Birth Control

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Birth Control
Veselina Tomova
Overview
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How pregnancy is prevented
Many options:
Birth Control Implant
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Inserted under the skin of the upper arm
Tiny, thin rod about the size of a matchstick
Releases progestin which stops ovulation
Thickens the cervical mucus
Can be easily removed
Can get pregnant quickly after removal
Side effects: spotting; longer, heavier periods
Does not prevent STDs
Requires doctor or nurse
IUD (Intrauterine Device)
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Small piece of flexible plastic
Shaped like a “T”
Easily removed
Can get pregnant quickly after
removal
Requires doctor or nurse
Does not prevent STDs
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Hormonal IUD
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3-6 years
Sops ovulation + thickens cervical
mucus
Copper IUD
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12 years
No hormones
Prevent sperm entry to uterus
Prevent implantation
Birth Control Shot
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Injection of progestin
Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus
Have to get it on time to be effective
Wears off after 2 weeks if stopped
10+ months before you can get pregnant
Requires doctor or nurse
Does not prevent STDs
Birth Control Vaginal Ring
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Inserted inside the vagina
Releases progestin and estrogen
Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus
Replacement rings stored at room temperature
Can be used to have or not to have a period
Prescription required
Does not prevent STDs
Birth Control Patch
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Adhesive patch stuck on skin
Worn on belly, upper arm, butt, or back
Releases progestin and estrogen
Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus
Can have or not have period
Can get pregnant quickly after removal
Designed to stay on while
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Swimming, sweating, bathing, sauna etc.
Prescription required
Does not prevent STDs
Birth Control Pill
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Pills taken daily
Release progestin + estrogen
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Combination pills
28 days or 21 days
Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus
Have to be consistent
Effective quickly
Can get pregnant quickly after stopped
Prescription required
Does not prevent STDs
Condom
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Covers the penis
Thin and stretchy
Latex, plastic, lambskin
Collects sperm
Over-the-counter
Protects from STDs
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No contact with bodily fluids
Oral, vaginal, anal
Female Condom
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Inserted in the vagina
Soft plastic pouch
Comes lubricated
Inserted like a tampon
Can be inserted before sex
Quickly becoming more available
Over-the-counter
Protects from STDs
Diaphragm
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Shallow, bendable cup
Soft silicone
Inserted in the vagina
Covers the cervix
Works best with spermicide
Insert as you would a tampon
Reusable
Prescription required
Does not prevent STDs
Birth Control Sponge
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Small, round
Soft, squishy plastic sponge with a fabric loop
Inserted in vagina like a tampon
Covers cervix
Already contains spermicide
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Wet it with water to activate it
Not reusable
Leave 6 hours after sex (no more than 30 hours)
Cannot be used during your period
Over-the-counter
Does not prevent STDs
Cervical Cap
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Soft silicone
Sailor’s hat
Smaller than diaphragm
Can be left up to 2 days (48 hours)
Works best with spermicide
Reusable
Prescription required
Does not prevent STDs
Spermicide
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Chemical put inside the vagina
Stops sperm from swimming to the eggs
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Doesn’t actually kill sperm
Can be used with other methods
Creams, gels, foams, suppositories, etc.
Apply shortly before sex
Do not apply excessively
Won’t damage condoms
Over-the-counter
Does not prevent STDs
Fertility Awareness Methods (FAMs)
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Temperature method:
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Calendar method:
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Take temperature in the morning
every day before getting out of bed
Charting your menstrual cycle
Cervical mucus method:
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Checking your cervical mucus
(vaginal discharge) every day
Symptothermal Method
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Dedication required
No sex on certain days
Very informed about menstrual
cycle
Does not prevent STDs
Withdrawal
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A. k. a. “the pull out method” and
“coitus interruptus”
Ejaculation outside the vagina and
vulva
Works best with another birth
control method
Has to be done consistently
Requires dedication, skill,
experience, and self-control
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Man has to know when he’ll
ejaculate
Does not prevent STDs
Lactational Amenorrhea
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Breastfeeding as birth control
Works only if done a certain way
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Every 4 hours during the day
Every 6 hours during the night
Feed only breast milk
Don’t use a breast pump
Stops ovulation + period
Works up to 6 months after birth
Takes dedication
Does not prevent STDs
Outercourse and Abstinence
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Outercourse
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Other sexual activities besides vaginal sex
Oral, anal, intercrural, grinding, kissing,
masturbating
Does not prevent STDs
Abstinence
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No sexual activity
Subjective
Protects from STDs
Dedication + willpower
Tubal Ligation
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A. k. a. sterilization, female sterilization,
and “getting your tubes tied”
Surgical procedure
Blocks/closes the fallopian tubes
Still get period
Permanent
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Reversal is difficult & expensive
IVF may be effective
Does not prevent STDs
Tubal Ligation
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Essure
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Done through the vagina and cervix
No incisions
Tiny coils inserted in the tubes; tissue grows around them after about 3 months
Safer, shorter, and only local anesthesia
Laparoscopy
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Most common
Local & general anesthesia
Small incision on belly (small scarring)
A laparoscope finds fallopian tubes and closes them
Vasectomy
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A. k. a. male sterilization
Surgical procedure
Vas deferens in the scrotum are cut or
blocked
Still ejaculate, but there will be no sperm in
semen
No sperm after 3 months
Does not prevent STDs
Vasectomy
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Incision method
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Small cuts on the scrotum
Part removed
Blocked with clips
Closed with electrical current
(cauterized)
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No-scalpel method
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Lower risk of infection
Less time to heal
Small hole
Tie off, cauterize, or block
Emergency Contraception
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After unprotected sex or if you
messed up other BC method
Stops ovulation
Copper IUD
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5 days (120 hours)
Most effective (99%)
Morning-after pill
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Ulipristal acetate
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Prescription (5 days)
Levonorgestrel
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Over-the-counter (3 days)
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Should not be used regularly
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Not as effective as other methods
Causes bleeding between periods,
nausea, etc.
Thank You For the Attention!
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