Separation of Church 7 Post Apostolic

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The Separation of Church and Faith:
How Did We Get FROM THERE: SCRIPTURE …?
To here: church traditions?
7. Nicene
Apostolic Fathers (1st–2nd centuries, POST-Apostolic)
ANTE-Nicene Fathers (2nd – 3rd centuries)
Nicene Fathers (fourth century)
POST-Nicene Fathers (fifth century)
Victor, Bishop of Rome from AD 189-199
Pushed for official systematic break from Biblical
Authority
Demanded all churches convert to the Roman
tradition:
• Reject BIBLE dates (Quartodeciman: “14th” day of
Nisan)
Polycrates (ca. AD 130-196) presided over the Church of Ephesus
“‘We … observe the genuine day; neither adding thereto nor taking therefrom …
Philip, one of the twelve apostles…
John, who rested on the bosom of our Lord…both a martyr and teacher…
Polycarp of Smyrna, both bishop and martyr… Thraseas...bishop and martyr of
Eumenia …
All these observed the fourteenth day of the Passover according to the
Gospel,
deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith.
Polycrates (ca. AD 130-196) Church of Ephesus
Moreover, I, Polycrates…and my relatives, always observed the day
when the people threw away the leaven.
I...am now sixty-five years in the Lord, who having conferred with the
brethren
throughout the world, and having studied the whole of the Sacred
Scriptures,
am not at all alarmed at those things with which I am threatened, to
intimidate me.
For they who are greater than I, have said,
Polycrates (ca. AD 130-196) Church of Ephesus
“...Upon this, Victor, the bishop of the church of Rome,
forthwith endeavored to cut off the churches of all Asia,
together with the neighboring churches…
that all the brethren there are wholly excommunicated.”
“… neither could Anicetus [previous bishop of Rome]
persuade Polycarp not to observe it,
because he had always observed it with John the disciple of our
Lord,
and the rest of the apostles, with whom he associated...”
Marcion, ca. AD 85 – 160
Marcion's major work entitled Antithesis has not survived;
said 2 different Gods: NT God vs. OT God of the
Jews
The main sources are gleaned from “anti-Marcion” writings
Arguments against Marcionites continued  700’s AD
Marcion, ca. AD 85 – 160
one of earliest (incomplete) “lists” of Apostolic Writings
vehemently rejected the ideas of
• Judgment
• Bodily resurrection,
• Second coming of Jesus to establish His Kingdom on
earth
Eusebius, (a.k.a. Eusebius Pamphilus* ) ca. AD 263 – 340
*Pamphilus, Bishop of Caesarea
United the churches in Syra-Palestina with
Origen’s ‘Replacement’ theology
Pamphilus was mentor to Eusebius
Eusebius, ca. AD 263 – 340, Ecclesiastical History:
declared Constantine to be:
• The Image of God,
• The Interpreter of the Logos,
• The Representative of the Almighty
Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History:
Declared Constantine, the Holy Roman Empire and the state-church:
a:
The FULFILMENT and REPLACEMENT of the ALLEGORICAL reign of
Jewish Jesus, as
Jewish Messiah ruling the world from
Jewish Jerusalem
Eusebius taught:
Roman Church is the “New Israel”
replacing the Jews in God’s plan
Eusebius rejected a literal physical Millennium,
as taught by Moses, the Prophets, the
Psalms,
the Gospels, Acts, the Epistles and
Contrast:
Acts 28:20,30
“wearing this chain for the sake of The Hope of
Israel”
“preaching the Kingdom”
Philemon 1:1
“prisoner of Christ”
Zech 9:12
“Return…prisoners of The Hope …
I will return double to you”
Before writing Ecclesiastical History,
Eusebius wrote a six-volume defense of Origen
----------------------------------------------------
Constantine hired Eusebius to produce 50 Bibles …
Re: Matthew 6:13
"For Thine is the Kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever.
Amen."
Found in all but 10 of 1000 manuscripts; a ratio of 100 to 1.
Omitted in both Sinaiticus and Vaticanus … Included in the
earlier
Didache, 150 AD
Old Latin, 200 AD
Syriac Peshitta, 250 AD
Eusebius inserted two apocryphal books into the Apostolic Canon:
 Shepherd of Hermas
 Epistle of Barnabas
Barnabas: 100-131 AD





Jews are permanently rejected … permanently replaced
gentile Christians are ‘the New’ people
New Covenant is “OUR covenant” – for gentiles only –
was NEVER given to the Jews
Eighth Day Theology - Sunday is the New Sabbath
AD 305-6, Church Council of Elvira, Spain
Canon 50: Church leaders forbid Christians to eat with
Jews
AD 309, Pamphilus, Bishop of Caesarea died
AD 315, Eusebius became Bishop of Caesarea
…
AD 313 Edict of Milan, Licinius (emperor west) Constantine
(emperor east)
Legal status for all religions, including Christianity
“…grant to the Christians and others
full authority to observe that religion which each
preferred;
whence any Divinity whatsoever …
may be propitious and kindly disposed to us
and all who are placed under our rule."
Edict of Milan, AD 313
“Legal status” for all religions, including Christianity
However, Edict of Milan diminished Jewish rights
• Jews were again forbidden to live in Aelia Capitolina
(Jerusalem)
• Jews were forbidden to seek converts among the gentiles
Perspective: IF PAUL HAD BEEN ALIVE DURING THIS PERIOD …
Council of Nicea, AD 325
on the “plus side”
• Arianism was refuted
Messiah)
(denial of fully eternal, fully divine nature of Jesus
Term: “of the same essence" Homoousios (Gk.ὁμοούσιος)
used in Nicene Creed
Homo: "same" … ousia: "essence."
Triune Nature of God is revealed throughout the Tanakh
NOT invented at Nicea; NOT an Apostolic invention
Ancient commentaries recognized: Dabar, Word, Kol, Bat Kol, Sh’kinah, Logos
Genesis 1:1-3 “and God said…and the Spirit hovered …” cf. John 1:1
Gen 15:1 “And the Word of YHVH came to Abraham”
Isaiah 11:1, 2, 10 “Spirit of YHVH on Him … ”
Isiah 48:12-13, 16-17 “the Lord YHVH has sent Me, and His Spirit
Council of Nicea, other decision:
Excommunications of: Passover, the Jews, and anything
Jewish
 Heroes of the Jewish Scriptures: not really Jewish
 Mohammed later picked up this idea:
claimed Patriarchs were hanif, ‘proto-Muslims’
Nicea re. the Jews:
“…it seemed to everyone a most unworthy thing
that we should follow the custom of the Jews…
… that we may have nothing in common with the…murderers of our
Lord”
“This being the case, receive…the heavenly and truly divine
command.
For whatever is transacted in the holy councils of the bishops,
is to be referred to the divine will...”
Epiphanius of Salamis, ca. AD 375
Panarion, Book III, Against Heresies. 70, Chap.
9.
records that
the Roman church had:
“abandoned the fathers' Paschal rite in Constantine's
time
in submission to the emperor,
and had changed the day
Theodosius 1, AD 379-395
Edict of Thessalonica, AD 380 made Roman Christianity the
official state religion of Eastern and Western Roman Empire
Roman Church authority was backed with the power of the
state
Byzantium declared itself the Kingdom of Heaven on
earth …
Edict of Thessalonica, AD 380
• Jews were removed from the military, both officers and fighting men
• Jews were removed from all administrative positions, high and low
• The Theodosian Code grew to 45 laws restricting the lives of Jews
For over 1,000 years, abuse and murder of Jews by “Christians”
continued to grow, becoming systematically and
culturally normalized throughout Christendom.
The 1933 “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” and
The 1935 Nuremburg “Law for the Protection of German Blood and
Honor”
Were merely Ancient Christian rulings of the State Church, re-instated by the
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, Italy, AD 374-397
 rejected literal Word of God
 used the allegorical-mystical method of Philo and Origen
 referred to as the “Christian Philo”
 taught devotion to Maria (Miriam, Mariam, Mary)
 believed in prayers to the saints
 believed the church has the power to forgive sins
 believed the Lord’s Supper is a sacrifice of Christ
 taught celibacy holier than marriage; (led to monasticism,
convents)
 offered prayers for the dead (led to indulgences)
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, Italy, AD 374-397
 mentored Chrysostom
 had a strong influence upon Augustine
 declared the Church as ULTIMATE POLITICAL authority:
"The Emperor is in the Church, but not over the Church"
Callinicum Pogrom, 388 AD; Emperor Theodosius yields to Bishop
Ambrose
Body of Ambrose; Sant'Ambrogio basilica, Milan
Painting of Ambrose with scourge,
San Giuseppe alla Lungara church,
Rome
John Chrysostom, eight sermons Against the Jews, AD 386–387
1.4 “… an illness which has become implanted in the body of the
Church.
We must first root this ailment out
and then take thought for matters outside…”
1.5 “What is this disease? The festivals of the pitiful and miserable
Jews …
feast of Trumpets … of Tabernacles, the fasts…
I wish to drive this perverse custom from the Church right now.”
 Matt 24:31 “And He will send forth His angels with
A GREAT TRUMPET
and THEY WILL
GATHER TOGETHER
His elect”
 1 Thess 4:16 “For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout,
with the voice of the archangel and with the Trumpet of God
 Zech 9:14 “Then YHVH will appear over them…
And the Lord YHVH will blow the shofar,
 Zech 14 “Behold, a Day is coming for the LORD…
His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem…
And the LORD will be king over all the earth…
Jerusalem will rise and remain on its site… People will live in it…
Jerusalem will dwell in security…
the nations that went against Jerusalem,
will go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of Hosts,
and to celebrate the Feast of Booths”
John Chrysostom, eight sermons Against the Jews, AD 386–387
2.2 “…the order was changed about:
they became dogs, and we became the children.”
2.6 “Although such beasts are unfit for work, they are fit for killing ...
they grew fit for slaughter. This is why Christ said: ‘But as for these my enemies,
who did not want me to be king over them, bring them here and slay them’”
3.2 “…the Jews say that they, too, adore God... No Jew adores God!”
4.2 “dishonored slaves, who have no right to speak… a lodging for demons…
4.5 “Even if you must impose restraint, even if you must use force,
even if you must treat him ill … free him from fellowship with those who slew
Christ.”
John Chrysostom, eight sermons Against the Jews, AD 386–387
4.7 “What excuse will you have, YOU WHO ARE ONLY HALF A CHRISTIAN?”
5.4 “… WE MUST HATE BOTH THEM AND THEIR SYNAGOGUE”
5.7 “For when they see that you, who worship the Christ whom they crucified,
are reverently following their rituals, how can they fail to think that the rites
they have performed are the best and that our ceremonies are worthless?”
6.7 “Do you see that demons dwell in their souls …
they are the common disgrace and infection of the whole world …
what manner of lawlessness have they not eclipsed
by their blood-guiltiness … they became more savage than any wild beast.”
7.2 “Does God hate their festivals and do you share in them?
He did not say this or that festival, but all of them together ...
“Before they committed the crime of crimes, before they killed their Master,
before the cross, before the slaying of Christ, it was an abomination *
Is it not now all the more an abomination?”
* Reference: Isa 1:13-18
“…worthless offerings … incense is an abomination …
“I cannot endure iniquity AND the solemn assembly …
“Your hands are stained with blood … Seek Justice
“Defend the orphan and widow … Come now, let us reason …”
NOTE: The Curse is for Jews, The Blessing is for Gentiles
7.5 “If a man were to have slain your son,
would you endure to look upon him, or accept his greeting?
Would you not shun him as a wicked demon, as the devil himself?
They slew the Son of your Lord;
do you have the boldness to enter with them under the same roof?”
Liturgy of St John Chrysostom
is still the most celebrated mass of the Orthodox Church;
Popularized in over 2 dozen classical compositions, including
works by:
Tchaikovsky, 1880; Rimsky-Korsakov, 1883; Rachmaninoff,
AD 340-420, JEROME (Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus)
Latin Vulgate translation, AD 383-405
replaced:Vetus Latina or "Old Latin"
assorted Latin texts which had come into use
without any control from ecclesiastical authority
Jerome
broke tradition: translated mostly from Hebrew rather than
Greek.
 Severely criticized by Augustine;
o who considered LXX (+ Apocrypha) inspired, superior to original
Hebrew
 coined the term “Apocrypha” - ἀπόκρυφος – apókruphos:
“secret – hidden - obscure” … i.e. too esoteric for the uninitiated
Vulgate did NOT become official Latin translation of Catholic church
and
Apocrypha was NOT ‘confirmed’ as Deuterocanon until
Council of Trent (1545–1563)
Likely reference for Jerome’s Vulgate: Origen’s Hexapla
1. Hebrew consonant text
2.Secunda – Hebrew text transliterated into Greek
characters;
3.Greek translation by Aquila of Sinope, ca AD 130
4.Greek translation by Symmachus the Ebionite, ca 2nd
century AD
5.LXX (ca 250-150 BC) with Origen’s comments
6.Greek translation by Theodotion, ca AD 150
Jerome
• ALSO translated over 60 of ORIGEN’S sermons
• ALSO translated Melito’s anti-Jewish title into
Latin:
Old Testamentum – Dismissing The Books,
The Promises and The People as irrelevant
Jerome (like Chrysostom) was committed to asceticism
and the Traditions added by the “Church Fathers”
 Maria is the counterpart of Eve, just as Christ was the counterpart of
Adam,
 through obedience, she is instrumental in helping to redeem the
human race
 infant baptism,
 enforced celibacy,
 the blessing of holy water,
 worship of martyrs and relics, and
 the sinlessness and perpetual virginity of Maria
Next week:
Post – Nicene Fathers
Augustine …
Luther
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