Birth Control Veselina Tomova Overview How pregnancy is prevented Many options: Birth Control Implant Inserted under the skin of the upper arm Tiny, thin rod about the size of a matchstick Releases progestin which stops ovulation Thickens the cervical mucus Can be easily removed Can get pregnant quickly after removal Side effects: spotting; longer, heavier periods Does not prevent STDs Requires doctor or nurse IUD (Intrauterine Device) Small piece of flexible plastic Shaped like a “T” Easily removed Can get pregnant quickly after removal Requires doctor or nurse Does not prevent STDs Hormonal IUD 3-6 years Sops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus Copper IUD 12 years No hormones Prevent sperm entry to uterus Prevent implantation Birth Control Shot Injection of progestin Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus Have to get it on time to be effective Wears off after 2 weeks if stopped 10+ months before you can get pregnant Requires doctor or nurse Does not prevent STDs Birth Control Vaginal Ring Inserted inside the vagina Releases progestin and estrogen Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus Replacement rings stored at room temperature Can be used to have or not to have a period Prescription required Does not prevent STDs Birth Control Patch Adhesive patch stuck on skin Worn on belly, upper arm, butt, or back Releases progestin and estrogen Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus Can have or not have period Can get pregnant quickly after removal Designed to stay on while Swimming, sweating, bathing, sauna etc. Prescription required Does not prevent STDs Birth Control Pill Pills taken daily Release progestin + estrogen Combination pills 28 days or 21 days Stops ovulation + thickens cervical mucus Have to be consistent Effective quickly Can get pregnant quickly after stopped Prescription required Does not prevent STDs Condom Covers the penis Thin and stretchy Latex, plastic, lambskin Collects sperm Over-the-counter Protects from STDs No contact with bodily fluids Oral, vaginal, anal Female Condom Inserted in the vagina Soft plastic pouch Comes lubricated Inserted like a tampon Can be inserted before sex Quickly becoming more available Over-the-counter Protects from STDs Diaphragm Shallow, bendable cup Soft silicone Inserted in the vagina Covers the cervix Works best with spermicide Insert as you would a tampon Reusable Prescription required Does not prevent STDs Birth Control Sponge Small, round Soft, squishy plastic sponge with a fabric loop Inserted in vagina like a tampon Covers cervix Already contains spermicide Wet it with water to activate it Not reusable Leave 6 hours after sex (no more than 30 hours) Cannot be used during your period Over-the-counter Does not prevent STDs Cervical Cap Soft silicone Sailor’s hat Smaller than diaphragm Can be left up to 2 days (48 hours) Works best with spermicide Reusable Prescription required Does not prevent STDs Spermicide Chemical put inside the vagina Stops sperm from swimming to the eggs Doesn’t actually kill sperm Can be used with other methods Creams, gels, foams, suppositories, etc. Apply shortly before sex Do not apply excessively Won’t damage condoms Over-the-counter Does not prevent STDs Fertility Awareness Methods (FAMs) Temperature method: Calendar method: Take temperature in the morning every day before getting out of bed Charting your menstrual cycle Cervical mucus method: Checking your cervical mucus (vaginal discharge) every day Symptothermal Method Dedication required No sex on certain days Very informed about menstrual cycle Does not prevent STDs Withdrawal A. k. a. “the pull out method” and “coitus interruptus” Ejaculation outside the vagina and vulva Works best with another birth control method Has to be done consistently Requires dedication, skill, experience, and self-control Man has to know when he’ll ejaculate Does not prevent STDs Lactational Amenorrhea Breastfeeding as birth control Works only if done a certain way Every 4 hours during the day Every 6 hours during the night Feed only breast milk Don’t use a breast pump Stops ovulation + period Works up to 6 months after birth Takes dedication Does not prevent STDs Outercourse and Abstinence Outercourse Other sexual activities besides vaginal sex Oral, anal, intercrural, grinding, kissing, masturbating Does not prevent STDs Abstinence No sexual activity Subjective Protects from STDs Dedication + willpower Tubal Ligation A. k. a. sterilization, female sterilization, and “getting your tubes tied” Surgical procedure Blocks/closes the fallopian tubes Still get period Permanent Reversal is difficult & expensive IVF may be effective Does not prevent STDs Tubal Ligation Essure Done through the vagina and cervix No incisions Tiny coils inserted in the tubes; tissue grows around them after about 3 months Safer, shorter, and only local anesthesia Laparoscopy Most common Local & general anesthesia Small incision on belly (small scarring) A laparoscope finds fallopian tubes and closes them Vasectomy A. k. a. male sterilization Surgical procedure Vas deferens in the scrotum are cut or blocked Still ejaculate, but there will be no sperm in semen No sperm after 3 months Does not prevent STDs Vasectomy Incision method Small cuts on the scrotum Part removed Blocked with clips Closed with electrical current (cauterized) No-scalpel method Lower risk of infection Less time to heal Small hole Tie off, cauterize, or block Emergency Contraception After unprotected sex or if you messed up other BC method Stops ovulation Copper IUD 5 days (120 hours) Most effective (99%) Morning-after pill Ulipristal acetate Prescription (5 days) Levonorgestrel Over-the-counter (3 days) Should not be used regularly Not as effective as other methods Causes bleeding between periods, nausea, etc. Thank You For the Attention!