elements-compounds-mixtures

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Introduction to the
Periodic Table
I am Dmitri Mendeleev!
I made the PERIODIC TABLE !
What is the PERIODIC TABLE?
o
Shows all known
elements in the universe.
o
Organizes the elements
by chemical properties.
HOW MANY ELEMENTS
IN THE PERIODIC TABLE?
118 ELEMENTS
How do you read the
PERIODIC TABLE?
What is the ATOMIC NUMBER?
o
o
The number of
protons found in the
nucleus of an atom
Or
The number of
electrons surrounding
the nucleus of an
atom.
What is the SYMBOL?
o
An abbreviation of
the element name.
What is the ATOMIC WEIGHT?
o
The number of protons
and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom.
How do I find the number of protons,
electrons, and neutrons in an element
using the periodic table?
o
# of PROTONS
= ATOMIC NUMBER
o
# of ELECTRONS = ATOMIC NUMBER
o
# of NEUTRONS = ATOMIC _ ATOMIC
WEIGHT
NUMBER
What is an ELEMENT?
o
A substance
composed of a
single kind of atom.
o
Cannot be broken
down into another
substance by
chemical or physical
means.
MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENTS IN EARTH:
1. OXYGEN
2. SILICON
3. ALUMINUM
4. IRON
5. CALCIUM
6. OTHERS
– 47%
– 28%
– 8%
– 4.5%
– 3.5%
– 9.5
WHAT ARE THE 3
TYPES OF
ELEMENTS?
Metals
Properties of Metals
Metals appear to the left of the dark zig-zag line
on the periodic table. Most metals are solid at
room temperature except MERCURY.
Properties of Metals
Metals have
shiny metallic
(metallic or nonmetallic).
Properties of Metals
Malleable
metals can
be hammered
into sheets
Properties of Metals
Ductile
metals can be
drawn into wire.
Properties of Metals
Conductors
Metals are
good
conductors of
electricity and
heat
Properties of Metals
Metals have a high
boiling point.
melting point and
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
•SHINY SURFACE
•DUCTILE
•MALLEABLE
•CONDUCTORS OF HEAT AND ELECTRICITY
•HIGH MELTING AND BOILING POINT
Nonmetals
Properties of Nonmetals
Nonmetals occur to the right of the dark zig-zag on
the periodic table. Although Hydrogen is in family 1, it
is also a nonmetal. Many nonmetals are
gases at room temperature.
Properties of Nonmetals
Nonmetals
have
nonmetallic
luster; they
tend to be
dull.
Properties of Nonmetals
Brittle
Nonmetals are
brittle so they
break easily.
Properties of Nonmetals
Nonmetals
have low
density.
Properties of Nonmetals
They also have a
low melting point.
This is why they
are poor
conductors of
heat and
electricity.
PROPERTIES OF NON-METAL
•DULL SURFACES
•BRITTLE
•POOR HEAT CONDUCTORS
•LOW MELTING POINT AND BOILING POINT
Metalloids
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids can be found clustered around the
dark zig-zag line that separates
nonmetals.
metals and
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids (metal-like)
have properties of
both metals and
nonmetals.
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids are solids
that can be
shiny or dull.
Properties of Metalloids
They are “okay”
conductors of
electricity and
heat - better than
nonmetals but not
as well as metals.
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids can
be
malleable and
ductile but not
always.
If a substance can be pulled
into thin wires and is a dull tan
color, what is it?
metalloid
If you have a copper colored
material that you can hammer
into the shape of a coin what
do you have?
metal
If you find something that
does not reflect light very well,
keeps you warm, and will just
tear if you stretch it, what do
you have?
nonmetal
METAL OR NONMETAL
OR METALLOIDS?
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•MANGANESE
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•RADON
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•SILICON
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•GOLD
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•TELLURIUM
METAL OR NONMETAL OR METALLOIDS?
•HYDROGEN
BY: TEACHER JENNY
M2 SCIENCE
A MATTER OF FACT
MATTER
• IS ANYTHING THAT OCCUPY SPACE AND HAS A MASS.
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
ROCKS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
COPPER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
JELLY BEANS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TABLE SUGAR
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
DIAMOND
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TEA
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALT
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
NEON GAS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALAD
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
PURE WATER
ELEMENTS
• PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
ELEMENTS
• THE SIMPLEST FORM OF MATTER.
• MADE OF ONLY ONE TYPE OF PARTICLE : ATOM
ATOM
• THE SMALLEST PARTICLE IN AN ELEMENT
ATOM
• BASIC UNIT OF MATTER
• STRUCTURE=
PROTONS
+
ELECTRONS
-
NEUTRONS
O
• CANNOT BREAK DOWN FURTHER
WHAT ARE
PROTONS?
++ +
+ + +
+ +
-
-
+
• POSITIVELY CHARGED
-
PARTICLES (+)
-
• HELP MAKE UP THE
NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM
• EQUAL TO THE ATOMIC
NUMBER OF THE ATOM
• CONTRIBUTE TO THE
ATOMIC MASS
• EQUAL TO THE NUMBER
OF ELECTRONS
WHAT ARE
NEUTRONS?
-
-
PARTICLES; HAVE
NO ELECTRIC
CHARGE
++ +
+ + +
+ +
-
-
• NEUTRAL
-
• HELP MAKE UP
THE NUCLEUS OF
THE ATOM
-
• CONTRIBUTE TO
THE ATOMIC
MASS
WHAT ARE
ELECTRONS?
• NEGATIVELY CHARGED
++ +
+ + +
+ +
-
-
-
PARTICLES (-)
-
• FOUND OUTSIDE THE
NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM
IN THE ELECTRON
ORBITS/LEVELS
How is the Atom’s Center Formed?
Protons and neutrons are grouped together to
form the “center” or nucleus of an atom
Notice that the electrons are not apart of the nucleus
-
-
+
-
+ +
-
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
• ATOMIC NUMBER = NUMBER
OF PROTONS
HOW ARE ATOMS
DESCRIBED?
• IN A NEUTRAL ATOM, THE #
OF PROTONS = THE # OF
ELECTRONS
• ATOMIC MASS= THE
NUMBER OF PROTONS + THE
NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
• the number of
protons in the
nucleus of an
atom
What is Atomic
Number?
-
-
+
++
-
What would be the atomic number of this
atom?
WHAT IS THE ATOMIC
MASS?
What would be the atomic
mass of this atom?
+
• THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS
AND NEUTRONS IN AN ATOM’S
NUCLEUS
• EXPRESSED IN ATOMIC MASS
UNITS (AMU)
• EACH PROTON OR NEUTRON
HAS A MASS OF 1 AMU
-
3
+
++
 4
3 protons + 4 neutrons = an
atomic mass of 7 amu
Why did we not account for the
electrons when calculating the mass
number?
-
-
OXYGEN (O) ATOM
• NOTICE THE TWO ELECTRONS IN THE FIRST ORBITAL/LEVEL
AND THE SIX IN THE SECOND
Bohr Diagram
P = Atomic #
________
E=P
________
N = Atomic
Mass – Atomic #
________
PURE SUBSTANCES
• A SAMPLE OF MATTER THAT HAS DEFINITE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES.
COMPOUNDS
PURE SUBSTANCE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE
DIFFERENT ELEMENTS JOINED BY CHEMICAL
BONDS.
•SMALLEST PARTICLE IN A COMPOUND IS
MOLECULE
•HAS A CHEMICAL FORMULA
•CAN ONLY BE SEPARATED BY
CHEMICAL MEANS, NOT PHYSICALLY
MIXTURES
• A COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE PURE SUBSTANCES THAT ARE NOT
CHEMICALLY COMBINED.
•STIRRING
•SHAKING
•MIXING
• DISSOLVING
Chem4kids.com
MIXTURES
•SUBSTANCES HELD TOGETHER BY PHYSICAL
FORCES, NOT CHEMICAL
•NO CHEMICAL CHANGE TAKES PLACE
•EACH ITEM RETAINS ITS PROPERTIES
IN THE MIXTURE
•THEY CAN BE SEPARATED PHYSICALLY
Chem4kids.com
MIXTURES VS. COMPOUNDS
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/elements_com_mix_6.shtml
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING?
YOU WILL BE SHOWN A SERIES OF PHOTOS. TELL IF EACH PHOTO REPRESENTS
AN ITEM COMPOSED OF AN ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR MIXTURE.
REVIEW:
• AN ELEMENT CONTAINS JUST ONE TYPE OF ATOM.
• A COMPOUND CONTAINS TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT ATOMS JOINED
TOGETHER.
• A MIXTURE CONTAINS TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES THAT ARE
ONLY PHYSICALLY JOINED TOGETHER, NOT CHEMICALLY.
• A MIXTURE CAN CONTAIN BOTH ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS.
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
ROCKS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
ROCKS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
COPPER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
COPPER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
JELLY BEANS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
JELLY BEANS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TABLE SUGAR
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TABLE SUGAR
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
DIAMOND
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
DIAMOND
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TEA
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
TEA
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALT
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALT
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
NEON GAS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
NEON GAS
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALAD
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SALAD
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
PURE WATER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
PURE WATER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
ALUMINUM
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
ALUMINUM
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
LEMONADE
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
LEMONADE
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SILVER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SILVER
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SAND
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR
MIXTURE?
SAND
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