The-Contemporary-World

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THE
CONTEMPORARY
WORLD
L.GARCIA 2018
DEFINING GLOBALIZATION
Over the years:
 Progress
 Development
 Integration
2
3
THOMAS LARSSON (2001)
 The process of world shrinkage, of distances
getting shorter, things moving closer.
 It pertains to the increasing ease with which
somebody on one side of the world can
interact to mutual benefit with somebody on
the other side of the world
4
MARTIN KHOR
> Occurring through and with regression,
colonialism, and destabilization
> Globalizaton as colonialism
5
Classification of Definitions
1.
Broad and Inclusive- can include variety of issues but does not
shed light on the implications due to its vagueness
2. Narrow and Exclusive- better justified but can be limiting due
to their application adhere to only particular definitions
Ohmae (1992)
 Globalizations means the onset of borderless world (broad and
inclusive)
6
Robert Cox
> The characteristics of the globalization trend include
the internationalizing of production, the new
international division of labor, new migratory
movements from south to north, the new
competitive environment that accelerates these
processes, the internationalizing of the state..making
states into agencies of globalization (narrow and
exclusive)
7
Ritzer (2015)
> Globalization is a transplanetary process or a
set of processes involving increasing liquidity
and the growing multidirectional flows of
people, objects,places, information as well as
the structures they encounter and create that
are barriers to, or expedite, those flows
8
Robertson (1992), in his article, Globalization: Social Theory and Global
Culture,
defined globalization as the “understanding of the world and the
increased perception of the world as a whole.”
Albrow and King (1990)
defined globalization as “all those processes by which the people of the
world are incorporated into a single world society. This means that
peoples around the globe live in a borderless community.
9
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METAPHORS OF GLOBALIZATION
SOLIDITY
 Refers to barriers that prevent or make difficult the movement
of things
LIQUIDITY
 Refers to the increasing ease of movement of people, things,
information, and places in the contemporary world
e.g. stock market, unstoppable social media uploads
11
FLOWS
 Are movement of people, things, places, and
information brought by the growing “ porosity”
of global limitations (Ritzer, 2015)
e.g. patronizing foods introduced by foreign
cultures
12
Activity:
1.
Answer the following questions:
a. Enumerate at least three of the most recent
songs you have listened. Where did they
originate? Identify the nationality of the
writer and or artist for each music
13
b. What gadgets or devices do you usually use to
listen to music?
c. Where were these gadgets or devices made?
Where is the company based?
d. How did you access these music? Did you
purchase them online or listen to them
through Youtube, spotify, and other music
channels?
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2.
3.
Using visual representation, create your
generalizations and discuss: What is
globalization?
What metaphors are you going to use in
order to improve your own definition of
globalization?
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GLOBALIZATION THEORIES
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HOMOGENEITY
 Refers to the increasing sameness in the world
as cultural inputs, economic factors, and
political orientations of societies expand to
create common practices, same economies,
and similar forms of government.
 Homogeneity in culture is linked to cultural
imperialism
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e.g.
Christianity brought by Spaniards
Americanization
One size fits all by IMF
McWorld- one political orientation
Global Flow of Media- imposed by West
McDonaldization
18
HETEROGENEITY
> Creation of various cultural practices, new
economies, and political groups because of the
interaction of elements from different
societies in the world.
> Cultural Hybridization
19
THE FIVE CORE CLAIMS OF MARKET GLOBALISM
1.
Globalization is about the liberalization and global integration of
market.
> anchored in the neo—liberal ideal of self-regulating market as the
normative basis for a future global order.
> This perspective explains the relevant functions of free market-its
rationality and efficiency, as well as its alleged ability to bring about
greater social integration and material progress-can only be realized
in a democratic society that values and protects individual freedom.
2
2. Globalization is inevitable and irreversible.
The market-globalist perspective sees globalization as the spread
of irreversible market forces driven by technological innovations
that make the global integration of national economies inevitable.
As a matter of fact, market globalism is always interlaced with a
belief that markets have the capacity to use new technologies to
solve social problems.
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3. Nobody is in charge of globalization
 This claim highlights the semantic link between ‘globalization-market’
and the adjacent idea of ‘leaderlessness’.
 Robert Hormats (1998) opined that ‘The great beauty of globalization is
that no one is in control.’ This only means that no individual, no
government or no institution has the control over globalization.
 Thomas Friedman (1999:112-3) emphasized that the most basic truth
about globalization is this: ‘No one is in charge…But the global
marketplace today is an Electronic Herd of often anonymous stock,
bond, and currency traders and multinational investors, connected by
screens and networks.’
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4. Globalization benefits everyone.
> This lies at the heart of market globalism and represents a ‘good’
phenomenon.
> Globalization provides great opportunities for the future, not only for
our countries, but for all others, too.
> Its many positive aspects include an unprecedented expansion of
investment and trade; the opening up to international trade of the
world’s most populous regions and opportunities for more developing
countries to improve their standards of living; the increasingly rapid
dissemination of information, technological innovation, and the
proliferation of skilled jobs.
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5. Globalization furthers the spread of democracy in the world.
> Francis Fukuyama (2000) stressed that there exists a ‘clear
correlation’ between the country’s level of economic development and
successful democracy. While globalization and capital development do
not automatically produce democracies, ‘the level of economic
development resulting from globalization is conducive to the creation of
complex civil societies with a powerful middle class. It is this class and
societal structure that facilitates democracy’.
> The former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton (1999) praised the
Eastern Europe’s economic transition towards capitalism by saying, “The
emergence of new businesses and shopping centers in former
communist countries should be seen as the ‘backbone of democracy.’
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DYNAMICS OF LOCAL AND GLOBAL
CULTURE
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PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL CULTURAL FLOWS
1. CULTURAL DIFFERENTIALISM
2. CULTURAL HYBRIDIZATION
3. CULTURAL CONVERGENCE
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1. CULTURAL DIFFERENTIALISM
 Emphasizes that cultures are essentially different and are superficially
affected by global flows
2. CULTURAL HYBRIDIZATION
 Emphasizes the integration of local and global cultures
 Glocalization ( global and local) - creating a unique outcomes in
different geographic areas
3. CULTURAL CONVERGENCE
 Stresses on homogeneity introduced by globalization
 Cultures are deemed to be radically altered by strong flows
 deterritorialization
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GLOBALIZATION OF RELIGION
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INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY
Express your understanding about this
phrase in an illustration( drawing),
“UNITY in DIVERSITY” showing the
interconnectedness of globalization and
religion.
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Assignment:
Watch the film, “The Rise of ISIS”
(http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/riseof-isis/).
Write a film review or reaction paper with the aid of the guide questions.
Properly cite references when you use facts and opinions that support
your claims.
What is your general impression of the film?
What is the general storyline of the movie?
Who are the actors who play major characters?
What are the strengths of the film? What about the weaknesses?
What evidences prove these in relation to your opening paragraph.
What is your final message to the audience in relation to your
introduction?
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Information Technologies, transportation means, and
media
> dissemination of religious ideas.
> internet allows forum and debates for spread of
religious ideas
Globalization has allowed religion or faith to gain
considerable significance and importance as a non
territorial touchstone of identity
31
Turner 2007
> Globalization transforms the generic “religion” into a world-system of
competing and conflicting religions.
32
Religion in Global Conflict
Religious ideas, values, symbols and rites relate to deep issues of
existence; it should not be surprising when religion enters the
picture in times of crisis.
The ere of globalization brought with it three (3) enormous
problems, namely:
Identity
Accountability
Security
33
Religion provides answer to these concerns:
> It provides a sense of identity
> Traditional religious leadership provides a sense
of accountability
> Religion offers a sense of security
34
Assignment:
The World: In the Lens of OFW
1. Interview a former or a current OFW. (Ensure anonymity and Identity)
2. Use the following guide questions:
How long have you stayed abroad?
What are your purposes for your stay there?
What were your most unforgettable experiences there? How will you
describe them? Good or Bad?
How will you compare the Philippines with other countries?
Do you want to go back abroad in the future? Why or Why not?
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Global Migration
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DECODING
1. Share with the class your viewpoints regarding the
statistics presented above.
2. Why do you think most Filipino workers choose to
work in Asia?
3. What does this statistics tell us?
4. Do you think international migration help the
economy of our country? Prove your stance.
5. Would you also choose to work abroad in the future?
Why or why not?
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Global Migration: Definitions and Types
Migration
means crossing the boundary of a political or administrative unit
for a certain minimum period (Boyle et al. 1998).
Internal migration
is the movement of people from one area like a province, a
district, or municipality to another within one country.
International migration
is the crossing the frontiers which separate one of the world’s
approximately 200 states from another.
40
Temporary labor migrants- who migrate for a limited period of time in
order to work and send remittances to families in the country of origin.
Highly-skilled and business migrants- people with qualifications such as the
managers, executives, professionals, technicians, and the like, who move
within the internal labor markets of transnational corporations and
international organizations.
Irregular migrants- also known as the undocumented or illegal migrants.
They enter the country in search for employment with no necessary
documents and permits.
41
Refugees- those who are unable or unwilling to return to their country
because of a ‘well-founded fear or persecution on account of race,
religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political
opinion.
Asylum seekers- those who move across borders in search of protection.
Forced migration- in a broader sense, this includes not only refugees and
asylum seekers but also people forced to move by environmental
catastrophes or development projects like new factories, roads or dams.
Family members- also known as family reunion or family reunification
migrants.
Return migrants- those who return to their countries of origin after a
period in another country.
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CAUSES OF MIGRATION
> Disparity in levels of income
> Employment
> Social well-being
> Differences in demographic patterns with regard to fertility,
mortality, age-structure, and labor-force growth
> According to neo-classical economic theory, the main cause of
migration is individual’s efforts to maximize their income by
moving from low-wage to high-wage economies
>Migration decisions are made not just by individuals- they often
represent family strategies to maximize income and survival
chances (Hugo, 1994).
43
Global Demography
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45
Article Reading
The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change
By Ronald Lee
(Retrieved from: http://www.economie.ens.fr/IMG/pdf/lee_ 2003.pdf.)
Before the start of the demographic transition, life was short, births were
many, growth was slow and the population was young. During the
transition, Žmortality and then fertility declined, causing population
growth rates first to accelerate and then to slow again, moving toward
low fertility, long life and an old population. The transition began around
1800 with declining mortality in Europe. It has now spread to all parts of
the world and is projected to be completed by 2100.
46
This global demographic transition has brought momentous changes,
reshaping the economic and demographic life cycles of individuals and
restructuring populations. Since 1800, global population size has already
increased by a factor of six and by 2100 will have risen by a factor of ten.
There will then be 50 times as many elderly, but only five times as many
children; thus, the ratio of elders to children will have risen by a factor of
ten. The length of life, which has already more than doubled, will have
tripled, while births per woman will have dropped from six to two. In
1800, women spent about 70 percent of their adult years bearing and
rearing young children, but that fraction has decreased in many parts of
the world to only about 14 percent, due to lower fertility and longer life.
47
Mortality Declines
> The world’s demographic transition started in northwest Europe, where
mortality began a secular decline around 1800.
> The first stage of mortality decline is due to reductions in contagious and
infectious diseases by air or water.
> Preventive medicine, small pox vaccine, played significantly in the
mortality decline in the eighteenth century.
> Improved personal hygiene also helped as income rose.
> The gem theory of diseases became more widely known and accepted.
> Another major factor in the early phases of growing life expectancy is
improvement in nutrition.
> Famine mortality was reduced by improvements in storage and
transportation
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> Secular increases in incomes led to improved nutrition in childhood and
throughout life
> Life expectancy is positively associated with height in the industrial
country populations (Fogel, 1994; Barker, 1992.)
> In recent decades, the continuing reduction in mortality is due to
reductions in chronic and degenerative diseases, notably heart disease
and cancer (Riley, 2001).
49
> In the later part of the century, publicly organized and funded biomedical
research has played an increasingly important part, and the human
genome project and stem cell research promise future gains.
> In India, life expectancy rose from around 24 years in 1920 to 62 years
today, a gain of .48 years per calendar year over 80 years. In China, life
expectancy rose from 41 in 1950–1955 to 70 in 1995–1999, a gain of .65
years per year over 45 years.
> On the optimistic side, Oeppen and Vaupel (2002) offer a remarkable
graph that plots the highest national female life expectancy attained for
each calendar year from 1840 to 2000.
50
> The points fall close to a straight line, starting at 45 years in Sweden and
ending at 85 years in Japan, with a slope of 2.4 years per decade. If we
boldly extend the line forward in time, it reaches 97.5 years by midcentury and 109 years by 2100.
> Less optimistic projections are based on extrapolation of trends in agespecific death rates over the past 50 or 100 years. This approach implies
more modest gains for the high-income nations of the world, with
average life expectancy approaching 90 years by the end of the twentyfirst century (Lee and Carter, 1992; Tuljapurkar, Li and Boe, 2000).
51
FERTILITY TRANSITION
> Between 1890 and 1920, marital fertility began to decline in most
European provinces, with a median decline of about 40 percent from
1870 to 1930 (Coale and Treadway, 1986, p. 44).
> Most economic theories of fertility start with the idea that couples wish
to have a certain number of surviving children, rather than births per se.
> Some of the improvement in child survival is itself a response to parental
decisions to invest more in the health and welfare of a smaller number
of children (Nerlove, 1974).
> These issues of parental investment in children suggest that fertility will
also be inŽinfluenced by how economic change influences the costs and
benefitsŽof childbearing.
> Bearing and rearing children is time intensive.
52
> Technological progress and increasing physical and human capital make labor
more productive, raising the value of time in all activities, which makes children
increasingly costly relative to consumption goods.
> Since women have had primary responsibility for childbearing and rearing,
variations in the productivity of women have been particularly important.
> Rising incomes have shifted consumption demand toward nonagricultural goods
and services, for which educated labor is a more important input.
> Overall, these patterns have several effects: children become more expensive,
their economic contributions are diminished by school time and educated
parents have higher value of time, which raises the opportunity costs of
childrearing.
> Furthermore, parents with higher incomes choose to devote more resources to
each child, and since this raises the cost of each child, it also leads to fewer
children (Becker, 1981; Willis, 1974, 1994).
53
POPULATION GROWTH
> The combination of fertility and mortality determines population growth.
> Between 1950 and 2050, the actual and projected trajectories for the More,
Less and Least Developed Countries are plotted.
> One is a trajectory for Europe from 1800 to 1950. The end point of this
trajectory in 1950 is quite close to the start point for the more developed
countries.
> The starting points of these demographic paths differ somewhat.
> India had higher initial fertility and mortality than Europe, as did the Least
Developed Countries relative to the Less Developed Countries in 1950, which
in turn had far higher mortality and fertility than the More Developed Countries in
that year.
54
> Except for India, the starting points all indicate moderate (for Europe) to
rapid (for Least and Less Developed Countries) population growth.
> There has been rapid global convergence in fertility and mortality among
nations over the past 50 years, although important differences remain.
> This convergence of fertility and mortality is in marked contrast to per
capita GDP, which has tended to diverge between high-income and lowincome countries during this time.
> Today, the median individual lives in a country with a total fertility rate of
2.3—barely above the 2.1 fertility rate of the United States—and a
median life expectancy at birth of 68 years compared to 77 years for the
United States (Wilson, 2001).
55
ASSIGNMENT:
Read the journal titled, A Concise History of World Population by Massimo Livi-Bacci,
(file:///C:/Users/Timoteo/Downloads/A_ Concise_ History_ of_ World_ Population.pdf),
then make an analysis using the format below.
1. Summary
Write the summary of the journal in your own words.
Avoid copying and pasting.
2. Insights
What are your reflections after reading the journal?
How does the article influence you as a citizen of the world?
56
GLOBAL
ECONOMY
57
“Why the regions around the globe have glaring differences when it
comes to economy?”
For the past centuries, the global economy has significantly
changed.
 In the 11th century, the long distance trading flourished between
Venice and the Netherlands.
 The woolen industry in the 13th century in Flanders
 14th century in Florence
 Those global changes have contributed much to the economy of
the world. There was the birth of CAPITALISM.
58
In Gary Gereffi’s journal:
The Global Economy: Organization, Governance, and
Development
> he mentioned that the global changes are attributed
to how the global economy is organized and governed.
He furthered that these changes give impact not only
to the flow of goods and services across national
borders, but also the implications of these processes
for how a particular country move up or down in the
international scene.
59
According to Gereffi, the global economy can be studied at different levels
of analysis.
1.MACRO LEVEL
> this includes the international organizations and regimes that establish
rules and norms for the global community.
 The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade
Organization, and the International Labor Organization are the existing
international organizations that make impact to the economy of the
world.
 The regional integration schemes like the European Union and the North
American Free Trade Agreement are also part of these organizations.
Since these regimes blend both the rules and resources, they
substantiate the widest parameters within which the global economy
operates.
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2. MESO LEVEL
it is believed that the building blocks for
the global economy are the countries
and firms.
 The global economy is seen as the arena
in which countries compete in different
product markets.

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3. MICRO LEVEL
 There is a growing literature on the resistance to globalization by
consumer groups, activists, and transnational social movements.
 Therborn (2000) expressed, “There are many theories related to
economic sociology incorporate the global economy in their
frameworks, but they differ in the degree to which it is
conceptualized as a system that shapes the behavior and
motivation of actors inside it, or as an arena where nationally
determined actors meet, interact, and influence each other.”
62
According to world-systems theory, the upward or
downward mobility of nations in the core, semi
periphery, and periphery is determined by a country’s
mode of incorporation in the capitalist worldeconomy, and these shifts can only be accurately
portrayed by an in-depth analysis of the cycles of
capitalist accumulation in the longue durée of history
(Wallerstein 1974, 1980, 1989; Arrighi 1994).
63
1. CORE Countries
In world systems theory, the core countries are the industrialized
capitalist countries on which periphery countries and semiperiphery countries depend. Core countries control and benefit
from the global market. They are usually recognized as wealthy
nations with a wide variety of resources and are in a favorable
location compared to other states. They have strong state
institutions, a powerful military and powerful global political
alliances.
64
And this is the core listing according to Babones (2005), who notes that
this list is composed of countries that "have been consistently classified
into a single one of the three zones [core, semi-periphery or periphery] of
the world economy over the entire 28-year study period".
Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece
HongKong Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Luxembourg Netherlands
New Zealand Norway Singapore Spain Sweden Switzerland
United Kingdom United States
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2. SEMI- PERIPHERY COUNTRIES
In world-systems theory, the semi-periphery countries (sometimes
referred to as just the semi-periphery) are the industrializing, mostly
capitalist countries which are positioned between the periphery and core
countries. Semi-periphery countries have organizational characteristics
of both core countries and periphery countries and are often
geographically located between core and peripheral regions as well as
between two or more competing core regions.[1] Semi-periphery regions
play a major role in mediating economic, political, and social activities
that link core and peripheral areas.[1]
66
The following are semi-periphery countries according to Dunn, Kawana,
Brewer (2000).
Argentina
Brazil
China
India
Indonesia
Iran
Mexico
South Korea
South Africa
Taiwan
67
3. PERIPHERY COUNTRIES
In world systems theory, the periphery countries (sometimes referred to as
just the periphery) are those that are less developed than the semiperiphery and core countries. These countries usually receive a
disproportionately small share of global wealth. They have weak state
institutions and are dependent on – according to some, exploited by –
more developed countries. These countries are usually behind because of
obstacles such as lack of technology, unstable government, and poor
education and health systems.
68
In some instances, the exploitation of periphery countries' agriculture,
cheap labor, and natural resources aid core countries in remaining
dominant. This is best described by dependency theory, which is one
theory on how globalization can affect the world and the countries in it.
It is, however, possible for periphery countries to rise out of their status
and move into semi-periphery or core status. This can be done by doing
things such as industrializing, stabilizing the government and political
climate, etc.
69
Periphery countries as listed in the appendix of "Trade Globalization since 1795:
waves of integration in the world-system" that appeared in the American
Sociological Review (Dunn, Kawana, Brewer (2000)).[18]
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus B
elize Benin Bolivia Botswana Bulgaria Burkina
Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African
Republic Chad Chile Colombia Congo Costa Rica Cote
d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Dominican
Republic Ecuador Egypt El
Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana
Guatemala Guinea
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GuineaBissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhst
an Kenya Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia
Libya Lithuania Macao Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali
Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar
Namibia Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Panama
Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Puerto
Rico Romania Rwanda Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Senegal
Sierra Leone Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Syrian Arab
Republic Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and
Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab
Emirates Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
71
72
Adam Smith, an eighteenth-century
political economist, defined “division of
labor” as the specialization of workers in
different parts of the production
process, usually in factory setting.
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