Anatomy Sem 1 exam review

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NAME __________________________
Anatomy & Physiology
Semester 1 Exam Review Guide
How to use this guide…
This is a very comprehensive list of everything we have covered this semester. Just start reading. If you
understand it – delete it! If you don’t understand it – keep it. Then, when you are done reading the entire
thing, go back and study the parts that remain. I have saved this online as a word document (so you can
delete as you go) and also as a PDF file in case you can’t open word on your computer.
The semester exam is composed of about 100 multiple choice questions and 25 Lab Practical.
§ Chapter 1-The Human Body: 20ish questions
§ Chapter 3-Cells & Tissues: 15ish questions
§ Chapter 4-Skin & Body Membranes: 15ish questions
§ Chapter 5-The Skeletal System: 25-30ish questions
o 5ish-bone anatomy
o 5ish-long bone development
o 5ish-Haversian System
o 25ish-gross anatomy
§ Chapter 6-The Muscular System: 25-30ish questions
Chapter 1-The Human Body (pages 1-25)
§ Anatomy – Definition and Example =
§ Physiology – Definition and Example =
§ Anatomy—Levels of Study – Compare the following.
o Gross anatomy =
o Microscopic Anatomy =
§ Levels of Structural Organization
o Organ System Overview – List the functions of each system and organs in them.
Organ system
Function(s)
Organs include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
§ Necessary Life Functions – Briefly describe the importance of each of the life functions
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
2
§ Survival Needs – Describe the importance of each of the survival needs
o
o
o
o
o
§ Interrelationships Among Body Systems
o Homeostasis—Define and Explain the importance
o Homeostatic imbalance - Define and Provide an example
o Maintaining Homeostasis – Define, Provide an example, and Describe the importance of…
• Receptor =
•
____________ Pathway =
•
Control center =
•
_____________Pathway =
•
Effector =
o Feedback Mechanisms
§ Negative feedback - ex.\
§
Positive feedback - ex.\
§ The Language of Anatomy
o Exact terms – provide examples for the following…
§ Anatomical Position =
§ Direction
ex.\
3
o
o
o
o
§ Regions
ex.\
§ Structures
ex.\
Regional Terms
§ Anterior body landmarks – Identify all
§ Posterior body landmarks – Identify all
Directional Terms
Body Planes and Sections – Describe the following sections
§ A sagittal section =
§ A median, or midsagittal, =
§ A frontal section =
§ A transverse, or cross, section =
Body Cavities
§ Dorsal body cavity
•
•
§ Ventral body cavity
•
•
o
o
o Why is it important to use the Special terminology above?
Chapter 3-Cells & Tissues (pages 64-108)
§ Cells & Tissues
o Atoms (define and example) =
o Macromolecules (define and example)
o Cells (define) =
o Tissues (define and example) =
o Organs (define and example) =
o Organ system (define and example) =
§ Body Tissues
o Tissues
§ Groups of cells with similar structure and function
§ Four primary types
•
•
•
•
o Epithelial Tissues
§ Locations
•
•
•
§ Functions
•
•
•
•
4
§
§
Epithelium Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
Classification of Epithelia
• Number of cell layers
o “_______________________” = one layer
o “_______________________” = more than one layer
• Shapes of cells
o “_______________________” Shape = Flattened
o “_______________________” Shape = cube-shaped
o “_______________________” Shape = column-like
§
§
Simple Epithelia – Describe the shape and arrangement of the following tissues, then list
where you and find them in the human body.
• Simple squamous
o Shape & #Layers =
o Usually forms membranes
§ Location =
§ Location =
• Simple cuboidal
o Shape & #Layers =
o Location =
o Location =
o Location =
• Simple columnar
o Shape & #Layers =
o Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells
o Location =
• Pseudostratified columnar
o Shape & #Layers =
o Often looks like a double layer of cells
o Sometimes ciliated, Location =
o May function in absorption or secretion
Stratified Epithelia – Describe the shape and arrangement of the following tissues, then list
where you and find them in the human body.
• Stratified squamous
o Cells at the apical surface are flattened
o Found as a protective covering where friction is common
o Locations
§
§
§
• Stratified cuboidal—shape and #layers =
• Stratified columnar—surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and
shape
• Stratified cuboidal and columnar
o Rare in human body
5
o Found mainly in ducts of _________________________
• Transitional epithelium
o Shape of cells =
o Location =
§ Glandular Epithelium
•
• Two major gland types
o “_______crine” gland
§
§
o “_______crine” gland
§
§
o Connective Tissue
§ Found everywhere in the body
§ Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues
§ Functions =
•
•
•
§ Characteristics
• Variations in blood supply
o Some tissue types are well vascularized
o Some have a poor blood supply or are avascular
• Extracellular matrix
o Definition =
o Two main elements
§
§
• Produced by the cells
• Three types
o
o
o
§ Connective Tissue Types
• Bone (osseous tissue)
o Composed of
§
§
§
o Used to:
• Hyaline cartilage
o Most common type of cartilage
o Composed of
§
§
o Locations
§
§
• Elastic cartilage
o Provides elasticity
o Location
6
•
Fibrocartilage
o Highly compressible
o Location
Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue)
o Main matrix element is ______________________________________
o Fibroblasts are cells that _____________________________________
o Locations
§
§
§
• Loose connective tissue types
o Areolar tissue
§ Most widely distributed connective tissue
§ Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”
§ Functions as…
§ Contains which fibers? …
§ Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)
o Adipose tissue
§ Matrix is …
§ Many cells contain…
§ Functions
•
•
•
o Reticular connective tissue
§ Delicate network of interwoven fibers
§ Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid ORGANS =
•
•
•
o Blood (vascular tissue)
§ Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma
§ Fibers are visible during clotting
§ Functions =
Muscle Tissue
• Function is to produce movement
• Three types
o ________________________muscle
§ Voluntary or Involuntary?
§ Location =
§ Produces gross body movements or facial expressions
§ Characteristics?
•
•
•
•
§
o ________________________muscle
§ Voluntary or Involuntary?
§ Location =
§ Function is to pump blood
7
§
§
Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells
•
•
•
o ________________________muscle
§ Voluntary or Involuntary?
§ Location =
§ Characteristics of smooth muscle cells
•
•
•
Nervous Tissue
• Composed of…
• Function
o
o
§ Can you visually identify the following tissue types?
§
§
§
§
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Smooth Muscle
Nerve Tissue
Reticular Tissue
Areolar Tissue
Adipose Tissue
Bone Tissue
Dense fibrous Tissue
Transitional epithelium
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Stratified squamous epithelium
Psuedostratified (ciliated) epithelium
Simple Columnar epithelium
Cuboidal epithelium
Simple Squamous epithelium
Cardiac Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
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§
§
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Chapter 4-Skin & Body Membranes (pages 109-132)
§ Body Membranes
o Function of body membranes
§
§
§
o Classification of Body Membranes
§ Types of Epithelial membranes
•
•
•
§ Connective tissue membranes
• “___________________” membranes
o Cutaneous membrane = skin
§ Dry membrane
§ Outermost protective boundary
§ Superficial epidermis is composed of keratinized _____________ ____________ epithelium
§ Underlying dermis is mostly dense connective tissue
o Mucous Membranes
§ Surface epithelium type depends on site
• Stratified squamous epithelium (Location = ________________ & ______________)
• Simple columnar epithelium (Location = ___________________________________)
§ Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria)
§ Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface
§ Often adapted for _____________________ or ______________________
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o Serous Membranes
§ Surface is a layer of ______________________ ______________________ epithelium
§ Underlying layer is a thin layer of areolar connective tissue
§ Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body
§ Serous membranes occur in pairs separated by serous fluid
• Visceral layer =
• Parietal layer =
§ Specific serous membranes
•
o Location =
•
o Location =
•
o Location =
o Synovial membrane
§ Connective tissue only
§ Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints
§ Secretes a lubricating fluid =
§ Integumentary System
o Skin (cutaneous membrane)
o Skin derivatives
§ Sweat glands
§ Oil glands
§ Hair
§ Nails
o Skin Structure Layers
§ ____________________________—outer layer
• Stratified squamous epithelium
• Often keratinized (hardened by keratin)
§ ____________________________
• Dense connective tissue
§ ____________________________ (hypodermis) is deep to dermis
• Not part of the skin
• Function =
• Composed mostly of ___________________________________
o Layers of the Epidermis
§ Stratum ________________________ (stratum germinativum)
• Deepest layer of epidermis
• Lies next to dermis
• Cells undergoing mitosis
• Daughter cells are pushed upward to become the more superficial layers
§ Stratum ________________________
§ Stratum ________________________
• Layers of the Epidermis
§ Stratum ________________________
• Formed from dead cells of the deeper strata
• Occurs only in ________________________________________________
§ Stratum ________________________
• Outermost layer of epidermis
• Shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin (protective protein prevents water loss
from skin)
10
o Melanin
§ Pigment (melanin) produced by ________________________
§ Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum ______________________
§ Color is ____________________________
§ Amount of melanin produced depends upon _______________ and ___________________
o Dermis
§ Two layers
• ________________________layer (upper dermal region)
o Projections called dermal papillae
o Some contain capillary loops
o Other house pain receptors and touch receptors
• ________________________layer (deepest skin layer)
o Blood vessels
o Sweat and oil glands
o Deep pressure receptors
§ Overall dermis structure
• Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the dermis
• Collagen fibers give skin its toughness
• Elastic fibers give skin elasticity
• Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation
o Normal Skin Color Determinants
§ Melanin
• Color = ________________________
§ Carotene
• Color = ________________________
§ Hemoglobin
• Color = ________________________ from blood cells in dermal capillaries
• Oxygen content determines the extent of coloring
o Skin Appendages
§ Cutaneous glands are all _____crine glands
• “__________________________” glands
o Produce oil
§ Lubricant for skin
o Prevents brittle hair
o Kills bacteria
o Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin
surface
o Glands are activated at puberty
• “__________________________” glands
o Produce sweat
o Widely distributed in skin
o Two types:
§ _______________________
• Open via duct to pore on skin surface
§ _______________________
• Ducts empty into hair follicles
o Sweat and Its Function
§ Composition
• Mostly made of __________
•
•
Also contains _________________ and ________________
Some metabolic waste
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§
§
Hair
•
•
•
•
• Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only)
Functions
•
•
•
(Odor is from associated bacteria)
Produced by hair follicle
Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells
__________________________ = cells that provide pigment for hair color
Hair anatomy (Three layers)
1. Central medulla
2. _____________________ surrounds medulla
3. _____________________ on outside of cortex
§
•
§
Nails
•
•
•
•
Most heavily keratinized
Associated hair structures
o Hair follicle
§ Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root
o Arrector pili
§ Struture:
§ Function:
Scale-like modifications of the epidermis
o Heavily keratinized
Stratum _____________________ extends beneath the nail bed
o Responsible for growth
Lack of pigment makes them colorless
Nail structures
o Free edge
o Body is the visible attached portion
o Root of nail embedded in skin
o Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body
12
Chapter 5-The Skeletal System (pages 133-181)
§ Parts of the skeletal system
o Bones (skeleton)
o Joints
o Cartilages
o Ligaments
§ Two subdivisions of the skeleton
o ________________________ skeleton (skull + vertebral column + thoracic cage)
o ________________________ skeleton (girdles + upper and lower limbs)
§ Functions of Bones:
o
o
o
o
o
§ The adult skeleton has ___ ___ ___ bones total
§ Two basic types of bone tissue:
o _________________ bone
§ Homogeneous
o _________________ bone
§ Small needle-like pieces of bone
§ Many open spaces
§ Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shapes:
o _________________ bones
§ Typically longer than they are wide
§ Have a shaft with heads at both ends
§ Contain mostly compact bone
§ Examples:
•
•
o _________________ bones
§ Generally cube-shape
§ Contain mostly spongy bone
§ Examples:
•
•
o _________________ bones
§ Thin, flattened, and usually curved
§ Two thin layers of _________________ bone surround a layer of ________________ bone
§ Examples:
•
•
•
o _________________ bones
§ Irregular shape
§ Do not fit into other bone classification categories
§ Example:
• Vertebrae
• Hip bones
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§ Anatomy of a Long Bone
o “_________________________”
§
Refers to the Shaft
§
Composed of compact bone
o “_________________________”
§
Refers to the Ends of the bone
§
Composed mostly of spongy bone
o “___________________________”
§
Outside covering of the diaphysis
§
Fibrous connective tissue membrane
o “___________________________”
§
Secure periosteum to underlying bone
o Arteries
§
Supply bone cells with nutrients
o Articular cartilage
§
Covers the external surface of the epiphyses
§
Made of ______________________ cartilage
§
Function = _________________________________________________________
o “___________________________ plate”
§
Flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone
o Epiphyseal line
§
Remnant of the epiphyseal plate
§
Seen in adult bones
o Medullary cavity
§
Cavity inside of the shaft
§
Contains ________________ marrow (mostly fat) in adults
§
Contains ____________ marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants
§ Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
o “___________________________”(Haversian system)
§
A unit of bone containing central canal and matrix rings
o “___________________________” canal (Haversian canal)
§
Opening in the center of an osteon
§
Carries blood vessels and nerves
o Perforating (Volkman’s) canal
§
Canal perpendicular to the central canal
14
§
Carries blood vessels and nerves
o “___________________________”
§
Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)
§
Arranged in concentric rings
o “___________________________”
§
Rings around the central canal
§
Sites of lacunae
o Canaliculi
§
Tiny canals
§
Radiate from the central canal to ____________
§
Form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply
§ Formation of the Human Skeleton
o In embryos, the skeleton is primarily ________________________ cartilage
o During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone
o Hyaline Cartilage remains in isolated areas such as…
§
§
§
§ Bone Growth (Ossification)
o “_______________________” plates allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood
o New cartilage is continuously formed
o Older cartilage becomes ossified
1. Cartilage is broken down
2. Enclosed cartilage is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity
3. Bone replaces cartilage through the action of bone builders called “___________________”
o Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops
o Bones are remodeled in response to two factors
§ Blood calcium levels
§ Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton
o Bones grow in width (called appositional growth)
§ Types of Bone Cells
o “___________________________”—mature bone cells
o “___________________________”—bone-forming cells
o “___________________________”—bone-destroying cells
§
Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid
hormone
o Bone remodeling is performed by both “osteo__________” and “osteo_____________”
§ The Axial Skeleton
o Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
15
o Divided into three parts. List all three parts and provide examples bones in each.
1.
2.
3.
o The Skull
§
Two sets of bones:
•
8 ___________________ bones (be able to name them)
•
14 __________________ bones (be able to name them)
§
Bones are joined by sutures
§
Only freely movable joint = _______________________________
§
Paranasal Sinuses
•
Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
•
Functions of paranasal sinuses:
o
o
o The Hyoid Bone
§
The only bone that does not ________________________________________
§
Serves as a moveable base for the tongue
§
Aids in swallowing and speech
o The Vertebral Column
§
Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location
§
There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs
§
•
Seven _______________ vertebrae are in the neck
•
Twelve _______________ vertebrae are in the chest region
•
Five _______________ vertebrae are associated with the lower back
Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones
•
_____________
o Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae
•
_____________
o Formed from the fusion of three to five vertebrae
o “Tailbone,” or remnant of a tail that other vertebrates have
o The Bony Thorax
§
Forms a cage to protect major organs
§
Consists of three parts
16
•
Sternum (________________ + ____________ + ______________ _____________)
•
Ribs
o “_______” ribs (pairs 1–7)
o “_________” ribs (pairs 8–12)
o “_________” ribs (pairs 11–12)
•
Thoracic vertebrae
§ The Appendicular Skeleton
o Composed of 126 bones
§
___________________ (limbs)
§
______________girdle
§
______________girdle
o The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
§
§
Composed of two bones
•
“_________________”—collarbone
•
“_________________”—shoulder blade
These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement
o Bones of the Upper Limbs
§
§
“________________________”
•
Forms the arm
•
Single bone
The forearm has two bones
•
“__________________”
o Medial bone in anatomical position
•
“__________________”
o Lateral bone in anatomical position
§
The hand
•
“__________________”—wrist
•
“__________________”—palm
•
“__________________”—fingers
o Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
§
Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones
•
Composed of three pairs of fused bones:
o
o
o
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§
§
The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis
It protects several organs
• Reproductive organs
• Urinary bladder
• Part of the large intestine
o Bones of the Lower Limbs
§ The thigh has one bone
• “____________________”
o The heaviest, strongest bone in the body
§ The lower leg has two bones
• “____________________”
o Shinbone
o Larger and medially oriented
• “____________________”
o Thin and sticklike
§ The foot
• “____________________”
o Two largest tarsals
§ Calcaneus (heelbone)
§ Talus
• “____________________”—sole
• “____________________”—toes
o Joints
§ Articulations of bones
§ Functions of joints
• Hold bones together
• Allow for mobility
§ Ways joints are classified
• Functionally
o “Synarthroses”
§ Immovable joints
o “______________________”
§ Slightly moveable joints
o “______________________”
§ Freely moveable joints
• Structurally
o Fibrous joints
§ Generally immovable
§ Example:
• Sutures
• Syndesmoses
o Allows more movement than sutures
o Example: Distal end of tibia and fibula
o Cartilaginous joints
§ Immovable or slightly moveable
§ Bones connected by cartilage
§ Example:
• Pubic symphysis
• Intervertebral joints
o Synovial joints
§ Freely moveable
§ Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
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§
§
Chapter 6 I can statements….
___________________ fluid is found in the joint cavity
Features of Synovial Joints
• Articular cartilage (__________________ cartilage) covers
the ends of bones
• A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces
• A joint cavity is filled with _________________ fluid
• Ligaments reinforce the joint
• Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs
o Lined with synovial membranes
o Filled with synovial fluid
o Not actually part of the joint
• Tendon sheath
o Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
Can I identify and describe the three different muscle types including functions?
Can I name/label all the parts of a sarcomere? (including proteins, zones/discs/lines)
Can I explain all the specialized parts of a muscle cell? (sarcolema, SR, myofibril?)
Can I explain how muscle stimulation occurs?
Can I identify all the parts of a neuromuscular junction? Along with their function?
Can I explain muscle tetanus? A twitch?
Can I explain how energy for muscle cells is maintained?
Can I explain how a muscle is organized, and why there are striations (and what makes them
up)?
Can I name two ways that determine what graded response a muscle will have? (what
determines “how contracted” it will get?)
Can I identify the major movements of the body?
Can I explain the how the arrangement of fascicles can be different in diff muscles?
Can I name the muscles of the face, and function?
Can I name the muscles from 208 – 219 and their major function?
Can I comfortable identify a muscle insertion based on movement?
Can I differentiate between prime movers, synergists, and fixators?
Can I answer all the “did you get it questions” in the chapter?
Chapter 6-The Muscular System (pages 182-226)
§ The Muscular System
o Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement
o Three basic muscle types are found in the body:
§ _____________________ muscle
§ _____________________ muscle
§ _____________________ muscle
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§ Characteristics of Muscles
o Skeletal and smooth muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber)
o Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments
o All muscles share some terminology
§ Prefixes myo and mys refer to “_________________”
§ Prefix sarco refers to “___________________”
§ Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscles
o ___________________ Muscle Characteristics
§ Most are attached by tendons to bones
§ “_____________________” – Cells have many nuclei
§ “_____________________”—have visible banding
§ Voluntary—subject to conscious control
§ Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle
• Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue:
o _____________________—encloses a single muscle fiber
o _____________________—wraps around a fascicle (bundle) of muscle fibers
o _____________________—covers the entire skeletal muscle
o Fascia—on the outside of the epimysium
§ Skeletal Muscle Attachments
• Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment
• _________________________—cord-like structures
o Mostly collagen fibers
o Often cross a joint due to toughness and small size
• _________________________—sheet-like structures
o Attach muscles indirectly to bones, cartilages, or connective tissue coverings
• Sites of muscle attachment
o Bones
o Cartilages
o Smooth Muscle Characteristics
§ Lacks striations
§ Shape of cells = _______________________________
§ ______________________ - each cell only contains one nucleus
§ Voluntary or Involuntary (circle one)
§ Found mainly in _______________________________________________
o Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
§ Striations
§ Usually has a single nucleus
§ Branching cells
§ Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc
§ Voluntary or Involuntary? (circle one)
§ Found only in _____________________________________
§ Skeletal Muscle Functions
o
o
o
o
§ Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
o ____________________________—specialized plasma membrane
o ____________________________—long organelles inside muscle cell
o _____________ ______________—specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
§ Stores and releases ______ ions
§ Surrounds the myofibril
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o Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands
§ ___ band = light band
• Contains only thin filaments
§ ___ band = dark band
• Contains the entire length of the thick filaments
o ____________________________—contractile unit of a muscle fiber
§ Organization of the sarcomere
• Myofilaments
o Thick filaments = _____________ filaments
§ Composed of the protein ______________
§ Has ATPase enzymes
§ Myosin filaments have heads (extensions, or cross bridges)
§ Myosin and actin overlap somewhat
o Thin filaments = __________ filaments
§ Composed of the protein __________
§ Anchored to the ___ disc
§ Stimulation and Contraction of Single Skeletal Muscle Cells
o “____________________” (also called responsiveness or irritability)—ability to receive and respond
to a stimulus
o “____________________”—ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received
o “____________________”—ability of muscle cells to be stretched
o “____________________”—ability to recoil and resume resting length after stretching
§ The Nerve Stimulus and Action Potential
o Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a motor neuron (nerve cell) to contract
o “______________ ______________”—one motor neuron plus all the skeletal muscle cells
stimulated by that neuron
o Neuromuscular junction
§ Association site of axon terminal of the motor neuron and muscle
o “_________________ _________________”
§ Gap between nerve and muscle
§ Nerve and muscle do not make contact
§ Area between nerve and muscle is filled with interstitial fluid
§ Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Muscle
o “___________________________”—chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse
o The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is “_______________________”
o ____________ attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma
o Sarcolemma becomes permeable to ______ ions
o ______________ rushes into the cell generating an “___________ potential”
o Once started, muscle contraction cannot be stopped
§ The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
o Activation by nerve causes ___________ heads (cross bridges) to attach to binding sites on the thin
filament
o Myosin heads then bind to the next site of the ________________ and pull them toward the center of
the sarcomere
o This continued action causes a sliding of the myosin along the actin
o The result is that the muscle is shortened (contracted)
§ Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
o Muscle fiber contraction is “all or none”
o Within a skeletal muscle, not all fibers may be stimulated during the same interval
o Different combinations of muscle fiber contractions may give differing responses
o Graded responses—different degrees of skeletal muscle shortening
§ Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
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o Graded responses can be produced by changing
§ The frequency of muscle stimulation
§ The number of muscle cells being stimulated at one time
o Types of Graded Responses:
§ _____________________
• Single, brief contraction
• Not a normal muscle function
§ _____________________ (summing of contractions)
• One contraction is immediately followed by another
• The muscle does not completely return to a resting state
• The effects are added
§ _____________________ _________________ (incomplete tetanus)
• Some relaxation occurs between contractions
• The results are summed
§ _____________________ __________________ (complete tetanus)
• No evidence of relaxation before the following contractions
• The result is a sustained muscle contraction
§ Energy for Muscle Contraction
§ Types of Muscle Contractions:
o __________________ contractions
§ Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during contractions
§ The muscle shortens and movement occurs
o __________________ contractions
§ Tension in the muscles increases
§ The muscle is unable to shorten or produce movement
§ Muscle Tone
o Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle
o Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone
o The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control
§ Muscles and Body Movements
o Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone
o Muscles are attached to at least two points
§ _____________________ = Attachment to an immoveable bone
§
_____________________ = Attachment to a movable bone
§ Types of Ordinary Body Movements
o ___________________
§
Decreases the angle of the joint
§
Brings two bones closer together
§
Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow
o ___________________
§
Opposite of flexion
§
Increases angle between two bones
o ___________________
§
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
§
Common in ball-and-socket joints
§
Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)
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o ___________________
§
Movement of a limb away from the midline
o ___________________
§
Opposite of abduction
§
Movement of a limb toward the midline
o ___________________
§
Combination of ______________, _____________, ______________, and ______________
§
Common in ball-and-socket joints
o ____________________
§
Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin
o ____________________
§
Depressing the foot (pointing the toes)
o ____________________
§
Turn sole of foot medially
o ____________________
§
Turn sole of foot laterally
o ____________________
§
Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly
o _____________________
§
Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly
o _____________________
§
Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand
§ Types of Muscles
o Prime mover—muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement
o Antagonist—muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover
o Synergist—muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation
o Fixator—stabilizes the origin of a prime mover
§ Naming Skeletal Muscles
o By direction of muscle fibers
§
Example: ____________________________________________________________
o By relative size of the muscle
§
Example: ____________________________________________________________
o By location of the muscle
§
Example: _____________________________________________________________
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o By number of origins
§
Example:
o By location of the muscle’s origin and insertion
§
Example: _____________________________________________________________
o By shape of the muscle
§
Example: _____________________________________________________________
o By action of the muscle
§
Example: _____________________________________________________________
§ Head and Neck Muscles
o Facial muscles
§
____________________—raises eyebrows
§
____________________—closes eyes, squints, blinks, winks
§
____________________—closes mouth and protrudes the lips
§
____________________—flattens the cheek, chews
§
____________________—raises corners of the mouth
o Chewing muscles
§
____________________—closes the jaw and elevates mandible
§
____________________—synergist of the masseter, closes jaw
o Neck muscles
§
_____________________—pulls the corners of the mouth inferiorly
§
_____________________—flexes the neck, rotates the head
§ Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm
o Anterior muscles
§
______________________—adducts and flexes the humerus
§
Intercostal muscles
•
__________________________—raise rib cage during inhalation
•
__________________________—depress the rib cage to move air out of the lungs
when you exhale forcibly
§
Muscles of the abdominal girdle
•
________________________—flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal
contents (defecation, childbirth, forced breathing)
•
________________________—flex vertebral column; rotate trunk and bend it
laterally
•
________________________—compresses abdominal contents
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o Posterior muscles
§
______________________—elevates, depresses, adducts, and stabilizes the scapula
§
______________________—extends and adducts the humerus
§
______________________—back extension
§
______________________—flexes the spine laterally
§
______________________—arm abduction
§ Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm
o Muscles of the Upper Limb
§
_______________________—supinates forearm, flexes elbow
§
_______________________—elbow flexion
§
_______________________—weak muscle
§
_______________________—elbow extension (antagonist to biceps brachii)
o Muscles of Pelvis, Hip, Thigh
§
_______________________—hip extension
§
_______________________—hip abduction, steadies pelvis when walking
§
_______________________—hip flexion, keeps the upper body from falling backward when
standing erect
§
_______________________—adduct the thighs
§ Muscles causing movement at the knee joint
o Hamstring group—thigh extension and knee flexion
§
§
§
o Sartorius—flexes the thigh
o Quadriceps group—extends the knee
§
§
§
§
§ Muscles causing movement at ankle and foot
o _______________________________________—dorsiflexion and foot inversion
o _______________________________________—toe extension and dorsiflexion of the foot
o __________________________—plantar flexion, everts the foot
o __________________________—plantar flexion
Be sure to review OLD quizzes with Corrections!
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