Unit 4 study night

Unit 4 Study Night
Task 1: Vocabulary Terms
 1. Organism
2. Cell
3. Unicellular
 4. Multicellular
5. Stimulus
 7. Development
8. Spontaneous Generation
6. Response
 9. Homeostasis10. Classification 11. Taxonomy
 12. Binomial Nomenclature
13. Prokaryote
 14. Eukaryote 15. Organelle
16. Cell Wall
 17. Cell Membrane
18. Cytoplasm
 19. Mitochondria
20. Endoplasmic Reticulum
 21. Ribosome 22. Golgi Body
 24. Vacuole
23. Chloroplast
25. Lysosome
 27. Nuclear Membrane 28. Nucleolus
26. Nucleus
Characteristics of Living
 Cell Theory: 1) All organisms are made of a cell or cells
 2) All cells come from other cells 3) Cells are the basic unit of
 Robert Hooke: 1st observed cork cells
 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: perhaps first using microscopes,
described organisms as :animalcules: or “wee beasties”
 Matthias Schleiden: 1st to state plants are made of cells
 Theodor Schwann: 1st to state animals are made of cells
 Rudolph Virchow: New cells come from pre-existing cells.
Characteristics of Organisms
 1) Growth: Adding more cells to the body increasing in size
and mass (changing food into more of you!)
 2) Development: Progressing through the stages of life
 3) Respond to Stimuli: Have reactions to changes in
surroundings. Stimuli cause changes, responses are reactions
to stimuli
 4) Use energy: have some sort of food source that is broken
down for energy. Autotrophs make their own; heterotrophs
must take it in
 5) Reproduce: create offspring. Asexual, Sexual
Task 3: Classification
 Origin of Classification
 Carolus Linnaeus developed the binomial nomenclature
system giving every organism 2 names, 1 genus and 1
species name.
 Used Latin to name them to avoid confusion among
worldwide scientists.
 Example: Mountain Lion: Felis concolor or Felis concolor
 Means cat of uniform color
Levels of Classification
 Domain: there are 3: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya. The first
two are prokaryotes (no nucleus) and Eukarya are eukaryotes
(have a nucleus)
 Kingdom: A domain is broken down into separate but
loosely related kingdoms containing more closely related
organisms. The domain Eukarya is divided into 4 kingdoms:
Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protist
 Phylum: A single kingdom is divided into several phyla.
For example, the Animal kingdom is divided into 35 different
 Class: Each single phylum is divided into different classes.
For example, the chordate phylum has 7 different classes.
Taxonomy continued
 Order: A single class is divided into several different
orders. For example, the mammal class has approximately
26 orders. (scientists argue this number)
 Family: A single order is divided into several different
families. For example, there are 15 families in the primate
 Genus: A single family is divided into several different
genera (plural for genus). For example, there are 4 genera in
the Hominid family (contains humans)
 Species: A single genus is broken down into the individual
species with the same genus name. For example: humans
are Homo sapiens which are different from the extinct
species Homo neanderthalensis which has the same genus
name but were a different species of human.
Taxonomy summary
 If the test question ask what a group is divided into, look
down on the DKPCOFGS scale.
 If the question asks groups of similar organisms make up a
_____ look up on the scale.
Dichotomous Keys
 2 part instruments used to identify organisms
 Always start at 1A. If the statement of 1A is true, follow
directions at the end of the sentence. If 1A is not true, go to
Simple Dichotomous Key
Cell Organelles
Starting from the inside out
What is in the nucleus?
 Nucleus: Contains the chromosomes (made up of DNA)
which carry all the instructions for making identical cells.
 Nucleolus: makes ribosomes (which make protein outside
the nucleus)
 Chromatin: long thread-like structures containing all the
DNA in the cell. Becomes chromosomes during cell
 Nuclear Membrane: Allows materials into and out of
nucleus. Ex. Ribosomes leave the nucleus to go to the ER
and cytoplasm to produce proteins.
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
 Cytoplasm: gooey gel between the nucleus and the cell
membrane. Gives the cell shape and some chemical
reactions occur here.
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): long channels
covered with ribosomes (why it’s called rough) connecting to
the nucleus. Responsible for producing and modifying
 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): channels found in
the cytoplasm. These produce hormones and fatty
substances to be used by the cell.
Cytoplasm Organelles cont.
 Golgi bodies: Modify, sort and package (by wrapping a thin
membrane around) proteins for delivery through the cell.
Sometimes called the UPS of the cell. They also transport
fats and form lysosomes.
 Lysosomes: Small membrane bound structures that contain
powerful digestive proteins. Used to destroy the cell if the
cell becomes abnormal or attacked by viruses. Helps digest
food taken in by the cell and break down waste.
 Mitochondria: organelle surrounded by a double membrane
responsible for breaking down sugar and releasing ATP for
 Vacuoles: storage structures for the cell particularly food.
Cell (Plasma) Membrane
Cell Membrane
 Double layer structure
 Semipermeable: meaning it allows some materials into the
cell but not others.
 The cell sometimes uses energy to bring materials into the
cell or to transport materials out of the cell.
Plant Cell Differences
Plant/Animal Cell Differences
 Cell Wall: tough rectangular covering of the plant cell. Still
allows some materials into and out of the cell.
 Chloroplast: double membrane structure containing DNA
and chlorophyll. Is where plants do photosynthesis.
 Central Vacuole: large structure used to store water for the
plant cell. Helps hold the plant upright when full of water.
When it loses water the plant wilts.
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