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ANALYZING THE USE OF FIGURES OF SPEECH IN PRINT
ADVERTISING OF FOOD PRODUCTS FROM A FOOD MAGAZINE
PORNTIDA CHAYSIN
Adviser: Assistant Professor Preeyachat Uttamayodhin
A RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS
IN
ENGLISH FOR CAREERS
LANGUAGE INSTITUTE, THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY
BANGKOK, THAILAND
MARCH 2011
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to (1) investigate the use of figures of speech in
printed food product advertising from a food magazine, (2) analyze which types of
figurative language are most frequently used in food product advertisements and (3)
studying whether the type of product has some correlation with the specific figures of
speech presenting the message and whether in each element in the advertisement
employs any similar technique of using figures of speech. This study revealed
techniques used when advertisers create the messages for each element in an
advertisement.
The subject of this study was print food product advertisements collected from
Food Network magazine issued during January - December 2010. The total issues of
the magazine were 10 issues, and the total of advertising collected was 110 pieces.
The print advertisements should at least contain a headline, body copy and slogan.
The study referred to 16 types of figurative languages, which are Alliteration,
Hyperbole, Metaphor, Personification, Parallelism, Question, Simile, Ellipsis,
Assonance, Repetition, Rhyme, Onomatopoeia, Irony, Antithesis, Litotes, and
Paronomasia.
The
researcher
used
criteria
sampling
for
collecting
print
advertisements. Qualitative methodology and content analysis method were applied to
describe the relationship of figurative language and food product advertisement.
The findings revealed that in three elements of advertising, the researcher
found figures of speech in at least one. The top five figures of speech that are
frequently used in food product advertising are alliteration and repetition which
shared the same rank, followed by rhetorical question, hyperbole and rhyme
respectively. The result also revealed that the type of product has some correlation
with specific figures of speech as well. Moreover, the researcher found that figures of
speech employed in each element – headline, copy and slogan are related, but not the
whole part. The researcher found that headline - copy are related and copy - slogan
are related. There is little correlation between headline and slogan. It might due to the
fact of the distance in the layout that separates headline and slogan, while headlines copy or copy - slogans are quite connected to each other. However, it should depend
on the concept of the advertising idea.
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research study could not have been completed without the kind assistance
and great support from many people. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to
all of them.
I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to Assistant Professor Preeyachat
Uttamayodhin for her directions and constructive comments on this study. Her
valuable guidance, comments and encouragement made this research project possible.
And I wish to express my gratitude to all of the Ajarn who educated me for the past
two years.
I deeply wish to pay the highest tribute to my family and my friends for their
love, support, and encouragement. We have been fighting together for this. To them, I
dedicate this study.
Thammasat University
Porntida Chaysin
Bangkok, Thailand
March 2011
iii
CONTENTS
PAGE
ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................iii
CONTENTS .........................................................................................................iv
LIST OF TABLES ...............................................................................................vi
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER
1.
2.
3.
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................1
1.1
Background ...............................................................................1
1.2
Purpose of the Study .................................................................3
1.3
Research Question ....................................................................3
1.4
Significance of the Study ..........................................................4
1.5
Scope of the Study ....................................................................4
1.6
Definition of Terms...................................................................5
1.7
Organization of the Study .........................................................5
REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................7
2.1
Elements of Print Advertisements ............................................7
2.2
Language in Advertisements.....................................................8
2.3
General Language Techniques in Advertising..........................9
2.4
Figures of Speech in Advertisements ..................................... 10
2.6
Classification of Figures of Speech ........................................11
2.6
Recent Research on Figures of Speech in Advertising ...........13
METHODOLOGY ..........................................................................15
3.1
Subjects ...................................................................................15
3.2
Research Instrument................................................................15
3.3
Data Collection .......................................................................15
3.4
Data Analysis ..........................................................................17
iv
4.
RESULTS .......................................................................................19
4.1
Figures of Speech in Food Product Advertisements ..............19
4.2
Finding of Figures of Speech in Headlines ............................19
4.3
Finding of Figures of Speech in Copy ...................................21
4.4
Finding of Figures of Speech in Slogans ...............................22
4.5
Figures of Speech in Overall Print Advertisements ...............23
4.6
Figures of Speech for Specific Types of Products. ................25
4.7
Comparing Figures of Speech in Each Element ....................30
5. CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...34
5.1
Summary of the Study ...........................................................34
5.2
Summary of the Findings .......................................................35
5.3
Discussion ..............................................................................37
5.4
Conclusions ............................................................................39
5.5
Limitations of the Study.........................................................40
5.6
Recommendations for Further Research ................................40
REFERENCES .................................................................................................41
APPENDIXES ..................................................................................................43
A. List of Figures of Speech ....................................................................43
B. Food Product Advertisements from January to December 2010 ........53
v
LIST OF TABLES
PAGE
Table 1. Figures of Speech employed in this study ..................................................11
Table 2. Frequency of Figures of Speech employed.................................................16
Table 3 Figures of Speech in Overall Print Advertisement .....................................23
Table 4 List of Frozen Food Advertising Found .....................................................25
Table 5. List of Ice Cream Advertising Found .........................................................26
Table 6. List of Cheese Advertising Found ..............................................................27
Table 7. List of Coffee Advertising Found ...............................................................28
Table 8. List of Ham Advertising Found ..................................................................28
Table 9. List of Sausage Advertising Found .............................................................29
Table 10.List of Sugar Advertising Found ................................................................29
Table 11.Table of Advertising Contends Complete Elements...................................31
Table 12.Summary of Type of Figures of Speech .....................................................32
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE
Figure 1: Figures of Speech Use in Headlines ...........................................................19
Figure 2: Figures of Speech Use in Copy ..................................................................21
Figure 3: Figures of Speech Use in Slogan................................................................24
vii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1. 1
BACKGROUND
Advertisements can be categorized into print ads, TV commercials and radio
commercials. All of them have a power in attracting a customer’s attention and
persuading them to be interested and to buy the products. Even though they have
different methods in presenting the product and service, one thing in common is
persuasion. The print ad is one of the most important media in the advertising industry
that can persuade readers by word and image. Different kinds of magazines have
different styles in writing the messages. Some focus on creativities, such as, design
magazines, some focus on writing for persuasive style or writing for fact, such as,
advertising sales and promotion. The good or bad print advertisement depends on
tactics, creativities and writing techniques that advertisers present in the
advertisement.
Considering the elements of print advertising - headline, sub-headline, body
copy and slogan – each of them plays an important role in presenting products or
services. The headline, used for introducing a product’s detail or a product’s quality is
considered as the most important part of print advertisings. Its primary function is to
communicate key selling points to attract attention and stimulate to give consideration
to the product. The sub-headline is an extension of the headline. It provides
stimulating information that keeps readers continuing reading. The body copy is an
essential part in telling a more complete story of a brand. Lastly, a slogan is a short
phrase or word that is used to represent the product or company’s image or identity
and it rarely changes. Each presents their own unique messages to promoting the
products. (Brewster & Palmer, 2001, p.165; Burnett, Wells, & Moriarty, 1998;
Caples, 1974; Tipper, Hollingworth, & Hotchkiss, G. B. 1921, p.164)
Good advertisement comes from the technique of using advertising language.
Some researcher refers to advertising language as the language of persuasion. It is a
technique of using words, such as, adjectives or compound words, the unique
structure of sentences, and the use of figurative languages. The technique of
2
combining figures of speech, such as metaphor, pun, hyperbole or repetition into
advertising messages is one of the most creative techniques. It can create more
imaginative aspects in advertising and be able to gain a consumer’s attention and
build product interest; therefore, advertisers tend to use this technique in their
advertisement, example, in the “Flavors that get your lettuce dancing on the salad
bar” advertising headline from a salad dressing product, the advertiser used the
personification technique to create an imaginative movement of lettuce as a human
ability in the message. Personification is the technique of referring to a thing as
having human abilities. This way of creating the message is more interesting and
dynamic than using a simple sentence with the literal meaning.
Many researchers are interested in the use of figure of speech in the
advertising. Five advertising studies that are Beltramini and Blasko, 1986; McQuarrie
and Mick, 1992, 1993; Reece, Vanden Bergh and Li, 1994; Vanden Bergh, Adler and
Oliver 1987 as cited in Leigh, 1994 focused directly and indirectly on over all figures
of speech aspects. Figures of speech, which can be also called rhetorical figure and
figurative language, are forms of speech artfully varied from common usage (Corbett,
1990, p. 425). It is the creative relationship of language and thought. Figures of
speech reveal the apparently limitless flexibility of language itself. Linguists believe
that language is more than just communicating meanings. Linguists can play with
words, break the rules of syntax or semantics and create animated expressions by
applying figures of speech. Figures of speech consist of tropes and schemes. Tropes
involve a transfer of meaning of a word that is a deviation from what it normally
means. Familiar examples are metaphor, simile, irony, and paradox. On the other
hand, schemes involve a word transfer that deviates from customary grammatical
structure; examples of well-known schemes are parallelism, climax, and ellipsis. In
fact, there are more than 20 different types in tropes and schemes. As a result,
researchers have selected only well-known and frequently used lists for their study.
(Albert, Katz, Cacciari, Gibbs, & Turner, 1998 p. 164; Corbett, 1990 p. 425).
In previous researches, some research focused on specific groups, such as
tropes and some focused on only one type, such as, metaphor, simile, paradox or pun.
The study of metaphor is the most interesting one among researchers due to its wellknown characteristics. However, all the studies concluded that figurative language is
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useful in advertising as it reflects impression and creative thought rather than literal
language. Moreover, researchers admit that figurative language is somehow capable
of expressing meaning or conveying insight which non-figurative language is
incapable of expressing or conveying.
From previous research, it seems that most of the research examined on the
use of figurative language in all types of magazine products and focused on headlines
of advertising only. Research conducted on a specific kind magazine or specific kind
of product is rarely seen. The researcher thinks that each type of product has its own
uniqueness and its own way to present itself in the message and style. Similar to the
use of figures of speech, each type of magazines or products should have some figures
of speech that are widely used, for example, cosmetic products; since the products are
related to beauty, the use of metaphor or simile should be the most used type. As a
result, the researcher believes that figures of speech used in food product
advertisements must have certain or specific types to represent themselves. The
characteristics of food product advertising are different from other types of product
advertising and the researcher found it interesting to analyze the use of figures of
speech in this type of advertising. This study will investigate the technique of using
figurative language in food product advertisements from food magazines.
1.2
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study consists of three main objectives. The first objective is to
investigate the use of figures of speech in print advertising about food products from a
food magazine. The researcher chose food product advertising because it seems to
have a different characteristic and different technique in using figures of speech. The
second objective is to analyze which type of figurative language is frequently used in
food product advertisements. The third objective is to study how figures of speech can
be applied to present the message of each products type and technique when the
advertiser creates the messages for each element in the whole advertisement
1.3
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.3.1
What type of figures of speech can be found in food product
advertising? The researcher will investigate all the content of advertising - headline,
4
copy and slogan.
1.3.2
Which type of figures of speech are the most frequently used in food
product advertising? The figures of speech found will be counted and shown in both
number and percentage.
1.3.3
Are figures of speech employed in each element – headline, copy and
slogan, related and how are they related?
1.3.4
Is there any correlation between types of products and any specific
figures of speech in an advertisement and how are they related? The researcher will
investigate the headline only.
1.4
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Referring to previous research, it can be seen that figures of speech are widely
used in service and consumer advertisement. There are researches of figures of speech
conducted in every type of magazine, but no research conducted on specific types.
This study will emphasize food product advertisements and will reveal the use of
figurative language in food product advertisements and how frequently it appears in
the advertisement. This study will give an idea of different type of figurative
language, the meaning of it and how it can be used in food product advertisements.
Moreover, this study will also benefit those who are interested in the use of figurative
language in advertisements and broaden their idea of using different type of figurative
language for different types of products.
1.5
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Subjects of this study are food product advertisements collected from Food
Network Magazine issued from January to December in year 2010. The researcher
chose Food Network Magazine because it is a well-known food magazine in America
and it contains several advertisements of food products. According to the ranking of
food magazines from different websites, Food Network Magazine is one of the top 10
magazines and is popular among food lovers. The total of food product
advertisements collected is 116 pieces.
5
This study will focus on the list of figures of speech found in this food product
advertisement. After the results are revealed, the technique of using these figures of
speech and the frequency of the figure of speech found in advertising will be analyzed
in this study. Moreover, the researcher will analyze whether the type of product has
any connection with any specific list of figures of speech or not. The researcher will
compare the result of the figures of speech found in all elements – headline, copy and
slogan, and search for any difference or similarity.
1.4
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.4.1
Figure of speech is a rhetorical method that achieves a special effect by
using words in distinctive ways and also can be called figurative language or
rhetorical figure.
1.4.2
Headline is a title or caption mostly used in newspaper articles usually
set in large type. In advertising, a headline grabs the attention, like a newspaper's
headline, with the use of vivid language.
1.4.3
Body copy is the main text part of an advertisement or any printed
matter. It explains more about the product and brand.
1.7
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into five chapters as the following:
Chapter one includes the introduction, background, purpose of study, research
question, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study,
definition of term and organization of the study.
Chapter two includes the review of literature, explaining elements of print
advertisement, language in advertising, figures of speech in advertising, classification
of figures of speech and recent research on figure of speech in advertising.
Chapter three explains the research methodology used in conducting the study.
It contains the sample, research instrument, data collection, and data analysis
procedures.
Chapter four presents the results of the study and elaborates the research
6
findings.
Chapter five includes a summary of the study and findings, discussion,
conclusion and recommendation for further research.
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter review related literature in order to apply the concepts and
theories to this study. The topics are (1) elements of print advertisements, (2)
language in advertisements, (3) general language technique in advertising, (4) figures
of speech in advertisements, (5) classification of figures of speech, (6) recent research
on figures of speech in advertisements.
2.1
ELEMENTS OF PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS
Jefkin (1976, p. 23) suggested important three compositions of print
advertisements which are headline, copy and body copy. Since each element has its
own characteristic and importance in print advertisement, the researcher will analyze
all elements to find figurative language in each element in this study.
2.1.1
Headline
Headlines can be defined as the leading sentence, which attracts the
reader’s attention, communicates a key selling point and stimulates the desire to find
out more about the story in the ads, especially if it is expressed as a kind of advantage
or promise to the reader. Simple headlines cannot compel readers to be interested in
the advertisement. Thus, a good headline must be able to attract readers and convince
them to be interested in the product that is presented in the advertisement. In creating
headlines, the styles of headline most found are declarative, commanding, curiosity
and question. Effective headlines should be short, specific, apt, original and
interesting. However, a headline cannot conform to all of the elements. It depends on
how the advertiser presents the product. (Burnett, Wells, Moriarty, 1998, p. 420;
Felton, 1994, p. 89; Jefkin, 1976, p. 24; O'Guinn, Allen, & Semenik, 2009, p. 382;
Tipper, Hollingworth, & Hotchkiss, 1921, p. 163)
2.1.2
Body Copy
Body copy or copy is the text of the advertising; the paragraph of small
type. The content develops the sales message and provides support, states the proof
and gives explanation. It can be found in a product and service that need explanation
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of the service, such as in business-to-business services. (Blakeman, 2005, p. 40;
Burnett, Wells, Moriarty, 1998, p. 421; O'Guinn, Allen, & Semenik, 2009, p. 386)
2.1.3
Slogan
Slogan is a short memorable phrase used as a tagline to represent the
product or service. It rarely changes. Most of the slogans present a benefit and quality
of the product (Jefkin, 1976).
In food product advertisings, most advertisers play on headline, sub-headline
and slogan. There are some rational appeal present about information and benefit of
the products shown in the body copy. Nevertheless, the advertising likely plays with
the five senses of a human body; vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch in order to
bring the reader feelings. Thus, in which way figurative languages are used in each
element of food product advertising should be investigated.
2.2
LANGUAGE IN ADVERTISEMENTS
Advertising language is the language used in advertising messages to evoke
the reader’s attention and influence readers’ behavior in buying products. In
advertising language, language and thought are connected. It deals with arousing
curiosity and appealing to desires in the reader’s mind. The goal of advertising is to
gain and to motivate readers’ attention and action. Language in advertising is unlike
language in literature. In literature, the writer creates a feeling through words that the
reader can feel when reading. In advertising, the writer writes for the reader.
Impression from advertising is created by the reader, not from the writer. Moreover,
language in advertising may have to break the rules of grammar. It can be seen often
in advertising messages that grammar structure is disregarded and it tends to focus on
wordplay and rhetoric. (May, 1995, p. 6; Tipper, Hollingworth, & Hotchkiss, 1921, p.
150)
2.2.1
Features of advertising language
There are three features in advertising language, which are English
lexicon, English syntax and figures of speech or rhetorical devices. All elements,
words/sentences, grammar structure and rhetoric combined are essential in producing
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advertising messages.
2.2.1.1 English lexicon
Lexicon in advertising language is different from common
English language. It is more compact, visual and emotional. Most words found in
advertising are simple and informal words, misspelling and coinage words,
loanwords, word reduction, use of verbs, adjectives and compound verbs.
2.2.1.2 English syntax
Sentence structure in advertising messages is quite simple, easy
to understand and attention grabbing. It is more interrogative sentences and
imperative sentences. The technique of using disjunctive clauses and minor clause
also can be used in advertising.
2.2.1.3 Figures of speech or rhetorical device
Figurative languages play a major role in the advertising
message as it can make messages more outstanding and effective. It also has power to
vivify and illustrate and can connect to human thought. The language of advertising
has its own ways of using literary devices to achieve multilayered meanings.
English lexicon and English syntax seems to be a general technique that
advertisers can use to create the message, but figures of speech seem to be the great
technique to enhance the advertising message to another rhetorical level. All in all, the
researcher can conclude that the advertising can be accomplished by a good use in
language and writing. Messages in advertising do not involve only words or meanings
but also psychology in the human mind. (May, 1995, p. 6; Tipper, Hollingworth, &
Hotchkiss, 1921, p. 150)
2.3
GENERAL LANGUAGE TECHNIQUE IN ADVERTISING
General techniques of advertising language consist of techniques of using
English lexicon and English syntax. According to Jefkin (1976); May (1995);
Drewniany and Jewler (2008), there are several methods that advertisers use. First,
they use simple and conversational words to create the advertising message. These
10
simple words are easier to understand than complex ones. Second, they use
misspelling of words. Advertisers intend to misspell the words in order to make the
sentences more dynamic; for example, Younique for unique. Next is coin word
technique. It is another technique in creating a new word by combining two words
together; for example, bageliciousness, which is combination of bagel and
deliciousness. Finally, they use catchy print, the technique of playing with the letters,
for example, KAME is the name of brand. The advertiser uses these letters to create
adverting headline as “The Key to Asian Made Easy”.
Jefkin (1976); Kongpetch & Smith (2008) also mentioned that sentence type,
such as declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamation, is one of the general
techniques that create the style of messages which differentiate from other formal
selling sentences. Moreover, some advertising messages can combine general
techniques and figures of speech together to make the message more powerful.
2.4
FIGURES OF SPEECH IN ADVERTISEMENTS
Figures of speech are a form of speech artfully varied from common usage.
(Corbett, 1990, p. 424) It can also be called figurative language or rhetorical figure. It
is an imaginative relationship of language and thought and it is the language that is
not literal meaning. Brummett (2008, p. 116) also defined figures of speech as the
sum total of language habits distinguishing one message from another. Albert, Katz,
Cacciari, Gibbs &Turner (1998, p. 131, p. 164) add that figurative language is a
language of imagination that helps convey meaning in an artistic manner. It breaks
language rules, uses colorful words imaginatively or even makes up new words.
Combining these definitions, the researcher can conclude that the definition of
figures of speech is language that is produced by using different words metaphorically
or changing sentence structure to create a message to be more vivid in an imaginative
way. The meaning of the sentence may present in a figurative way that the reader
must use their imagination to comprehend the whole meaning. Figures of speech also
can render our thought vividly concrete and they can stir emotional responses easier
than literal language.
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In English usage, the words 'literal' and 'figurative' are normally taken to be
opposite in meaning. Literal language is words or group of words that do not differ
from their defined meaning. Unlike figurative language that refers to words or group
of words that exaggerate or change the usual meanings of the words, lliteral meaning
can be explained, while figurative meaning cannot. (Bredin, 1992; Albert, Katz,
Cacciari, Gibbs &Turner, 1998)
Since figure of speech is the language of imagination and persuasion that
influences a reader’s emotion, it can be seen often in lifestyle, food, women, or men’s
magazine. However, each type of product advertising might use different figures of
speech in creating advertising message.
2.5
CLASSIFICATION OF FIGURES OF SPEECH
Corbett (1990, p. 424) states that figures of speech can be divided into two
main groups - Tropes and Schemes. A trope involves a deviation from the ordinary
and principal significance of word. A scheme involves a deviation from the ordinary
pattern or arrangement of words. Researcher can summarize that a trope is the
transference of meaning while a scheme is the transference of words order grammar
structure. From the study of Leigh, 1994; McQuarrie and Mick, 1996, the researcher
has picked out the significance types of figures of speech to study on food product
advertisement as follows:
Table 1. Figures of Speech Employed in This Study
Figures of Speech Explanation and example
Alliteration
Hyperbole
Repetition of a sound in the first syllables words or phrases.
Example: A case of cold cut envy.
Exaggerating a word or phrase to emphasize.
Example: The one turkey that can feed a million people.
Comparison of two things that different but has something in
Metaphor
common.
Example: Our seasoned sausage is a magnet for other
ingredients.
(table continues)
12
Table 1. (continued)
Personification
Parallelism
Referring to a thing as having human qualities or abilities.
Example: Give your Sandwich a Makeover.
The use of similar structures in two or more clauses.
Example: 100% Natural 100% Delicious.
Figures of Speech Explanation and example
A form of question without a need of a reply, just for
Question
persuasion.
Example: Who would you bake some love for?
Simile
Ellipsis
Assonance
Repetition
Rhyme
Onomatopoeia
Compares two different things by using the words "like", "as".
Example: Taste likes Italy.
Omission of the word in a phrase.
Example: "Fresh" without the "…"
Repetition of vowel sounds.
Example: Good food, good life.
A repeating of a word within a sentence in order to emphasize.
Example: The best of the best.
Repetition of similar sounds at the end of the words or phrase.
Example: Dare to go bare.
Words that sound like the objects, the name or the sounds
Example: So many, many reasons it's so.. M'm! M'm! Good!
Using word that contradict the actual idea or object.
Irony
Example: Don’t' talk with your month full. But it's perfectly
OK to smile.
Antithesis
Litotes
Paronomasia
Using words that have contrasting ideas.
Example: It's how we put it together that sets it apart.
The use of an understatement word.
Example: The time you discovered a little surprise.
Use of words that are similar in sound but different in meaning.
Example: If you want to get read, use red.
13
Each type of figures of speech has an impact on advertising, since they have
their own characteristics that advertisers can adapt in advertising messages. From a
sample of advertising collected in a previous study, there are the use of tropes and
scheme in almost every collected advertisement. The number of figures of speech
even exceeded the number of samples, which means some of the headlines used
multiple figures of speech.
2.6
RECENT RESEARCH ON FIGURES OF SPEECH IN ADVERTISING
The numbers of researches conducted on figures of speech in advertising are
varied and their researches are limited only to each type of figures of speech.
McQuarrie and Mick (1993) conducted research on figures of speech in
contemporary magazine advertisements, which used People magazine as a subject.
The study discussed the relevance of figurative language to consumer advertising
research, and research about the frequency and function of figurative language. The
researcher found that pun in trope category is found the most. Metaphor is the second
most found in the study. For scheme category, the most common is alliteration. As
mentioned, this study investigates overall consumer advertising. If the research is
conducted on specific types of product advertising, the result on the use of figurative
language might be different.
In the study of Leigh (1994) investigated the frequency of the use of figurative
language in print advertising headlines. It shows each category of figures of speech
used in ad headline and examines which factors relate to their use. The research
emphasizes on sports, finance, special interest, and lifestyle magazines. The result of
the study revealed alliteration, assonance and puns are widely used in ad headlines.
The result also revealed that different kinds of figures of speech tended to be used in
different types of magazines for different product categories. Thus, in this point,
investigating more on the use of figure of speech in individual type of magazine
should help support previous research.
Another research is from McQuarrie and Mick (1996). The purpose of this
study is to develop a framework for classifying figures of speech that differentiate
between figurative and nonfigurative message, and between two types of figurative
14
language, tropes and scheme. This research also focused on consumer response
toward the message that presents in advertising. By comparing figurative advertising
and literal advertising, the research revealed that consumer response to figurative ads
produced more positive attitude toward the advertising. Figurative language also has
more power to motivate the reader. There is concern on the demanding and complex
nature of the message. Rhyme and repetition type represent the simplest and least
demanding, while pun and paradox are quite complex and demanding. By studying
this research, it gave an idea about production of the message concerning on
consumer attitude and what each type of figurative language can covey in different
way.
Up to now, from studying through the previous research, there is inadequate
research on figurative language in specific type of product advertisements, such as
auto mobile, hospitality service or food products. The researcher finds that food
product advertising has its own unique characteristics different from other types of
products since it must show the sensory appeal that the reader can feel, touch, smell
and taste. The researcher will examine figurative language in food product advertising
from a food magazine and observe how different figurative language is used by
studying headline, sub-headlines, body copy and slogans in food product advertising.
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research methodology, which includes (1) subjects,
(2) research instrument, (3) data collection, and (4) data analysis procedures.
3.1
SUBJECTS
Samples of this study are print food product advertisements collected from
Food Network magazine issued during January - December 2010.
As January-
February’s issue and July - August’s issues are combined together, the total issues of
the magazine researched are 10 issues. Total of advertising collected is 116 pieces.
.
3.2
MATERIALS
In this study, criteria sampling is used for collecting print advertisements. The
print advertisements should at least contain headlines, body copy and slogan.
Qualitative methodology and content analysis method will be used in this research.
The study will refer to sixteen figurative languages, which are indicated in the
literature review section. The list of figures of speech was picked from the previous
study, and was found in the sample set.
The researcher will study the techniques of using figures of speech that
advertisers use and the frequency of the figures of speech found in advertising will be
analyzed in this study as well. Moreover, the researcher will analyze whether the type
of product has any connection with any specific list of figures of speech or not. The
researcher will compare the result of the figures of speech found in all elements –
headline, copy and slogan, and search for difference or similarity.
3.3
DATA COLLECTION
The procedure of collecting data began with finding the collection of print
advertisement from Food Network Magazines, issued from January to December
2010. Then, the researcher examined the advertisements in the magazine and picked
out the ones that meet the criteria as mentioned in the Sample section. After that,
16
content analysis procedure occurred to examine the advertisements one by one.
For the recording information, the researcher created a table for recording the
figures of speech that were found in each print advertisement. The column in the table
was separated into six parts, which are ad code, type of product, product name, and
three elements of print advertisement - headline, body copy and slogan. Ad code is the
indication of the magazine’s issue. The number after the letters shows the
advertising’s number in each month. Ad Code shows in the first column of the raw
data sheet. JF stands for January and February, MAR stands for March, AP stands for
April, MY stands for May, JU stands for June, JG stands for July and August, SP
stands for September, OC stands for October, NO stands for November, and DE
stands for December. Readers can follow the ad code in the appendix, the picture
appendix and the results and discussion in the study.
Moreover in the raw data sheet, each column of the advertising elements will
indicates the figures of speech found in each element side by side. It will help the
researcher to clearly clarify the use of figures of speech in each element as well.
In addition, after collecting and recording the figures of speech that were
found in each advertisement. The researcher also created a table to present the
frequency of figures of speech employed in counted number and percentage. It was
separated into headline part, copy part, slogan part and all element part. The purpose
of this table is to show the overall number of figures of speech found in each part and
which types of figures of speech are mostly found in food product advertisements.
Headline
Copy
Slogan
Percentages
Types of
Figures of
Speech
Frequency
Table 2. Frequency of Figures of Speech employed
Alliteration
Hyperbole
Metaphor
Personification
(table continues)
17
of
of Headline
Copy
Slogan
Percentages
Types
Figures
Speech
Frequency
Table 2. (continued)
Parallelism
Question
Simile
Ellipsis
Assonance
Repetition
Onomatopoeia
Irony
Rhyme
Antithesis
Litotes
Paronomasia
Total
3.4
DATA ANALYSIS
After collecting the data, the researcher used content analysis method to
analyze the figures of speech in advertisements, to examine types of figures of speech
used and the numbers of figures of speech used in each element in food product
advertisement. The data were analyzed as per the following steps:
3.4.1
First, all collected advertisements were examined for which types of
figurative language were applied in headlines, body copy and slogans.
3.4.2 Then, the selected ads were examined for which types of figurative
language are most frequently used in food product advertisements by analyzing their
frequency using Table 2 as shown in the Research Instrument section.
3.4.3
Next the statistical conduct of figurative language used is presented in
18
percentage according to their figurative language types. This state also uses Table 2 as
shown in the Research Instrument section to present the frequency.
3.4.4
Finally, the researcher analyzed over all techniques of the use of
figures of speech in food product advertisements and other general techniques and
analyzed the figures of speech found in headline, body copy and slogan then
examined whether they are connected, similar or different.
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
This chapter discusses the use of figurative language, which includes the topic
of Figures of speech in food product advertisements, finding of figures of speech in
headline, copy, slogan and overall food product advertisement. In addition, this
chapter will discuss the comparison of figures of speech in each element in one
advertisement and figures of speech for specific types of product.
4.1
FIGURES OF SPEECH IN FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS
From 116 print advertisements, the researcher found that not all advertising
contains all three elements; as a result, the researcher has grouped each group as
follows:
Headline + Copy + Slogan Total found 37 items
Headline + Copy
Total found 20 items
Headline + Slogan
Total found 44 items
Headline only
Total found 15 items
For the figures of speech in each elements, some of the element have more
than one figure of speech, thus, the researcher can summarize the total number of
figures of speech found as follows:
In the headline, there are 116 headlines with 103 figures of speech and 26
general techniques found. In the copy, there are 57 copies with 43 figures of speech
and 25 general techniques found. In the slogan, there are 81 slogans with 34 figures of
speech and 27 general techniques found. From the analysis, figures of speech found in
this set of advertisements contain 16 types which are, Alliteration, Hyperbole,
Metaphor, Personification, Parallelism, Question, Simile, Ellipsis, Assonance,
Repetition, Rhyme, Onomatopoeia, Irony, Antithesis, Litotes, and Paronomasia. Other
techniques found are general language techniques that advertisers use.
4.2
FINDING OF FIGURES OF SPEECH IN HEADLINES
The headline is the first thing that audience will see, and it has the power to
capture the audience’s attention and encourage them to glance to other parts of the
20
advertising. Therefore, the language technique use must be attention-grabbing words.
Figures of speech seem to be the great technique in this part.
The researcher found that at least one type of figurative expressions was used
in the headline. The researcher found 103 figures of speech from 116 headlines
overall and there are 26 headlines that use general techniques. The result showed that
repetition (13%) made up the most used in this kind of product advertising, followed
by rhetorical question (12%), alliteration (11%), hyperbole (9%) and rhyme (9%)
respectively. Some figures of speech have an equal amount, which are metaphor
(5%), and personification (5%). Also found were assonance (3%), simile (2%),
ellipsis (2%) paronomasia (2%), litotes (2%), irony (2%), parallelism (1%) and
antithesis (1%), which were found in very few headlines. Figure 1 shows the different
usages of figures of speech in 116 headlines of food product advertisements.
Figure 1. Figures of Speech Use in Headlines
General
Technique,
20%
Paronomasia,
2%
Rhyme, 9%
Repetition,
13%
Litotes, 2%
Antithesis, 1%
Irony, 2%
Onomatopoeia,
1%
Question, 12%
Ellipsis, 2%
Parallelism,
1% Simile, 2%
Assonance, 3%
Personification
, 6%
Hyperbole, 9%
Alliteration,
11%
Metaphor, 5%
In conclusion, it seems that in the headline, they emphasized using a repeated
method, which is repetition in words. This can effectively remind the audience about
the main idea of the product. Moreover, a rhetorical question, which is in the second
rank, can get into the audience’s thought easily, because questions can provoke
reader’s curiosity. Another technique is the use of repeated sound - alliteration
21
because this technique makes the sentence smooth and easy to memorize.
4.3
FINDING OF FIGURES OF SPEECH IN COPY
Most of the copy in food product advertisements showed more than two lines.
Some of them are in a very long paragraph and some of them are in narrative
sentences. From 57 copies the researcher found 43 figures of speech and 25 general
techniques in them. The result showed that rhyme (13%) is the most found figures of
speech in the copy, followed by alliteration (12%), repetition (10%) hyperbole (7%)
rhetorical question (6%), metaphor (6%), and personification (6%) respectively. There
is 2 percentage found for litotes and parallelism. However, simile, ellipsis, assonance,
paronomasia, antithesis, onomatopoeia and irony couldn’t be found in the copy.
Figure 2 shows the percentage of figures of speech that were employed in the copy.
Figure 2. Figures of Speech Use in Copy
Rhyme, 13%
General
Technique,
37%
Repetition,
10%
Question, 6%
Paronomasia,
0%
Litotes, 2%
Alliteration,
12%
Antithesis, 0%
Ellipsis, 0%
Hyperbole, 7%
Onomatopoeia,
Assonance, 0% Personification Metaphor, 6%
0%
, 6%
Irony, 0%
Parallelism,
Simile, 0%
2%
The researcher can conclude that in copy, it seems like alliteration and rhyme,
which have the same purpose in making the sentence sounds smooth, is effective in
long sentences. Moreover, repetition in a word within the sentence is also employed
effectively in this.
22
4.4
FINDING OF FIGURES OF SPEECH IN SLOGANS
Most of the slogans are in very catchy short phrases or words, and it has to be
very outstanding and easy to remember. There are 81 slogans that employed 34
figures of speech and 27 slogans that used general language technique. After analysis,
apart from the high percentage of general techniques, surprisingly the result showed
that there are three significant figures of speech found in slogan, which are
alliteration, parallelism and assonance. They shared 8% in this. It seems that the play
in sounds of word can attract readers successfully. The result followed with
personification (7%). repetition (7%) and rhetorical question (5%) which shared the
same percentage in this. Figures of speech found less in copy are hyperbole (3%),
metaphor (3%), litotes (3%), rhyme (2%), onomatopoeia (2%) and again,
paronomasia, antithesis, irony, simile and ellipsis couldn’t be found in copy. Figure 3
shows the percentage of figures of speech that were employed in slogan.
Figure 3. Figures of Speech Use in Slogans
Rhyme, 2%
Repetition, 7%
Question, 5%
Alliteration,
8%
General
Technique,
44%
Ellipsis, 0%
Paronomasia,
0%
Litotes, 3%
Antithesis, 0
Hyperbole,
3%
Metaphor, 3%
Personification
, 7%
Assonance,
8%
Simile, 0%
Parallelism,
Irony, 0%
Onomatopoeia 8%
, 2%
As a slogan is a phrase that hardly changes and it sticks with the company
23
logo for a long period of time, the technique for this part must be very effective and
memorable. After the analysis, the researcher can conclude that the techniques of play
in similar sounding words, like alliteration and assonance, are the techniques to use in
slogan. Similar to parallelism, the catchy and easy to read arrangement is important in
slogan. These three figures of speech shared the same rank.
4.5
FIGURES OF SPEECH IN OVERALL PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS
From the 116 food advertisements overall that the researcher has collected,
and a list of figures of speech the researcher analyzed in print advertisings, the
researcher found the outstanding result as shown in Table 3.
Frequency
Types of Figures of
Speech
Headline Copy
Percentages
Table 3. Figures of Speech in Overall Print Advertisements
Slogan
Alliteration
15
8
5
28
11
Hyperbole
12
5
2
19
7
Metaphor
6
4
2
12
5
Personification
6
4
4
14
5
Parallelism
1
1
5
7
3
Question
16
4
3
23
10
Simile
2
0
0
2
2
Ellipsis
3
0
0
3
1
Assonance
4
0
5
9
3
Repetition
17
7
4
28
11
Onomatopoeia
1
0
1
2
1
Irony
3
0
0
3
1
Rhyme
12
9
1
22
9
Antithesis
1
0
0
1
0
Litotes
2
1
2
5
2
Paronomasia
2
0
0
2
1
General Technique
26
25
27
78
30
Total
129
68
61
258
24
The result showed that the most frequently used of figures of speech in food
product advertisements is repetition. Repetition is one of the techniques used in
almost all elements. With 11 percent, it seems that repetition has the highest count in
headline, but it also works very well in copy and slogan. Repetition helps readers to
remember the key message that presents in each advertisement, thus advertisers tend
to use repetition in headlines rather than use in copy or slogans. On the same rank is
alliteration. Alliteration shared the same rank with repetition with 11 percent from the
over-all result. It is in the highest item found in copy and slogan part, but it was found
lesser than repetition in headline. However, from the total result, it surprisingly shared
the same percentage. Alliteration emphasizes the repetition of an initial word or
phrase, thus, readers can feel the rhythm within the message and it is easier to
memorize. The next rank is rhetorical questions, which has 10 percent. Rhetorical
question are mostly used in headlines than in other elements. Maybe due to the fact
that headlines are used to capture audience’s attention, so advertisers tend to use it in
headline. Rhyme is in the next rank with 9 percent. Rhyme is repetition of similar
sounds in two or more words in the phrase. The connection between sounds of the
words can help readers memorize the message advertisers try to present easily. Next,
7 percent of hyperbole is found in food product magazine and is mostly found in
headlines. Hyperbole is the technique of exaggerating words to emphasize the
message. It seems that it works very well in headline and copy rather than in slogans.
Since most of the main idea advertisers want to sell is in headline and copy, so
advertisers tend to create messages that are overstated, yet attention-grabbing.
Personification is next with 5 percent found. Personification is used to refer to
a thing as having human qualities or abilities. Another technique that works similarly
like personification is metaphor, which is referring to one thing as another that is
different but they have something in common. It was found in 5 percent in the study.
Both personification and metaphor work well in an imaginative way that food can
become something else rhetorically.
The next finding is assonance. There is 3 percent of assonance found in this
type of advertising. The result is very distinctive, as assonance was mostly found in
slogan. However, there is no assonance in copy at all. Assonance is the repetition of
vowel sounds, thus, using assonance in a small sentence as in slogans is simpler to
25
speak and recall. Parallelism was found in food product advertisements for 3 percent.
It can be seen in slogan rather than in headlines or copy.
Finally, it seems that very few similes, litotes, ellipsis, onomatopoeia, irony,
paronomasia and antithesis are found in this type of advertisement. There are only 2
percent, 1 percent and no percent at all from these figures of speech. It is maybe due
to that fact that it is harder to understand, and more difficult to convey the message.
4.6
FIGURES OF SPEECH FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF PRODUCTS
In this section, the researcher will analyze whether the type of products have
similar techniques of creating messages. The researcher will emphasize on the
headline, since it is the most found of figures of speech if comparing to other. Types
of products found most from the collected food product magazines are Frozen Food,
Ice Cream, Cheese, Coffee, Ham, Sausage, and Sugar respectively.
4.6.1
Frozen food
The total number of frozen food advertisements found in this
magazine is fourteen items, but there is only nine items with the figures of speech.
From the finding, the technique of using question and rhyme are mostly used in this
type of product. However, by focusing on the brand name, Hormel tends to use the
rhetorical question technique in their advertising to present their idea. Metaphor and
ellipsis can be found in this type of products also.
Table 4. List of Frozen Food Advertising Found
No.
Code
Headline
1
MR04
How can I make a 4-hour beef roast in
4 minutes?
2
MR05 Yep, it’s getting a lot of attention.
3
MR06
4
5
How can I make an easy dinner after a
hard day?
Our newest Bertolli Oven Bake Meals
MR08 have Italian chef wishing we'd
disappear.
AP05
Captivatingly delicious
Figures of
Speech
Brand Name
Question
Hormel
General
technique
Healthy
Choice Café
Question
Hormel
General
technique
General
technique
Bertolli
Oven Bake
Meals
Healthy
Choice Café
(table continues)
26
Table 4. (continued)
No.
Code
Headline
6
JG02
Sometimes investing in Italian Shortterm proposition.
7
JG06
Where good living meets good eating.
8
SP11
9
Too good to be frozen
How do I make comfort food when I'm
OC06
not comfortable cooking?
10
NO06 Birds eye presents 3 new creations that
make meals come alive.
11
NO08 My only preservative is your freezer?
13
Limited Edition Fire Roast Veggies,
NO16 your mouth may water enough to start
a garden.
NO17 "Fresh" without the "…"
14
DE10
12
4.6.2
BBQ Chicken Pizza, So taggy, so
saucy, better stock up on napkins.
Figures of
Speech
General
technique
Repetition,
Rhyme
Hyperbole
Question
General
technique
Question,
Metaphor
Metaphor
Ellipsis
Rhyme
Brand Name
Buitoni
Bertolli
Contessa
Hormel
Birds Eye –
Lightly
Sauced
Newman's
Own
California
Pizza
Kitchen
Tortilla Land
California
Pizza
Kitchen
Ice cream
The total number of ice cream advertisements found in this magazine
is seven items, but there are six items with figures of speech. It clearly can be seen
that rhyme is found most in this type. Second is alliteration which has the similar
technique as rhyme, and also can be found. The researcher also found one hyperbole
in this type of product.
Table 5. List of Ice Cream Advertising Found
No.
Code
Headline
1
MY01 All we add is cold.
2
MY04 Real fruit, naturally in every bite.
3
JU04
The Purest for the purist.
Figures of
Speech
General
technique
Brand Name
HiagenDazs
Dreyer's
Rhyme
Fruit Bar
Rhyme,
HiagenAlliteration Dazs
(table continues)
27
Table 5. (continued)
No.
Code
4
JG03
5
SP02
6
SP12
7
OC12
4.6.3
Headline
Keeping goodness honest.
Strawberry, like you've never had it
before.
hellojell-o
Less sugar makes morning pretty
sweet.
Figures of
Speech
Rhyme
Hyperbole
Rhyme
Alliteration
Brand Name
HiagenDazs
Starbuck Ice
Cream
Jell-o
Ice cream
Pop Tarts
Cheese
The total number of cheese advertisements found in this magazine is
six items, but there are three items with figures of speech used and another two
general techniques used. The technique of using figures of speech in this type cannot
be finalized, since they apparently used different strategies which are repetition,
alliteration, rhyme, parallelism and general word techniques used in this type of
product.
Table 6. List of Cheese Advertising Found
No.
1
Code
Headline
What separates the great pastas from
MR09
the good is not the pasta.
2
AP12
Take the pheeling with you
3
JU03
Spread a little tongue wagging.
4
JG11
5
OC08
6
OC11
Careful. This cheese is loaded.
4.6.4
Coffee
Our newest selection is natural,
delicious and has reduced sodium.
It's not whether you win or lose, but
whether there's enough to go around.
Figures of
Speech
Repetition,
Alliteration
General
technique
General
technique
General
technique
Repetition
Hyperbole
Brand Name
Kraft
Cheese
Philadelphia
Cheese
Philly
Cheese
Sargento
Kraft
Singles
Kraft Deli
Deluxe
The total number of coffee advertisements found in this magazine is
six items and figures of speech are found in five of them. It can be seen that repetition
was used in this type of product greatly, also the techniques of using similar sound -
28
rhyme and assonance. Repetition seems to be used the most, followed by rhyme and
one assonance was found.
Table 7. List of Coffee Advertising Found
No.
Code
Headline
Figures of
Speech
Brand Name
1
MY03
Between due dates and play dates. The
smooth taste that makes any day better.
Repetition,
Rhyme
Seattle's
Best Coffee
2
MY06 Wake up to Folgers Black Silk.
General
Technique
Folgers
Black Silk
Coffee
3
OC09
Repetition
Nescafe
Taste for yourself. A lot of Hype OR A
lot of Flavor
Oh Christmas blend, Oh Christmas
blend, To have at home or anywhere
you go.
4
DE01
5
DE02
Joy to your own little world
General
Technique
6
DE15
Taste for yourself. Big bucks or Big
Flavor.
Repetition
4.6.5
Repetition
Starbucks
Christmas
Blend
Caribou
Coffee
Nestle,
nescafe'
Ham
The total number of ham advertisements found in this magazine is
six items and figures of speech are found in four of them. Similar to cheese products,
the technique of using figures of speech in this type cannot be finalized, since it seems
that they used different strategies. Assonance, question, alliteration, repetition,
hyperbole and general word technique have been found in this type of product.
Table 8. List of Ham Advertising Found
No.
Code
1
JF07
Elevate the Back-to-School Sandwich
2
AP10
Wake up even the early risers.
3
4
MY07 Who needs bread?
JU05 Looks like a case of cold cut envy.
Smithfield. The ham that made ham
JG14
famous.
The most worthwhile things are crafted
DE12
by hand.
5
6
Headline
Figures of
Speech
General
Technique
Irony
Question
Alliteration
Repetition,
Hyperbole
General
Technique
Brand Name
Hillshire
Farm
Oscar
Mayer
Deli Ham
Deli Ham
Smithfield
Honeybaked
Ham
29
4.6.6
Sausage
The total number of sausage advertisements found in this magazine
is six items and figures of speech are found in all of them. Two metaphors are used in
this type product, yet the two found are not substantial enough to confirm that this
type of figures of speech is used often in this type of product. Other types are
personification, alliteration, repetition and rhyme.
Table 9. List of Sausage Advertising Found
Headline
Figures of
Speech
Personification
No.
Code
1
JF10
Recipes that work weekends
2
JG09
The family dinner isn't history. It's
heating up.
Alliteration
3
SP07
Family connected. No wifi needed
Metaphor
4
NO07
5
NO14
6
NO15
Scrambled Meet Crumbled.
4.6.7
Sugar
Our perfectly seasoned sausage is a
magnet for other ingredients.
Egg Burrito to sausage and egg burrito
in 1.5 seconds
Metaphor
Repetition
Rhyme
Brand
Name
Bob
Evans
Oscar
Mayer
Oscar
Mayer
Hillshire
Farm
Jimmy
Dean
Jimmy
Dean
The total number of sugar a advertisements found in this magazine is
six items and figures of speech are found in five of them. Question and paronomasia
is found often in this type of product, however, it comes from the same brand name –
Splenda Sugar. Thus, it might be their own technique to represent their advertising
idea. Trivia brand also uses question and rhyme as the techniques to show the idea. As
a result, it cannot be concluded that sugar products use the mentioned figures of
speech to create an advertising idea.
Table 10. List of Sugar Advertising Found
No.
Code
1
JF02
Figures of
Brand
Speech
Name
Not having to give up the things I love? Question,
Splenda
Sweet!
Paronomasia
Sugar
(table continues)
Headline
30
Table 10. (continued)
No.
Code
2
MY05
3
JG08
4
NO04
5
NO10
6
DE06
Headline
The great taste of SPLENDA with a
gram of fiber? Sweet!
You can use SPLENDA No Calories
Sweetener in more ways than you ever
imagined. SWEET!
The first all-natural low-calorie stevia
leaf extracts and sugar sweetener.
How many times have you poured a
spoonful of regret into your latte? Try
some honest sweetness instead.
How many times has your sweet tooth
gone out and celebrated without your
permission? Try some honest
sweetness.
Figures of
Speech
Question,
Paronomasia
Brand
Name
Splenda
Sugar
Paronomasia
Splenda
Sugar
Hyperbole
Sun
Crystals
Question,
Rhyme
Truvia
Question,
Rhyme,
Personification
Truvia
From analyzing each the product, the researcher can summarize that the
products that fall into the dessert and drink category, such as ice cream and coffee,
tend to use the technique of using similar sounds such as rhyme, alliteration and
repetition to make the sentence smoother and sound more emotional. While the meat
products, such as sausage, ham and cheese, seems to use different types of figures of
speech and the researcher cannot find the specific type or outstanding technique that
are used in these types.
4.7
COMPARING FIGURES OF SPEECH IN EACH ELEMENT
This will analyze whether in one print advertisement, the technique that
advertisers use in each element – headline, copy and slogan have any correlation or
not. As mentioned earlier from 110 advertisements overall, the researcher can group
the elements in the print ad collected as following:
Headline + Copy + Slogan Total found 37 items
Headline + Copy
Total found 18 items
Headline + Slogan
Total found 43 items
Headline only
Total found 12 items
The researcher will focus only on Headline + Copy + Slogan, as it has the
completed elements that the researcher can study on. From the analysis, the researcher
31
found eight advertisements that applied figures of speech in each element.
Table 11. Table of Advertising Contends Complete Element
No
Code
Product
1
JF01
Fruit
2
MR0
3
Seasoning
Element
Text
Headline Dare to go bare
There's no need to be shy.
Not when we've taken away
the peeling and slicing,
leaving only the delicious
Copy
taste of real fruit.
Fruit Undressed / Chilling in
Slogan your produce section
Great Mexican flavors, no
Headline travel required
Mrs. Dash Fiesta Lime
brings the flavor of Mexico
right to your home. Our
unique blend is a healthy,
delicious way to liven up any
Copy
dish. No salt. No MSG.
Slogan
3
MR0
9
Cheese
Salt-Free, Flavor-Full
What separates the great
pastas from the good is not
Headline the pasta.
For nearly 100 years, we've
crafted the very best cheese.
Why risk your dish with any
Copy
other mozzarella?
FOS
Rhyme,
Assonance
Rhyme,
Personification
Personification
Hyperbole
Personification
Alliteration
Repetition,
Rhyme
Hyperbole,
Question
Slogan
4
JG05
snack
The cheese is everything
Hyperbole
The time you discovered a
Headline little surprise.
Litotes
Like finding a crumpled
dollar bill in your pocket,
getting an impromptu
postcard from an old friend,
or discovering that your
favorite Tostitos. Tostitos
Chips are naturally made
with whole grain corn and no
one ever knew the
Copy
difference.
Parallelism
Slogan
Good times guaranteed.
Alliteration
(table continues)
32
Table 11. (continued)
No
5
6
Code
Product
Text
Gourmet meals. No
NO09 Seasoning Headline reservation required.
Now Morton has a full
selection of Sea Salts from
the sparkling waters of the
Mediterranean Sea. Discover
their flavor in cooking,
baking, roasting, and
finishing. Take your meals
Copy
from 'good' to 'gourmet'.
Made by Nature…
Slogan
Packaged by Morton…
DE05
Creamer
Element
Headline Add your warmth flavor…
New Sugar & Spice Flavor.
It's everything nice about the
Copy
holidays.
Slogan
Good food, good life.
FOS
Alliteration
Rhyme,
Alliteration
Parallelism
Ellipsis
Alliteration,
Rhyme
Rhyme,
Assonance
To summarize above table, researcher has matched the result below:
Table 12. Summary of the Type of Figures of Speech Found
Ad
Code
JF01
Headline
Copy
Slogan
Rhyme, Assonance
Rhyme, Personification
Personification
MR03
Hyperbole
Personification
Alliteration
MR09
Repetition, Rhyme
Hyperbole, Question
Hyperbole
JG05
NO09
DE05
Litotes
Alliteration
Ellipsis
Parallelism
Rhyme, alliteration
Alliteration, Rhyme
Alliteration
Parallelism
Rhyme, Assonance
From analysis, the result showed that some of the advertising used the same
technique in headline and copy, such as JF01, JU03, and NO09, that used rhyme and
alliteration in both headline and copy. In additions, in the copy and slogan, the use of
the same technique also was found here, such as, JF01, MR09, and DE05, using
personification, hyperbole, and rhyme respectively. The researcher can conclude that
in creating the message, considering the use of similar techniques helps the message
be more attractive and memorable. However, it is not necessary to use similar
33
techniques in all three elements. It depends on the concept of the advertising idea.
To sum up, the figures of speech found most in the food product magazines in
all elements are alliteration and repetition, which is the technique of repeating.
Alliteration is repeating in the first sound of the words or phrases while repetition is
repeating of a word within a sentence in order to emphasize it. For example,
‘Creativity on a crust’ for alliteration and ‘The best of the best’ for repetition. The
researcher believes that in using this technique, it emphasizes the key message of an
advertising idea, so it can create sentences that are easier to read and sound catchier.
The repeated words can help readers to recall the main selling point of the product.
The findings of the study will be summarized and discussed in the next
chapter.
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the (1) a summary of the study, (2) a summary of the
findings, (3) discussion of figurative language use in food product advertisements from
Food Network magazine, (4) conclusion, (5) limitations of the study, and (6)
recommendations for further research.
5.1
SUMMARY OF THE STUDY
This summarizes the study of figures of speech in the food product
advertisement.
5.1.1
Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to investigate the use of figures of speech
in print food product advertising from a food magazine to see the types of figures of
speech used in this kind of advertising, which type of figurative language is most
frequently used, to study how figures of speech can be applied to present the message of
each products type and to find out the correlation between figures of speech and
product. The study will reveal how advertisers use figures of speech in food product
advertisement.
5.1.2
Subjects, Materials, and Procedures
The sample of this study was print food product advertisements collected
from Food Network magazine issued during January - December 2010. The total issues
of the magazine researched are 10 issues, as January-February’s issue and JulyAugust’s issue are combined together and counted as one issue. Total of advertising
collected is 116 pieces. The print advertisements should at least contain a headline,
body copy and slogan.
In this study, the researcher used criteria sampling for collecting print
advertisements. Qualitative methodology and content analysis method were used in this
research. The procedure of collecting data started from collecting the print
advertisement from Food Network Magazines. Then, the researcher examined the
advertisements in the magazines and picked out the ones that met the criteria. After that,
34
content analysis procedure occurred to examine figures of speech in the advertisements.
The researcher recorded information of each advertisement in excel as raw data by
separating columns into six, ad code, type of product, headline, copy, slogan, and brand
name. Ad code represents the magazine’s issue and the number of advertisements found
in each month. Then, the researcher added the information found in each advertisement.
After recording the figures of speech, the researcher also created a table to present the
frequency of figures of speech employed in counted number and percentage.
5.1
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
From 116 food product advertisements researched, the result showed that figures
of speech can be found mostly in headlines, followed by slogan and copy respectively.
At least one type of figures of speech was used in the advertisements. In headlines, the
researcher found 103 figures of speech from 116 headlines overall. Repetition was
mostly found in this element, followed by rhetorical question and alliteration. It seems
that the repeated word method tends to be used in headlines. In the copy, there are 43
figures of speech found from a total of 57 copies and the most frequent use of figures of
speech is alliteration followed by rhyme. It seems that the repeated sound method is
often used in this element, because it can make the long sentence sound smoother.
Among 81 slogans, there are 34 slogans that used figures of speech. The outstanding
figures of speech in this element are alliteration, parallelism and assonance and they all
shared the same percentage. Both alliteration and assonance are the technique of
playing with the word sound while parallelism is the technique of sentence
arrangement. The researcher concluded that play in word sound like alliteration and
assonance can attract readers more effectively; as a result, advertisers tend to use this
technique more than others in this element. Moreover, parallelism can create the flow of
words within the sentences, which makes the message easier to read and memorize.
Referring to Table 2, from overall 116 print advertisements that included three
elements - headline, copy, and slogan, the researcher can arrange the number of figures
of speech from highest found to lowest found as following:
1. Alliteration, found 28 times, 11 % of all items
2. Repetition, found 28 times, 11% of all items
3. Rhetorical question, found 23 times, 10% of all items
35
4. Rhyme, found 22 times, 9% of all items
5. Hyperbole, found 19 times, 7% of all items
6. Personification, found 14 times, 5% of all items
7. Metaphor, found 12 times, 5% of all items
8. Assonance, found 9 times, 4% of all items
9. Parallelism, found 7 times, 3% of all items
10. Litotes, found 5 times, 2% of all items
11. Ellipsis, found 3 times, 1% of all items
12. Irony, found 3 times, 1% of all items
13. Simile, found 2 times, 1% of all items
14. Onomatopoeia, found 2 times, 1% of all items
15. Paronomasia, found 2 times, 1% of all items
16. Antithesis, found 1 time, 0% of all items
The result showed that repetition and alliteration shared the most used figures of
speech in food product advertising. Repetition can be found in headlines the most.
Moreover, it also has outstanding numbers in copy and slogans too. On the other hand,
alliteration has a great number in all copy and slogans and also has a high number found
in headlines too. It seems that the technique of repeated sound is common in food
product advertisements. The third rank is rhetorical question. Rhetorical question works
well in provoking reader’s thought, so it can be seen in headline the most.
Regarding the figures of speech for specific types of products, the researcher can
summarize that some types of products tend to use similar figures of speech, such as,
ice cream and coffee products. These product types were found using the technique of
similar sounds like rhyme and alliteration to present the message, while meat products
did not have any specific figures of speech used. The techniques vary, such as
personification, metaphor or repetition.
Lastly, the researcher analyzed the connection of figures of speech that are
employed in each element – headline, copy and slogan, and the researcher found out
that they are related in some elements, but not in all the three. The relation between
headline and copy, and copy and slogan can be seen. However, the connection between
headline and slogan cannot be found. The figure of speech found most is rhyme and
alliteration.
36
5.2
DISCUSSION
The result from this study revealed that most of the food product advertisement
used techniques of repetition in word and sound to create the advertising message;
which are alliteration, repetition and rhyme respectively. Moreover, there is a high
number found of rhetorical question and hyperbole as well. In previous research from
McQuarrie (1993), Leigh (1994) and McQuarrie and Mick (1996), they emphasized the
headline and they separated types of figures of speech into trope and scheme. This study
emphasized all elements of advertisement and did not specify the types of figures of
speech as trope and scheme. However, the result between previous research and this
study are similar in some points. The result from previous studies revealed that
alliteration is the most used figure of speech; alliteration was found most in this study as
well. Moreover, repetition also shared the same rank with alliteration. The result in this
study confirms the results in the previous study, especially McQuarrie and Mick’s
(1996), which indicated that repetition is widely used and it is the type that is less
complex and can convey the message more easily than other types of figures of speech.
Alliteration and repetition are the most found types of figures of speech in this
research with 11 percent of over-all types. Alliteration is repetition of a sound in the
first syllable words or phrases. The result is 11 percent found in headlines, 12 percent in
copy, 8 percent in slogans. Alliteration was found in high number in a previous study
from McQuarrie (1993) and Leigh (1994) as well. It clearly reveals that this technique
is quite common in all types of print advertisements.
As for repetition 13 percent is found in headlines, 10 percent in copy and 7
percent in slogans. Even though it is hardly found in the slogans, from the overall
element of advertising, it is one of the outstanding figurative languages, which resulted
in 11 percent. The technique of repetition is widely used in advertisements, as it can
repeat the key message of the product that advertisers want to present. McQuarrie and
Mick’s study (1996) also mentioned that repetition is easier to use and easier to convey
the message.
The third rank is rhetorical question which is 12 percent in headlines, 6 percent
in copy, 5 percent in the slogans and 10 percent in overall elements. The number is
quite low in the slogans, due to the fact that slogans emphasized short, concise, and easy
to remember sentences. Thus, advertisers tend to avoid using questions. However, from
37
overall elements together, it ranked as the third most found in food advertisements.
Moreover, it seems that this method was found a lot in different advertisements and is
according to the previous study.
Another outstanding number is rhyme. From overall elements, 9 percent was
found, 9 percent in headline, 13 percent in copy and 2 percent in slogan. Rhyme is
mostly found in headline and copy. According to Leigh (1994), rhyme played a big role
in other advertisements too. Since it makes the sentence smoother, advertisers choose to
play with it in headline and copy. Apart from this technique is hyperbole. From overall
elements, 7 percent was found, 9 percent in headline, 7 percent in copy and 3 percent in
slogan. Hyperbole seems to be effective in creating exaggerated benefits of the product,
how well and what is the best the product can offer; as a result, it tends to be useful in
this type of advertisement.
These are the top five figures of speech found from this research. They all have
different and unique functions. Advertisers can use them to create their own imaginative
and dynamic message to grab the reader’s attention.
Further more in this study, in creating an advertising message, it depends on the
product type and its concept. A particular type of product might have similar or
different techniques in creating the advertising message. From this research, there was a
specific type that used similar techniques, but some did not. For example, headlines in
ice cream advertisements tended to use rhyme and alliteration rather than other
techniques. However, headline in meat products advertisements, for example, ham and
cheese tend to have varied techniques. As a result, it cannot officially be concluded that
types of product and figures of speech are related. Further research for specific types of
products should be investigated.
Similar to the relation between figures of speech in headlines, copy and slogans,
the researcher found that headline - copy are related and copy - slogan are related.. They
used the similar figures of speech in those elements. The figures of speech found most
in these elements are rhyme and alliteration. The researcher can conclude that
alliteration helps in connecting the message from headline to copy and slogan.
Furthermore, it can create flow within the print advertisement. However, it hardly
found the correlation between headline and slogan. It might due to the fact that there is
a distance between headline and slogan in print advertisement. Normally the headline is
38
mostly on the top or middle of the advertisement, while the slogan is always on the
bottom of the advertisement. As a result, there is a lack of connection between these
two elements. Still, the researcher cannot 100 percent confirm that it is the effective
technique to create advertising. Further study should be conducted on this as well.
5.4
CONCLUSION
The researcher can conclude the results of the analysis of figure of speech in
food product advertisements as below.
5.4.1
In three elements of advertising which are headline, copy and slogan, the
researcher found at least one figure of speech. Some employed two figures of speech.
There are 116 headlines with 103 figures of speech found in the headline, 57 copies
with 43 figures of speech found in the copy and 81 slogans with 34 figures of speech in
the slogans. The researcher also found the use of general techniques in this set of
advertisements. There are 26 items found in the headlines, 25 items found in the copy
and 27 items found in the slogan.
5.4.2
Figures of speech that are the most frequently used in food product
advertising is alliteration and repetition, which shared 11 percent or 28 times from the
overall 258 figures of speech counted. It is followed by rhetorical questions found 23
times, 10 percent of all items, rhyme found 22 times, 9% of all items and hyperbole
found 19 times or 7 percent of all items. These are the top five figures of speech found
in this study.
5.4.3
After the analysis, the result revealed that the type of product has some
correlation with specific figures of speech as well. The researcher can conclude that in
choosing words or phrases for the advertising messages, advertisers have to consider the
type of product as well. The products, such as, desserts and appetizers tend to play with
the phrase using sound while meat products have no specific technique. It depends on
the advertising idea they want to present. However, in this small sample, the result
might not be 100% accurate; further study in each category of food product is
encouraged.
5.4.4
The researcher found that figures of speech employed in each element –
headline, copy and slogan are related. The researcher found that headline - copy are
related and copy - slogan are related. It hardly sees the correlation between headline and
39
slogan. It might be due to the fact of the distance in the layout that separates headlines
and slogans, while headlines - copy or copy - slogans are fairly connected to each other.
However, it is not necessary to use similar techniques in all three elements. It should
depend on the concept of the advertising idea.
5.5
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
5.5.1
The data selected for this research included only 116 pieces of
advertisement which might not effectively represent the whole range of food product
advertisement.
5.5.2
The collection of the magazine for this research was only a one year
period. It would be better to study previous issues as well. The previous issues might
contain more figures of speech and different techniques might be employed in those
issues.
5.5.3
As the researcher picked only one food product magazine – Food
Network, it might not represent the use of figures of speech in a wider range of food
magazines.
5.6
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the following
recommendations are made for future research.
5.6.1
Future research should study two or more food magazines with a longer
period of issue to see the exact technique of using figures of speech.
5.6.2
Future research should study figurative language on specific type of food
products, for example, meat, snack, juice, or alcohol to observe whether different types
of figurative expressions are applied in different kinds of products.
5.6.3
Future research should study other type of advertising, for example,
business advertising, and advertising from airline industry or from the hospitality
industry to see the differences in each type.
5.6.3
Future research should study figures of speech in advertising from Thai
advertising agencies to see the differences of use of language by Thai advertisers and
how they apply figures of speech in Thai advertisements.
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APPENDIX A
LIST OF FIGURES OF SPEECH
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
Headline
1
JF01 Jan/Feb
18
Fruit
Dare to go bare
2
JF02
"
25
Sugar
Not having to give up the things I
love? Sweet!
3
JF03
"
116 Paste
4
5
6
7
8
JF04
JF05
JF06
JF07
JF08
"
"
"
"
"
31
35
46
47
59
Canned Soup
Olive oil
Sauce
Ham
Vegetable
A little love goes a long way
Without Campbell's French Onion
Soup, it's just a hamburger.
Great meals get STAR-TED with
Star
The Key to Asian Made Easy.
Elevate the Back-to-School
Sandwich
Let the Guide by your guide.
Figure of Speech
Copy
There's no need to be shy. Not
when we've taken away the
peeling and slicing, leaving only
Rhyme, Assonance
the delicious taste of real fruit.
With SPLENDA No Calorie
Sweetener you can forget all the
added calories and
carbohydrates of sugar, and still
Question, Paronomasia enjoy the sweet side of life.
Capture the romance of real
Italian taste. Concentrated
Amore pastes are convenient,
fun to use, and all natural. Give
us a squeeze and bring vibrant
flavors, grown in Italy, to your
Alliteration
recipes.
Figure of Speech
General technique
Repetition
Figure of Speech
Product name
Rhyme,
Personification
Fruit Undressed /
Chilling in your
produce section
Personification
Del Monte
General Technique
Imagine life sweeter.
Metaphor
Splenda
Metaphor
Amote
So many, many reasons
it's so.. M'm! M'm!
Repetition,
Good!
Onomatopoeia
Hyperbole
Assonance
General technique
Slogan
you reach for the freshest
ingredients… You favorite
herbs. Spices. And STAR Olive
Oil STAR Extra Virgin is freshpressed from sun-ripened olives
within 24 hours of harvest. So
you know you're headed for a
great finish... right from the
start.
General Technique
Hillshire Farm invites you to
make a resolution to think
outside the box - the lunch box,
that is! We offer a savory variety
of lean meats that pack up to 11
grams of protein preserving.
And with no by-products or
artificial flavors, your kids can
discover a healthy love of lunch
again.
General Technique
Campbells
STAR
K-A-M-E
GO MEAT!
Personification
Hillshire Farm
Dole
44
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
9
JF09
"
64
10
JF10
"
116 Sausage
11 MR01
12 MR02
13 MR03
Mar
"
"
28
33
45
Bakery
Cracker
Sauce
Seasoning
Headline
Figure of Speech
Whole Grain muffins can taste like
cardboard. Or Chocolate chunk.
Your choice.
Simile
Recipes that work weekends
Does the thought of buddy, golden
baked cheese make you melt?
If pasta could fantasize, this would
be noodle nirvana.
Great Mexican flavors, no travel
required.
Question
Cheddar, Parmesan, Romano
and Asiago. Four delicious
cheeses baked right on top of a
crunchy cracker. That'll do it.
Metaphor
Sure, all the fresh Italian cheese,
crushed garlic, cracked black
pepper and real cream is a bit
decedent. We didn't skimp a bit
with the all-natural ingredients.
Which makes you think, if a
noodle could use its noodle,
Newman's Own Alfredo would Alliteration,
have to be its fantasy?
Question, Mataphor
Hyperbole
Mrs. Dash Fiesta Lime brings
the flavor of Mexico right to
your home. Our unique blend is
a healthy, delicious way to liven
up any dish. No salt. No MSG. Personification
"
25
Frozen Food
How can I make a 4-hour beef roast
in 4 minutes?
Question
15 MR05
"
5
Frozen Food
Yep, it's getting a lot of attention.
"
26
Frozen Food
How can I make an easy dinner
after a hard day?
Question
17 MR07
"
35
Alcohol Drink
They hooked up. And you're going
to fall in love.
Personification
Frozen Food
Our newest Bertolli Oven Bake
Meals have Italian chef wishing
we'd disappear.
96
General Technique
Cook great roast without a great
effort with HORMEL.
Refrigerated Entrees. In the
refrigerated meat case.
Repetition
General technique
16 MR06
"
Figure of Speech
Personification
14 MR04
18 MR08
Copy
General technique
Have a hot, hearty meal in a
hurry with HORMEL
COMPLEATS MICROWAVE Alliteration,
Meals. Real Food, Real Fast.
Repetition
Wheat. With all the light beer
drinkability you expect from
Bud Light and a huge taste that
you never saw coming. Always
refreshing. Surprisingly
flavorful. It's match made in beer
heaven.
General Technique
Slogan
Figure of Speech
Product name
So moist! So delicious. Parallelism,
And so much more.
Repeition
Everyone could use a
little home-style.
Litotes
Bob Evans
Good is in the details
Pepperidge Farm
General technique
Duncan Hines
Newman's Own
Salt-Free, Flavor-Full
Alliteration
Life better served.
General technique
Fresh taste unlocked by
General technique
steam!
Life better served.
Mrs. Dash
Hormel
Healthy Choice Café
General technique
Bud Light Golden
Wheat
Now there are more
reasons to skip the
Italian restaurant
tonight.
General technique
Bertolli Oven Bake
Meals
45
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
19 MR09
"
92
Cheese
20 AP01
Apr
4
Drink
21 AP02
"
7
Seasoning
22 AP03
"
9
Bread
23 AP04
"
31
Cracker
Headline
What separates the great pastas
from the good is not the pasta.
Figure of Speech
Copy
For nearly 100 years, we've
crafted the very best cheese.
Why risk your dish with any
Repetition, Alliteration other mozzarella?
Milk the Moment
Alliteration
Dill Weed is most flavorful when it
General technique
blooms.
Can 100% natural bread really taste
delicious? Apparently so.
Question
Dip into Spring, naturally
Assonance
24 AP05
"
33
Frozen Food
Captivatingly delicious
General technique
25 AP06
26 AP07
"
"
43
67
Olive oil
Vegetable
Salads made better!
Delicious ideas are in bloom.
Assonance
Metaphor
27 AP08
"
68
Bakery
Easy as 1,2,3. Gone in 4,5,6.
Parallelism
28 AP09
"
15
Butter
LIAR!
General technique
29 AP10
"
80
Ham
Wake up even the early risers.
Irony
30 AP11
"
87
Drink
Simply orange taste as fresh as a
juicy orange. We guarantee it.
Repetition
Figure of Speech
Slogan
The cheese is
Hyperbole, Question everything
So Why is ours the only dill with
Question
blossoms?
Got milk?
What the world tastes
like?
100% Natural 100%
Delicious
Figure of Speech
Hyperbole
Question
Kraft Cheese
Drink Milk
Campiegne
Spice Island - Dill
Weed
Parallelism
Nature's Pride
Question
Taste the return of Spring with a
match that's deliciously
compatible. The robust sesame
flavor of Seamark crackers sets
the perfect stage for Tribe's
fresh, exotic, Mediterranean
taste. It's all the natural, healthy
way to snack, so go ahead, take
a dip.
Metaphor
Seamark / Tribe
Fresh taste unlocked by
steam!
General technique
Pompeian makes every
day better!
Assonance
The amazing avocado General technique
Puff Pastry Sheets, Shells &
Ready-to-Bake Turnovers.
That's what they'll say when you
tell them you baked it with "I
can't Believer It's Not Butter!"
sticks. Unlike butter, it's
naturally cholesterol free and
has 50% less saturated fat. And
best of all "Its Bakes like Butter
and Taste like Butter!"
No one can resist our bacon.
Naturally hardwood smoked for
hours, it makes anyone a
morning person.
If you don't agree, we'll pay for a
bag of oranges. That's the
Simply Orange Orange Back
Guarantee. Only from Simply
Orange. Honestly Simple.
Product name
Healthy Choice Café
Pompeian Olive Oil
Avocados Mexico
Alliteration
Good is in the details
General technique
Pepperidge Farm
Repetition
The fresh taste of
butter, the better way.
Alliteration
I can't believe it's
butter
Hyperbole
It doesn't get better than
this.
General technique
Repetition,
Alliteration
Oscar Mayer
Simply Orange
46
No. Code
Issue
31 AP12
"
32 MY01
May
Page Type of Product
171 Cheese
9
Ice cream
Headline
Take the pheeling with you
All we add is cold.
33 MY02
"
32
Cookie
34 MY03
35 MY04
"
"
62
64
Coffee
Ice cream
Our oatmeal cookies have a soft
spot for raisin.
Between due dates and play dates.
The smooth taste that makes any
day better.
Real fruit, naturally in every bite.
Figure of Speech
General technique
General technique
General technique
36 MY05
"
67
Sugar
37 MY06
"
83
Coffee
Wake up to Folgers Black Silk.
"
92
Ham
Who needs bread?
Question
JU01
June
12
Mayonnaise
If you knew more about our food,
would we eat better?
Question
40
JU02
"
15
Mayonnaise
Why did we put 100% cage-free
eggs in our mayonnaise?
Question
41
JU03
"
22
Cheese
Spread a little tongue wagging.
General technique
42
JU04
"
35
Ice cream
The Purest for the purist.
Rhyme, Alliteration
JU05
"
JG01 Jul/Aug
107 Ham
5 Mayonnaise
Looks like a case of cold cut envy.
Give your Sandwich a Makeover.
All the sweet taste you want and
a gram of healthy fiber in every
packet.
General Technique
General technique
39
43
44
They're also quite fond of toasty
cinnamon and a touch of brown
sugar. You will be too.
General Technique
Repetition, Alliteration
Rhyme
The great taste of SPLENDA with a
gram of fiber? Sweet!
Question
38 MY07
Copy
Figure of Speech
Anytime, anyplace with new
Philly Minis four packs available
in four delicious flavors.
Repetition
Alliteration
Personification
Our Dell Fresh meats are sliced,
packed, and sealed at the peak of
freshness. So they're great in a
sandwich or just by themselves.
At Hellmann's, we make our
mayonnaise with real, simple
ingredients like eggs, delicious
vinegar and oils rich in omega 3.
So it's definitely a step in the
right direction.
At Hellmann's, we believe in
using quality ingredients. And
now, we're using 100% cagefree eggs in our mayonnaise.
Make your pasta more primo
when you stir in 1/2 cup of
Philly.
You'll long for our Deli Fresh
meats. They're sliced, packed,
and sealed at the peak of
freshness for a taste worthy of
your affection.
Slogan
Figure of Speech
Product name
Philadelphia Cheese
Just five all natural
ingredient. Simply
perfect.
Litotes
Hiagen-Dazs
Good is in the details
General technique
Pepperidge Farm
Uncommonly Smooth.
General technique
Seattle's Best Coffee
Dreyer's Fruit Bar
Imagine life sweeter.
Bold flavor,
exceptionally smooth.
Metaphor
Splenda Sugar
Folgers Black Silk
Coffee
General technique
General Technique
It doesn't get better than
this.
General technique
Deli Fresh Ham
General Technique
It's time for real taste.
General technique
Hellmann's
General Technique
It's time for real taste.
General technique
Hellmann's Light
Alliteration
Spread a little Philly.
Just five all natural
ingredient. Simply
perfect.
General technique
Philly Cheese
Litotes
Hiagen-Dazs
General Technique
It doesn't get better than
this.
General technique
Deli Fresh Ham
Kraft Mayo
47
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
45
JG02
"
22
Frozen Food
Headline
Figure of Speech
Sometimes investing in Italian Shortterm proposition.
General technique
46
JG03
"
29
Ice cream
Keeping goodness honest.
Rhyme
47
JG04
"
33
Fruit
The best of the best.
Repetition, Hyperbole
48
JG05
"
34
snack
The time you discovered a little
surprise.
Litotes
49
JG06
"
37
Frozen Food
Where good living meets good
eating.
Repetition, Rhyme
50
JG07
"
41
Salad dressing
51
JG08
"
47
Sugar
52
JG09
"
60
Sausage
53
JG10
"
83
Vegetable
54
JG11
"
89
Cheese
55
JG12
"
95
Seasoning
Flavors that get your lettuce dancing
on the salad bar.
You can use SPLENDA No
Calories Sweetener in more ways
than you every imagined. SWEET!
The family dinner isn't history. It's
heating up.
Hold on to your spatulas, things are
about to get zesty.
Our newest selection is natural,
delicious and has reduced sodium.
So much lively flavor, there's no
room for salt.
Personification
Paronomasia
Alliteration
Copy
Figure of Speech
Like finding a crumpled dollar
bill in your pocket, getting an
impromptu postcard from an old
friend, or discovering that your
favorite Tostitos. Tostitos Chips
are naturally made with whole
grain corn and no one ever knew
the difference. But that's a little
surprise you can keep all to
Parallelism
yourself.
Slogan
Create an Italian
Masterpiece.
Just five all natural
ingredient. Simply
perfect.
Figure of Speech
Product name
General technique
Buitoni
Litotes
Hiagen-Dazs
Grapes From
California
Good times guaranteed. Alliteration
Great-tasting Italian you
can feel great about
eating.
One taste of any of our twenty
delicious flavors and your taste
buds will be doing the tango too.
That's what happens when you
make salad dressings with topnotch, no-nonsense, all-natural
ingredients like extra virgin
olive oil, cracked black pepper
and real Parmesan cheese. Now
you've go your salad grooving. Personification
Tostitos
Bertolli
Newman's Own
Imagine life sweeter.
Metaphor
It doesn't get better than
this.
General technique
General technique
Splenda Sugar
Oscar Mayer Selects
Vlasic
General technique
Our Family's Passion is
Cheese.
General technique
Sargento
General technique
Salt-Free, Flavor-Full
Mrs. Dash
Alliteration
48
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
56
JG13
"
142 Tea
57
JG14
"
175 Ham
58
SP01
Sep
59
SP02
"
11
37
Sauce
Ice cream
60
SP03
"
39
Chocolate
61
SP04
"
40
Snack
62
63
SP05
SP06
"
"
45
51
Cornflakes
snack
64
SP07
"
64
Sausage
65
SP08
"
68
Beans
Headline
Figure of Speech
Strawberry, like you've never had it
before.
Hyperbole
Experience the Unexpected.
If you find anything else inside our
bag, it's called your hand.
As much protein as an egg, now
found in a bowl.
hellojell-o
Alliteration
General technique
General technique
Rhyme
66
SP09
"
75
Cracker
67
SP10
"
87
Beans
A delightful new guest at the table. Personification
68
SP11
"
93
Frozen Food
Too good to be frozen
SP12
70 OC01
"
Oct
152 Ice cream
9
Sauce
Figure of Speech
When life gives you lemons, just
toss'em in your pitcher.
Metaphor
Smithfield. The ham that made ham
Repetition, Hyperbole
famous.
Turns the Goldstein residence into
the Goldstein Ristorante
Repetition
Family connected. No wifi needed
They'll love every bite. You'll love
every compliment.
Your second wind has arrived…
boy does it taste good.
69
Copy
hellojell-o
Veggies your kid won't want to
share. Even with his best friend.
Metaphor
Slogan
Figure of Speech
Product name
Drink in the bright side.
Always made with the
freshest leaves for a
taste that's uniquely
Lipton.
General technique Lipton Iced Tea
Smithfield
Italy is served
Luscious strawberries in rich
and creamy strawberry and
vanilla ice creams.
General technique
General Technique
Excellence A Touch of Sea Salt
from the Master Chocolatiers at
Lindt. Made with the finest rich
dark chocolate and hand
harvested Fleur de Sel sea salt
crystals. Experience surprising
bursts of savory flavor from this
unexpected chocolate delight.
Hyperbole
Just potatoes, all-natural oil & a
dash of salt.
Litotes
so jiggly, so wiggly, so fun.
Rhyme
Made the dinner table a real chat
room
Metaphor
Starbuck Ice Cream
Master Swiss
Chocolateier Since
1845
Happiness is simple
7 whole grains on a
mission
General technique
Lindt
Assonance
Lay's
Personification
Kashi
Jell-o
It doesn't get better than
this.
General technique
Repetition
Ellipsis
Bertolli
Oscar Mayer - Angus
Bush's Grilling Beans
Ritz Crackerfuls. Snack on real
food.
General Technique
Hyperbole
Rhyme
So lusciously tempting. You'll be
positively giddy,
Rhyme
General technique
With all natural Ragu, your kids
get more than a full serving of
veggies tucked into a sauce
they'll actually love to eat. What
a surprise.
General Technique
Rits. Open for fun.
If it's GOYA it has to be
good.
Better ingredient, Better
you.
General technique
Ritz, Crackerfuls
General technique
Repetition,
Parallelism
GOYA, chick peas
Contessa
Jell-o
Feed our kids well
General technique
Ragu
49
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
Headline
Figure of Speech
71 OC02
"
25
Snack
72 OC03
"
32
Pasta
A handful of your heart's desire
Alliteration
Some people are struck speechless
by Italian Art. Maybe that's because
their mouths are full.
Irony
73 OC04
74 OC05
"
"
35
60
Bread
Paste
Where your wants meet your
shoulds
Not all hummus is all natural
75 OC06
"
77
Frozen Food
76 OC07
"
99
Bread
77 OC08
"
124 Cheese
78 OC09
"
140 Coffee
79 OC10
"
147 Bread
Copy
Want a snack that loves you
back? Reach for heart-smart,
nutrient-rich California
Almonds. Just a handful a day
can nourish your heart by
helping you maintain healthy
cholesterol levels.
Figure of Speech
It's not whether you win or lose, but
whether there's enough to go
Repetition
around.
Taste for yourself. A lot of Hype
OR A lot of Flavor
Repetition
Almost making it to the table for
Litotes
over 50 years.
80 OC11
"
158 Cheese
81 OC12
"
162 Ice cream
82 NO01
Nov
14
Mayonnaise
Careful. This cheese is loaded.
Hyperbole
Less Sugar makes morning pretty
Alliteration
Sweet.
Not all love notes are written. Some
are made.
General technique
83 NO02
"
33
Alcohol Drink
America's Most Loved Chardonnay Hyperbole
84 NO03
"
39
Chocolate
85 NO04
"
52
Sugar
Do not deny your dark side.
The first all-natural low-calorie
stevia leaf extract and sugar
sweetener.
The simple answer is HORMEL.
Refrigerated Entrees. They take
just minutes but taste like they
took hours. In the refrigerated
meat case.
General Technique
General technique
Buitoni
Healthful, another bread
perfected from Oroweat General technique
Question
All Natural. Is yours?
Oroweat
Tribe Origin
Life better served.
General technique
Hormel
Bread perfected
General technique
Oroweat
Repetition
Kraft Singles
Nescafe
Aloha in every bite.
A potent combination of tasty
American cheese and a blast of
real Jalapenos. Can you handle
it?
Your favorites will be gone in
seconds.
Metaphor
Question
Alliteration
Hyperbole
Product name
California Almonds
The Italian art of food
Make everyone's day on game
day. Get the party started with
this favorite recipe of The
Neelys.
Figure of Speech
Question,
Personification,
Rhyme
Alliteration
Repetition
How do I make comfort food when
I'm not comfortable cooking?
Question, Allteration
Don’t' talk with your month full.
But it's perfectly OK to smile.
Irony
Slogan
Hyperbole
King's Hawaiian
Kraft Deli Deluxe
Ice cream shoppe, Pop
Tarts
It's time for real
sandwiches
From the best land
comes the best wine.
General technique
Repetition /
Hyperbole
Perfectly DARK
General technique
Kendall-Jackson
Dark Cholocate
Reese's
All natural sweetener
General technique
Sun Crystals
Best Food
50
No. Code
Issue
Page Type of Product
86 NO05
"
71
Chocolate
87 NO06
"
77
Frozen Food
88 NO07
"
81
Sausage
89 NO08
90 NO09
"
"
91
92
Frozen Food
Seasoning
91 NO10
"
107 Sugar
92 NO11
"
108 Cookie
93 NO12
"
109 Cookie
94 NO13
"
136 Turkey
Headline
Figure of Speech
It's how we put it together that sets
it apart.
Antithesis
Birds eye presents 3 new creations
that make meals come alive.
General technique
Our perfectly seasoned sausage is a
magnet for other ingredients.
Metaphor
My only preservative is your
freezer?
Gourmet meals. No reservation
required.
Copy
Lindt Excellence 70%. Created
from a secret blend of cocoa
beans. Refined for smoothness.
Shaped thin to highlight its
complex flavor and aromas.
Crafted with passion by the
Master Chocolatiers arr Lindt.
It's dark chocolate at its most
perfect.
Figure of Speech
General Technique
Slogan
Figure of Speech
Master Swiss
Chocolateier Since
1845
General technique
The dinnertime
possibilities are endless. General technique
Product name
Lindt
Birds Eye - Lightly
Sauced
GO MEAT!
Personification
Hillshire Farm
Question, Metaphor
With Newman's Own frozen
pizza, enjoy all-natural toppings,
real mozzarella and extra-crispy
crust in just 10 minutes. And
because they're made without
shortcuts or compromises, we
General Technique
can
Let the food speak for
itself.
Personification
Newman's Own
Alliteration
Now Morton has a full selection
of Sea Salts from the sparkling
waters of the Mediterranean
Sea. Discover their flavor in
cooking, baking, roasting, and
finishing. Take your meals from
'good' to 'gourmet'.
Rhyme, alliteration
Made by Nature…
Packaged by Morton.
Parallelism
Morton
Truvia natural sweetener is born
from the stevia leaf with great
taste, zero calories and no guilt.
Your morning coffee ritual
suddenly feels good again.
General Technique
Honestly sweet.
Assonance
Truvia
Good food, good life.
Rhyme, Assonance Nestle
Good food, good life.
Rhyme, Assonance Nestle
How many times have you poured a
spoonful of regret into your latte?
Try some honest sweetness instead. Question, rhyme
Who would you bake some love
for?
Question
The ultimate indulgence, inside and
Hyperbole
out…
The one turkey that can feed a
million people.
Hyperbole
Try toll house ultimate filled
cookies, with a rich chocolate of
gooey caramel center.
General Technique
Shady Brook Farms.
51
No. Code
95 NO14
96 NO15
Issue
"
"
Page Type of Product
145 Sausage
154 Sausage
Headline
Egg Burrito to sausage and egg
burrito in 1.5 seconds
Scrambled Meet Crumbled.
Figure of Speech
Jimmy Dean
Rhyme
A heartier breakfast is quicker
and easier with Jimmy Dean
fully cooked sausage crumbles.
Rhyme
Shine On
General technique
Jimmy Dean
It's the most alluring medley of
veggies ever. With a blend of
cheeses, all on a crispy thin
crust. Now in your goscer's
freezer, but not for long.
General Technique
Creativity on a crust.
Alliteration
California Pizza
Kitchen
Fresh uncooked tortillas, heat &
serve in 60 seconds
General Technique
Tortilla Land
Yes. And make a memorable
mess, too.
King Arthur Flour
98 NO17
"
165 Frozen Food
"Fresh" without the "…"
99 NO18
"
169 Bakery
100 DE01
Dec
3
Coffee
Can a cookie tell a story?
Question
Oh Christmas blend, Oh Christmas
blend, To have at home or
Repetition
anywhere you go.
101 DE02
"
19
Coffee
102 DE03
"
31
Nut
Chocolate
104 DE05
"
39
Creamer
105 DE06
"
59
Sugar
106 DE07
107 DE08
"
"
79
Creamer
100 Bread
Elevating chocolate. And you.
Ellipsis
110 Calories of bagel-iciousness.
Alliteration
Share in the taste of the
season with Starbucks. Alliteration
That's joy to the world and to you coffee mug. Parallelism
General technique
Question, Repetition
Starbucks Christmas
Blend
Caribou Coffee
Fisher Pecan
Master Swiss
Chocolateier Since
1845
Personification
Add your warmth flavor…
Ellipsis
How many times has your sweet
tooth gone out and celebrated
without your permission? Try some Question,
Personification, Rhyme
honest sweetness instead.
It's no ordinary cream liqueur.
Product name
General technique
157 Frozen Food
33
Figure of Speech
Shine On
"
"
Slogan
Rhyme
97 NO16
103 DE04
Figure of Speech
Repetition
Limited Edition Fire Roast Veggies,
your mouth may water enough to
start a garden.
Metaphor
Joy to your own little world
Thinking of adding a twist to your
Holiday recipes? Think Fisher.
Copy
A heartier breakfast is quicker
and easier with Jimmy Dean
fully cooked sausage crumbles.
New Sugar & Spice Flavor. It's
everything nice about the
holidays.
Alliteration, Rhyme Good food, good life.
Honestly sweet.
General technique
Lindt
Rhyme, Assonance Nestle, Coffee-mate
Assonance
Truvia
Hyperbole
The smoothest cream liqueur in
the World.
Hyperbole
Tres Leches
General technique
Thomas Bagel Thins bagels are
full of the soft, bagel taste you
crave, in a delicious light
texture. Try them in Plain, 100%
Whole Wheat, and Everything.
You might even say they're just
General Technique
what you've been looking for.
Thomas Bagel Thins
52
No. Code
Issue
108 DE09
"
Page Type of Product
103 Chocolate
109 DE10
"
107 Frozen Food
110 DE11
"
123 Beans
111 DE12
112 DE13
"
"
125 Ham
127 Sauce
113 DE14
"
147 Milk
114 DE15
"
155 Coffee
115 DE16
"
165 Fruit
116 DE17
"
211 Soda
Headline
Pot of Gold, makes celebrations
sweeter.
BBQ Chicken Pizza, So taggy, so
saucy, better stock up on napkins.
The soup is a stage. The beans are
the star.
The most worthwhile things are
crafted by hand.
A dip for every day.
Figure of Speech
Copy
Figure of Speech
Figure of Speech
General technique
Rhyme
Metaphor,
Personification
General technique
General technique
Get messy with some downhome BBQ on a crispy thin
crust. Another restaurantinspired creation from CPK. In
your grocer's freezer.
The Honey Baked Ham you
personally select this holiday
will be unlike any other. That's
because each Ham is
individually handcrafted by a
Master Glazer. For quality you
can taste. At a price that fits
your holidays budget.
General Technique
The soda nature would drink if
nature drank soda.
Creativity on a crust.
If it's Goya it has to be
good.
Alliteration
California Pizza
Kitchen
General technique
Goya Black Beans
Amazing every day
General technique
The Honeybaked Ham
Marzetti Veggie Dip
Good food, good life.
Rhyme, Assonance Nestle, Carnation
Good food, good life.
Rhyme, Assonance Nestle, Nescafe'
Grapes From
California
Sierrra Mist Natural
Soda
General Technique
Rhyme, Alliteration
Simile
Product name
Hershey's
Change ordinary mashed potatoes Repetition,
into… Mmmm… Mashed Potatoes. Onomatopoeia
Taste for yourself. Big bucks or Big
Flavor.
Repetition
We have a history of healthy.
"I'd rather be shaped like a straw
than a bunny."
Slogan
Repetition
APPENDIX B
FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENT FROM JAN TO DEC 2010
January/ February Issue
JF01
JF02
JF03
JF04
54
JF05
JF06
JF07
JF08
55
JF09
JF10
56
March Issue
MR01
MR02
MR03
MR05
57
MR04
MR06
58
MR07
MR 09
MR08
59
April Issue
AP01
AP02
AP03
AP04
60
AP05
AP06
AP07
AP08
61
AP09
AP11
AP10
AP12
62
May Issue
MA01
MA02
MA03
MA04
63
MA05
MA07
MA06
64
June Issue
JU01
JU02
JU03
JU04
65
JU05
66
July/August Issue
JG01
JG02
JG03
JG04
67
JG05
JG06
JG07
JG08
68
JG09
JG10
JG11
JG12
69
JG13
JG14
70
September Issue
SP01
SP02
SP03
SP04
71
SP05
SP06
SP07
SP08
72
SP09
SP10
SP11
SP12
73
October Issue
OC01
OC02
OC03
OC04
74
OC05
OC07
OC06
75
OC08
OC09
OC10
OC11
76
OC12
77
November Issue
NO01
NO02
NO03
NO04
78
NO05
NO06
NO07
NO08
79
NO09
NO10
NO11
NO12
80
NO13
NO14
NO15
NO16
81
NO17
NO18
82
December Issue
DE01
DE02
DE03
DE04
83
DE05
DE06
DE07
DE08
84
DE09
DE10
DE11
DE12
85
DE13
DE14
DE15
DE16
86
DE17
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