Unit 4 Study Night 1-8-19 Task 1: Vocabulary Terms 1. Organism 2. Cell 3. Unicellular 4. Multicellular 5. Stimulus 7. Development 8. Spontaneous Generation 6. Response 9. Homeostasis10. Classification 11. Taxonomy 12. Binomial Nomenclature 13. Prokaryote 14. Eukaryote 15. Organelle 16. Cell Wall 17. Cell Membrane 18. Cytoplasm 19. Mitochondria 20. Endoplasmic Reticulum 21. Ribosome 22. Golgi Body 24. Vacuole 23. Chloroplast 25. Lysosome 27. Nuclear Membrane 28. Nucleolus 26. Nucleus Characteristics of Living Things Cell Theory: 1) All organisms are made of a cell or cells 2) All cells come from other cells 3) Cells are the basic unit of life. Robert Hooke: 1st observed cork cells Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: perhaps first using microscopes, described organisms as :animalcules: or “wee beasties” Matthias Schleiden: 1st to state plants are made of cells Theodor Schwann: 1st to state animals are made of cells Rudolph Virchow: New cells come from pre-existing cells. Characteristics of Organisms 1) Growth: Adding more cells to the body increasing in size and mass (changing food into more of you!) 2) Development: Progressing through the stages of life 3) Respond to Stimuli: Have reactions to changes in surroundings. Stimuli cause changes, responses are reactions to stimuli 4) Use energy: have some sort of food source that is broken down for energy. Autotrophs make their own; heterotrophs must take it in 5) Reproduce: create offspring. Asexual, Sexual Task 3: Classification Origin of Classification Carolus Linnaeus developed the binomial nomenclature system giving every organism 2 names, 1 genus and 1 species name. Used Latin to name them to avoid confusion among worldwide scientists. Example: Mountain Lion: Felis concolor or Felis concolor Means cat of uniform color Levels of Classification Domain: there are 3: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya. The first two are prokaryotes (no nucleus) and Eukarya are eukaryotes (have a nucleus) Kingdom: A domain is broken down into separate but loosely related kingdoms containing more closely related organisms. The domain Eukarya is divided into 4 kingdoms: Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protist Phylum: A single kingdom is divided into several phyla. For example, the Animal kingdom is divided into 35 different phyla. Class: Each single phylum is divided into different classes. For example, the chordate phylum has 7 different classes. Taxonomy continued Order: A single class is divided into several different orders. For example, the mammal class has approximately 26 orders. (scientists argue this number) Family: A single order is divided into several different families. For example, there are 15 families in the primate order. Genus: A single family is divided into several different genera (plural for genus). For example, there are 4 genera in the Hominid family (contains humans) Species: A single genus is broken down into the individual species with the same genus name. For example: humans are Homo sapiens which are different from the extinct species Homo neanderthalensis which has the same genus name but were a different species of human. Taxonomy summary If the test question ask what a group is divided into, look down on the DKPCOFGS scale. If the question asks groups of similar organisms make up a _____ look up on the scale. Dichotomous Keys 2 part instruments used to identify organisms Always start at 1A. If the statement of 1A is true, follow directions at the end of the sentence. If 1A is not true, go to 1B Simple Dichotomous Key Cell Organelles Starting from the inside out What is in the nucleus? Nucleus: Contains the chromosomes (made up of DNA) which carry all the instructions for making identical cells. Nucleolus: makes ribosomes (which make protein outside the nucleus) Chromatin: long thread-like structures containing all the DNA in the cell. Becomes chromosomes during cell division. Nuclear Membrane: Allows materials into and out of nucleus. Ex. Ribosomes leave the nucleus to go to the ER and cytoplasm to produce proteins. Organelles in the Cytoplasm Organelles in the Cytoplasm Cytoplasm: gooey gel between the nucleus and the cell membrane. Gives the cell shape and some chemical reactions occur here. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): long channels covered with ribosomes (why it’s called rough) connecting to the nucleus. Responsible for producing and modifying proteins. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): channels found in the cytoplasm. These produce hormones and fatty substances to be used by the cell. Cytoplasm Organelles cont. Golgi bodies: Modify, sort and package (by wrapping a thin membrane around) proteins for delivery through the cell. Sometimes called the UPS of the cell. They also transport fats and form lysosomes. Lysosomes: Small membrane bound structures that contain powerful digestive proteins. Used to destroy the cell if the cell becomes abnormal or attacked by viruses. Helps digest food taken in by the cell and break down waste. Mitochondria: organelle surrounded by a double membrane responsible for breaking down sugar and releasing ATP for energy Vacuoles: storage structures for the cell particularly food. Cell (Plasma) Membrane Cell Membrane Double layer structure Semipermeable: meaning it allows some materials into the cell but not others. The cell sometimes uses energy to bring materials into the cell or to transport materials out of the cell. Plant Cell Differences Plant/Animal Cell Differences Cell Wall: tough rectangular covering of the plant cell. Still allows some materials into and out of the cell. Chloroplast: double membrane structure containing DNA and chlorophyll. Is where plants do photosynthesis. Central Vacuole: large structure used to store water for the plant cell. Helps hold the plant upright when full of water. When it loses water the plant wilts.