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