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Chapter 23: Life Span Development
Cooper and Gosnell: Foundations and Adult Health Nursing, 7th Edition
MULTIPLE CHOICE
The nurse tells a mother that the blueprint for all inherited traits, such as
height, is found in which of the following?
a.
Sperm
b.
Ovary
c.
Chromosomes
d.
Nucleus of the cell
1.
ANS: C
The blueprint for all inherited traits is found in the chromosomes.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 699
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
The nurse discovers during the intake assessment of a 5-year-old child that
the child lives with his biologic parents and siblings. How would the nurse categorize this
family type?
a.
Extended family
b.
Blended family
c.
Social family
d.
Nuclear family
2.
ANS: D
The nuclear family is considered the traditional family pattern.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 700
OBJ: 4
TOP: Family
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
3.
A newborn baby weighs 7 lb at birth. What does the nurse anticipate the
baby’s weight will be at 1 year of age?
a.
14 lb
b.
17 lb
c.
21 lb
d.
25 lb
ANS: C
By 1 year, birth weight is expected to triple. Thus, the weight at 1 year would be 7 lb
times three, which would equal 21 lb.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 706
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
The mother of a 5-month-old child is concerned because the child cannot
sit by himself. The nurse explains that sitting alone is not expected until the baby reaches
what age?
a.
6 months
b.
7 months
c.
8 months
d.
9 months
4.
ANS: B
By the end of the seventh month, most babies can sit up without support.
PTS:
OBJ:
KEY:
MSC:
1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
4
TOP: Development
Nursing Process Step: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
REF: Page 707
5.
A young mother asks the nurse how long she should wait before
introducing solid food to her infant. The nurse explains that breast milk will provide all
the nutrition her infant needs for how many months?
a.
2 to 3 months
b.
4 to 6 months
c.
7 to 9 months
d.
10 to 12 months
ANS: B
Breast milk or formula is the only nutrition needed for the first 4 to 6 months of an
infant’s life.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 708
OBJ: 4
TOP: Nutrition
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
When a mother asks the nurse about introducing solid foods into the
child’s diet, which of the following would be the best answer?
a.
“Introduce meat first.”
b.
“Introduce one solid food at a time several
days apart.”
c.
“Introduce solid foods by mixing two or
three foods together.”
d.
“Introduce solid foods by adding strained
food to the infant’s bottle.”
6.
ANS: B
The best advice is to introduce one solid at a time, allowing several days between.
Cereals should be introduced first, followed by fruits and vegetables. Meats should be
introduced last. Avoid mixing foods to allow the infant to develop an interest in different
tastes. Strained foods should not be added to a bottle.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 709
OBJ: 4
TOP: Nutrition
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
A baby’s muscular development progresses in what type of pattern?
Regressive
Erratic
Cephalocaudal
Unpredictable
ANS: C
Muscular development proceeds from head to foot (cephalocaudal).
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
REF: Page 699
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
At what age does a child typically possess the physiological,
neuromuscular, and psychological maturity necessary to master toilet training?
a.
6 to 10 months
b.
10 to 14 months
c.
14 to 18 months
d.
18 to 24 months
8.
ANS: D
Children reach psychological and physiological maturity for toilet training by 18 to 24
months.
PTS:
OBJ:
KEY:
MSC:
1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
5
TOP: Toilet training
Nursing Process Step: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
9.
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: Page 711
How can a family best assist a toddler who is attempting to feed himself?
Encourage the child to use a fork
Feed the child themselves using a fork
Encourage large portions for easier
handling
Offer the child finger foods
ANS: D
Toddlers need to develop autonomy and do things for themselves in a trial-and-error
method. Finger foods allow the child a feeling of independence.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: 5
TOP: Development
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
REF: Page 712
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
In response to a mother’s concern about the development of a food allergy
in her 5-month-old, the nurse should suggest the delay of which foods?
a.
Oat cereals
b.
Potatoes
c.
Citrus fruits
d.
Green vegetables
10.
ANS: C
The general guideline for foods to avoid until the baby is 6 months old are egg whites,
citrus fruits, and wheat flour. Cereals and vegetables are the first foods that should be
introduced.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 709
OBJ: 4
TOP: Allergy
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
A 5-year-old who has an imaginary friend with whom he converses
frequently is displaying characteristics consistent with which of Piaget’s stages of
cognitive development?
a.
Operational stage
b.
Preoperational stage
c.
Formal operations stage
d.
Concrete operations stage
11.
ANS: B
Piaget’s preoperational stage describes the preschooler as imaginative and egocentric,
believing in magical thinking.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 714
OBJ: 3
TOP: Development
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
A 14-year-old male patient has undergone a leg amputation. What should
be the primary focus of the patient’s care plan?
a.
Nutritional status
b.
Academic progress
c.
Body image
d.
Socialization needs
12.
ANS: C
Body image is a major developmental task of the adolescent. Nutritional status, academic
progress, and socialization should be addressed, but they would not be the primary focus.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis
REF: Page 720
OBJ: 10
TOP: Adolescent
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
13.
According to Piaget, what is the cognitive developmental level of the
adolescent?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Concrete operational stage
Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
Formal operational stage
ANS: D
The formal operational stage is the cognitive developmental level of adolescence.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 3
TOP: Cognitive development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
REF: Page 720
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
The nurse performing a routine physical assessment on a 25-year-old
understands that the patient is most likely experiencing which of the following?
a.
A gradual decline in physical capabilities
b.
Optimal level of functioning
c.
Slight diminishing of visual acuity
d.
Minimal hearing loss
14.
ANS: B
During early adult years, the body is at an optimal level of functioning. The gradual
decline in physical capabilities, diminishing of visual acuity, and hearing loss will not
occur until later in adulthood.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 722
OBJ: 6
TOP: Early adulthood
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
15.
Erikson identifies intimacy as a developmental task of adulthood. What
will occur if intimacy is not established?
a.
Inferiority
b.
Isolation
c.
Mistrust
d.
Guilt
ANS: B
Intimacy versus isolation is a developmental task of adulthood.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 723
OBJ: 8
TOP: Erikson
KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
16.
a.
b.
c.
d.
What is the leading cause of death in young adults?
Diabetes
Accidents
Hypertension
Testicular cancer
a.
b.
c.
d.
Diabetes
Accidents
Hypertension
Testicular cancer
ANS: B
The leading cause of death in young adults is accidents.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 724
OBJ: 11
TOP: Accidents
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
A 53-year-old woman complains of night sweats and mood swings. The
nurse recognizes that these symptoms most likely relate to which condition?
a.
Menopause
b.
Weight problems
c.
Dietary problems
d.
Thyroid problems
17.
ANS: A
Signs and symptoms of menopause may include sweats and mood swings.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 724
OBJ: 6
TOP: Menopause KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
A 58-year-old male is concerned about some hearing loss he is
experiencing. The nurse recognizes that this might be due to a sensory change of this age
group known as which of the following?
a.
Presbycusis
b.
Otitis externa
c.
Presbyopia
d.
Otitis media
18.
ANS: A
Presbycusis is a normal age-related loss of hearing. Otitis externa and otitis media are
infections of the ear. Presbyopia is a condition in which it becomes difficult to focus on
objects nearby.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 724
OBJ: 6
TOP: Middle age KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
19.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
What is the correct term for prejudice against older adults?
Socialism
Sexism
Racism
Ageism
Ageism is a form of discrimination and prejudice against the older adult.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 13
TOP: Late adulthood
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
20.
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: Page 727
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What theory claims that there is a hereditary basis for aging?
Activity theory
Physiological theory
Disengagement theory
Biologic programming theory
ANS: D
Biologic programming theory suggests a hereditary basis for aging.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 728
OBJ: 14
TOP: Aging
KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
The nurse reminds an older adult patient that the task for the older adult is
to achieve ego integrity. Failure to achieve this task results in which of the following?
a.
Failure
b.
Despair
c.
Reminiscing
d.
Accomplishment
21.
ANS: B
The challenge of late adulthood is integrity versus despair.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 729
OBJ: 8
TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
When assessing the home for fall risks and increased safety for an 85year-old, what should be a suggestion of the home health nurse?
a.
Bright lights be kept on at all times
b.
Sponge baths be taken rather than showers
c.
Excess furniture be removed
d.
Loose, comfortable shoes be worn
22.
ANS: C
Clearing the home of excess furniture and scatter rugs, the use of night-lights, and
wearing supportive shoes reduce the risk of falls in older adults. It is not necessary to
keep bright lights on at all times. It is not necessary to avoid showers.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 732
OBJ: 7
TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
The home health nurse assesses an older adult’s respiratory function
carefully because age-related changes in the respiratory system could result in which of
the following?
a.
Vital capacity
b.
Susceptibility to respiratory infections
c.
Expiratory capacity due to increased chest
size
d.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
23.
ANS: B
Older adults are more susceptible to respiratory infections.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 730, Table 23-4
OBJ: 6
TOP: Older adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
24.
What is the family pattern in which the relationships are unequal and the
parents attempt to control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations?
a.
Autocratic family pattern
b.
Patriarchal family pattern
c.
Matriarchal family pattern
d.
Democratic family pattern
ANS: A
In the autocratic family pattern the relationships are unequal. The parents attempt to
control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations. This family pattern is least
open to outside influence.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family patterns
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
25.
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: Pages 701-702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
Which family pattern is least open to outside influence?
Autocratic family pattern
Patriarchal family pattern
Matriarchal family pattern
Democratic family pattern
ANS: A
In the autocratic family pattern the relationships are unequal. The parents attempt to
control the children with strict, rigid rules and expectations. This family pattern is least
open to outside influence.
PTS: 1
OBJ: 1
N/A
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
TOP: Family patterns
REF: Pages 701-702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
What is the family pattern in which the male usually assumes the
dominant role and functions in the work role, controls the finances, and makes most of
the decisions?
a.
Autocratic family pattern
b.
Patriarchal family pattern
c.
Matriarchal family pattern
d.
Democratic family pattern
26.
ANS: B
In the patriarchal family pattern, the male usually assumes the dominant role. The male
member functions in the work role, is responsible for control of finances, and makes most
decisions.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family patterns
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the family pattern in which the female assumes primary
dominance in the areas of child care and homemaking, as well as financial decision
making?
a.
Autocratic family pattern
b.
Patriarchal family pattern
c.
Matriarchal family pattern
d.
Democratic family pattern
27.
ANS: C
In the matriarchal family pattern, the female assumes primary dominance in areas of child
care and homemaking, as well as financial decision making.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family patterns
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
28.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the family pattern in which the adult members function as equals?
Autocratic family pattern
Patriarchal family pattern
Matriarchal family pattern
Democratic family pattern
In the democratic family pattern, the adult members function as equals. Children are
treated with respect and recognized as individuals. This style encourages joint decision
making, and it recognizes and supports the uniqueness of each individual member. This
family pattern favors negotiation, compromise, and growth.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family patterns
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
29.
What is the stage of family development that begins when the couple
acknowledges that they are considering marriage?
a.
Expectant stage
b.
Parenthood stage
c.
Establishment stage
d.
Engagement/commitment stage
ANS: D
The engagement/commitment stage begins when the couple acknowledges to themselves
and others that they are considering marriage. At this time, opposition or support will be
evident from friends and parents. Wedding plans must be arranged. Housing, work, and
furnishings are some of the items discussed and explored.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
30.
What is the stage of family development that extends from the wedding
until the birth of the first child?
a.
Expectant stage
b.
Parenthood stage
c.
Establishment stage
d.
Engagement/commitment stage
ANS: C
The establishment stage extends from the wedding until the birth of the first child. During
this phase, one of the important tasks is the adjustment from the single independent to the
married, interdependent state. The challenges facing the newly married couple include
learning to live with another person, decision making, conflict resolution, and
communication.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the stage of family development that begins when conception
begins and continues through the pregnancy?
a.
Expectant stage
b.
Parenthood stage
c.
Establishment stage
d.
Engagement/commitment stage
31.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Expectant stage
Parenthood stage
Establishment stage
Engagement/commitment stage
ANS: A
The expectant stage begins when conception occurs and continues through the pregnancy.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 702
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the stage of family development that begins at the birth or
adoption of the first child?
a.
Expectant stage
b.
Parenthood stage
c.
Establishment stage
d.
Engagement/commitment stage
32.
ANS: B
The parenthood stage begins at the birth or adoption of the first child.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
33.
REF: Page 703
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What stage of family development involves the grown children departing
from home?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Expectant stage
Senescence stage
Establishment stage
Disengagement stage
ANS: D
The disengagement stage of parenthood is the period of family life when the grown
children depart from the home.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
34.
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: B
REF: Page 703
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is known as the last stage in the life cycle?
Expectant stage
Senescence stage
Establishment stage
Disengagement stage
The senescence stage is the last stage of the life cycle, which requires the individual to
cope with a large range of changes. For the older adult the family unit continues to be a
major source of satisfaction and pleasure. Most older adults prefer to live independently.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 1
TOP: Family development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 703
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
The nurse recognizes that during the first 5 months of life, an infant is
expected to gain approximately how many pounds per month?
a.
0.5
b.
1
c.
1.5
d.
2
35.
ANS: C
The infant is expected to gain about 1.5 lb per month until 5 months.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 706
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
A nurse is caring for a neonate who weighs 7 lb 3 oz at birth. What should
the infant’s weight be at 1 year?
a.
10 lb 3 oz
b.
14 lb 6 oz
c.
21 lb 9 oz
d.
28 lb 12 oz
36.
ANS: C
By the time the baby is 1 year of age, the birth weight should have tripled.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 706
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
A nurse is caring for a neonate who is 22 inches in height. What will the
child’s expected height be at 1 year?
a.
29 inches
b.
33 inches
c.
44 inches
d.
56 inches
37.
ANS: B
Height increases by about 1 inch per month for the first 6 months. By 12 months of age,
the infant’s birth length has increased about 50%.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
38.
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: Page 707
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the average apical heart rate for a 2-month-old infant?
80 bpm
100 bpm
120 bpm
150 bpm
ANS: C
At 2 months of age, the average apical rate is about 120 bpm.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
39.
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: Page 707
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
What is the average resting respiratory rate for a 12-month-old child?
15 breaths/min
20 breaths/min
30 breaths/min
50 breaths/min
ANS: C
Average resting respiratory rate for the 12-month-old is about 30 breaths/min.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 707
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
40.
A nurse assessing a 2-month-old infant would expect the infant to do
which of the following?
a.
Crawl on the floor
b.
Creep on the floor
c.
Sit up steadily without support
d.
Hold its head up while in the prone
position
ANS: D
At 2 months the infant is able to hold the head up while in the prone position. Infants may
crawl at 7 months and creep at about 9 months. By the end of the seventh month, infants
can sit up steadily without support.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 707
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A nurse assessing a 4-month-old infant would expect the infant to do
which of the following?
a.
Crawl up the stairs
b.
Creep on the floor at least 30 feet
c.
Walk upright with a waddling gait
d.
Hold head at a 90-degree angle while
prone
41.
ANS: D
At 4 months the infant is able to hold the head up steadily to a 90-degree angle while in
the prone position. Infants may crawl at 7 months and creep at about 9 months. Standing
with support and walking occur at about 8 months to 15 months.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 707
OBJ: 4
TOP: Growth and development
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A nurse teaching the mother about infant oral hygiene instructs the mother
to offer the infant sips of:
a.
cola.
b.
milk.
c.
juice.
d.
water.
42.
ANS: D
Oral hygiene for the young infant consists of offering sips of clear water and wiping and
massaging the infant’s gums. Cola, milk, and juice should not be introduced at this young
age.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 707
OBJ: 4
TOP: Dentition
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
43.
A mother asks the nurse when she should introduce solid foods into her
infant’s diet. What would be the most correct response?
a.
Introduce fruits and vegetables first.
b.
Mix foods to allow the infant variety.
c.
Introduce only one new food at a time.
d.
Introduce new foods at 24-hour intervals.
ANS: C
Only one new food should be introduced at a time, followed by several days between new
foods. Cereals should be introduced first, followed by fruits and vegetables, and last
meats. Food should not be mixed to allow the infant to develop interest in different foods
and tastes.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 709
OBJ: 4
TOP: Diet
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
44.
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
What is the leading cause of injury and death among infants and young
children?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Accidents
Child abuse
Drug abuse
Adolescent parents
ANS: A
Accidents are the leading cause of injury and death of infants and young children.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 710
OBJ: 11
TOP: Prevention
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
45.
a.
b.
c.
d.
A nurse assessing a toddler should consider which finding abnormal?
Lumbar lordosis
Cyanotic nail beds
A protruding abdomen
A convex lumbar curve
ANS: B
Normal assessment findings in a toddler include lumbar lordosis (convex lumbar curve)
and a protruding abdomen. Cyanotic nail beds are an abnormal finding.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: 4
TOP: Abnormal findings
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
46.
REF: Page 710
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
Which theory of aging suggests that the body becomes less able to tolerate
the “self”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Free radical theory
Autoimmunity theory
Wear-and-tear theory
Biologic programming theory
ANS: B
The autoimmunity theory holds that with aging, the body becomes less able to recognize
or tolerate the “self.” As a result the immune system produces antibodies that act against
the self.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 14
TOP: Theories of aging
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 728
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
Which theory of aging suggests that there should be a natural withdrawal
between the individual and society?
a.
Free radical theory
b.
Autoimmunity theory
c.
Wear-and-tear theory
d.
Disengagement theory
47.
ANS: D
According to supporters of the disengagement theory of aging, there should be a natural
withdrawal, or disengagement, between the individual and society.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 14
TOP: Theories of aging
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 728
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
Which theory of aging suggests that the older person who is more socially
active is more likely to adjust well to aging?
a.
Activity theory
b.
Autoimmunity theory
c.
Wear-and-tear theory
d.
Disengagement theory
48.
ANS: A
According to the activity theory, the older person who is more active socially is more
likely to adjust well to aging.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 14
TOP: Theories of aging
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 728
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
49.
Which theory of aging suggests that previously developed coping abilities
and the ability to maintain previous roles and activities are critical to adjustment to old
age?
a.
Continuity theory
b.
Autoimmunity theory
c.
Wear-and-tear theory
d.
Disengagement theory
ANS: A
Supporters of the continuity theory suggest that the critical factors in adjustment to old
age are previously developed coping abilities and the ability to maintain previous roles
and activities.
PTS: 1
OBJ: 14
N/A
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
TOP: Theories of aging
REF: Page 728
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
Which of the following measures would be included in a teaching plan to
instruct new parents on reducing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome?
a.
Bottle-feed an infant at night
b.
Place infants on their stomach to sleep
c.
Keep an infant’s room well ventilated
d.
Place soft bedding and pillows in an
infant’s crib
50.
ANS: C
Steps to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome include placing infants on
their back to sleep, avoiding exposure to cigarette smoke, avoiding using soft bedding or
pillows, keeping rooms well ventilated, breastfeeding if possible, and maintaining regular
medical checkups for infants.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 709
OBJ: 4
TOP: Safety
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
51.
A nurse instructing a group of parents about safety rules for infants and
young children should include which of the following measures in the teaching plan?
a.
Remove plants from the child’s reach
b.
Provide the infant with a pillow at night
c.
Use a plastic covering on the infant’s
mattress
d.
Keep the crib sides up and set the mattress
at the highest setting
ANS: A
Safety rules for infants and young children include keeping the crib sides up and the
mattress set at the lowest setting, never using plastic bags or coverings on mattresses or
near the infant’s playthings, avoiding the use of pillows with small infants, and removing
plants from the child’s reach.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 711
OBJ: 4
TOP: Safety
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A child who uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world is
displaying characteristics consistent with which stage of Piaget cognitive development?
a.
Sensorimotor stage of cognitive
development
b.
Preoperational stage of cognitive
development
c.
Formal operational stage of cognitive
development
d.
Concrete operational stage of cognitive
development
52.
development
Preoperational stage of cognitive
development
Formal operational stage of cognitive
development
Concrete operational stage of cognitive
development
b.
c.
d.
ANS: A
The Piaget sensorimotor stage of cognitive development uses senses and motor abilities
to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes and coordinates sensorimotor
skills.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 705, Box 23-6
OBJ: 3
TOP: Piaget
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A child who has just begun to demonstrate object permanence is in which
of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?
a.
Sensorimotor
b.
Preoperational thought
c.
Formal operational thought
d.
Concrete operational thought
53.
ANS: A
The Piaget sensorimotor stage of cognitive development uses senses and motor abilities
to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes and coordinates sensorimotor
skills. While in this stage, a child learns that an object still exists when it is out of sight
(object permanence).
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 705, Box 23-6
OBJ: 3
TOP: Piaget
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A child who has just begun to demonstrate egocentric thinking is in which
of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?
a.
Sensorimotor
b.
Preoperational thought
c.
Formal operational thought
d.
Concrete operational thought
54.
ANS: B
The Piaget preoperational stage of cognitive development includes the development of
egocentric thinking (understanding the world from only one perspective, that of the self).
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 705, Box 23-6
OBJ: 3
TOP: Piaget
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A child who has just begun to demonstrate the ability to understand and
apply logical operations to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions is in which
of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?
a.
Sensorimotor
b.
Preoperational thought
c.
Formal operational thought
d.
Concrete operational thought
55.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Sensorimotor
Preoperational thought
Formal operational thought
Concrete operational thought
ANS: D
The Piaget concrete operational stage of cognitive development includes the ability to
understand and apply logical operations or principles to help interpret specific
experiences or perceptions.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 705, Box 23-6
OBJ: 3
TOP: Piaget
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
A child who is able to use a systematic, scientific problem-solving
approach is in which of the Piaget stages of cognitive development?
a.
Sensorimotor
b.
Preoperational thought
c.
Formal operational thought
d.
Concrete operational thought
56.
ANS: C
The Piaget formal operational stage of cognitive development includes the ability to use a
systematic, scientific problem-solving approach.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 705, Box 23-6
OBJ: 3
TOP: Piaget
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
According to Erikson, an infant who was abandoned by his or her primary
caregiver is at risk for developing which of the following?
a.
Guilt
b.
Mistrust
c.
Isolation
d.
Confusion
57.
ANS: B
During infancy a child’s developmental task is basic trust versus mistrust.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 703, Box 23-2
OBJ: 8
TOP: Erikson
KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
MULTIPLE RESPONSE
58.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Separation anxiety includes which stage(s)? (Select all that apply.)
Detachment
Protest
Anger
Despair
Withdrawal
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Detachment
Protest
Anger
Despair
Withdrawal
ANS: A, B, D
The phases of separation anxiety are protest, despair, and detachment.
PTS:
OBJ:
KEY:
MSC:
1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
9
TOP: Separation anxiety
Nursing Process Step: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
REF: Page 708
The nurse informs a group of college students that young adults will face
which challenges in this particular time of life? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Starting a family
b.
Selecting housing
c.
Job security
d.
Relations with extended family
e.
Establishing intimacy
59.
ANS: A, B, C, D, E
All options are developmental tasks of the young adult of today.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
REF: Page 722, Box 23-19,
723
OBJ: 11
TOP: Young adult KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
COMPLETION
The process that refers to gradual change and differentiation is
_____________.
60.
ANS:
development
Development is the process of gradual change and differentiation.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 4
TOP: Development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 699
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
61.
Any substance such as a drug, alcohol, or virus that interferes with fetal
development is called a(n) _____________.
ANS:
teratogen
A teratogen is any substance that interferes with fetal development, such as a drug,
alcohol, or a virus.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
REF: Page 699
OBJ: 4
TOP: Teratogen
KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
62.
Growth and development that proceeds from the head toward the feet is
known as _____________________.
ANS:
cephalocaudal
Cephalocaudal is defined as growth and development that proceeds from the head toward
the feet.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 4
TOP: Development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 699
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
Growth and development that moves from the center toward the outside is
known as ____________________.
63.
ANS:
proximodistal
Proximodistal refers to growth and development that moves from the center toward the
outside.
PTS: 1
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: 4
TOP: Development
N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A
REF: Page 699
KEY: Nursing Process Step:
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