The History of Turkey The Turkish started to settle in Anatolia in the early 11th century A.D. by continual migration and invasions. The Malazgirt victory in 1071 A.D. against the Byzantines, opened up the gates of Anatolia to the Turkic. It is following this date that they fully conquered the whole of Anatolia and established the Anatolian Seljuk State there. This was the first Turkish State in Anatolia and was sometimes called, “The Konya Sultanate”. The Seljuk State rapidly declined with the Mongol invasion of Anatolia which started in 1243 A.D. During the period of the decline of the Anatolian Seljuk state and after its disappearance, many Turcoman principalities were established in Anatolia towards the end of the thirteenth century. One of these was the Ottoman Beylik, it was named after its founder, a Turkish ruler named Osman in 1299 A.D. in the area of Söğüt in Eskişehir in the northwestern corner of the peninsula. The Ottoman Beylik rapidly expanded throughout the fourteenth century and thus arose the Ottoman Empire, which ruled over a vast territory on three continents and lasted for 623 years until the end of WWI (“A Brief Outline of Turkish History”). The Romans invaded Turkey and by the middle of the first century B.C., they controlled all of Anatolia. In 324 B.C. Constantine I moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the ancient city of Byzance and renamed it Constantinople. This move divided the empire into two segments, the East and the West. Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire (“Turkey - History & Background”). Turkey formally entered World War I on October 28, 1914 when they bombed of Russian Black Sea ports. The Triple Entente, or Allied Powers, declared war on the Ottoman Empire on November 4, 1914. Two major factors led to Ottoman involvement on the side of the Central Powers: German pressure, and the opportunism of Turkish minister of war, Enver Pasha. The German military mission of 1913 to Turkey when Liman von Sanders organized the Turkish army and navy under German leadership and brought forth the Turco-German Alliance (“The Ottoman Empire Enters WW1 on the side of the Central Powers”).