US History

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The United States
Native Americans
● Before colonization, there were about 10 million
people, in over 200 tribes.
● By 1865, only 300,000 remained.
● forced off their land
● many died from diseases brought by the colonists
● Today there are 562 federally recognized Indian tribes,
bands, nations, and Native villages in the United States.
Approximately 229 of these are located in Alaska; the
rest are located in 33 other states. Tribes are ethnically,
culturally and linguistically diverse.
History
● The Americas were discovered by Christopher
Columbus in 1492?
● Columbus landed on Cuba and he was trying to find
India.
● Several Communities Failed due to diseases, bad
water, poor farming and lack of food.
History
● Eventually 13 colonies would be founded
● French Indian War takes place (#England vs France)
● King George wanted Colonies to pay for the war
● Colonies defy King George with Declaration of
Independence
No Taxation without
Representation
Declaration of Independence
● Break up letter to King George III
● No taxation without representation
● 13 colonies wanted the opportunity to change the laws
if there was a problem with them
● Thomas Jefferson
History
● Colonies revolt and the Revolutionary War begins.
● The Revolution lasted from 1775 -1783
● The Rebels beat the Red Coats and America is born.
History
●Our
st
1
president is ……..
John Hanson
● 1776 – Representatives of the 13 colonies assemble for what they term a
‘Continental Congress’. There, they sign and unanimously adopt the
Declaration of Independence. The 13 states of the New World are no
longer ruled by Great Britain. Their individual states are still official
entities. But having created and adopted the Declaration of
Independence as an official body of united states, the term
‘Americans’ is widely adopted to name the people of the united states.
America, while not recognized by any nations of the world as a
country and not functioning with a Constitution, is born.
● 1779 – The Continental Congress continues to meet while General
George Washington and the Continental Army continue to fight the
war for independence. The Continental Congress elects its first
President - Samuel Huntington.
American Government
● 1st form of government was The Articles of
Confederation.
● This form was proven weak by Shays Rebellion
(#High Taxes on Farmers) (#Articles of Confederation
too weak)
● America needed a strong central government
● The United States buys land from France and start
expanding West. ( #Louisiana Purchase, #Double the
size of the U.S.)
Constitution
● Was brought on by Shays Rebellion (High Taxes on
Farmers) (Articles of Confederation too weak)
● Virginia Plan favored the larger states
● New Jersey Plan favored the smaller states
● Connecticut Compromise created the 2 houses of
congress
Constitution
● 74 delegates were named, 55 attended and 39 signed
● Went into effect in 1789
● Originally had 7 Articles
● Contains the 1st 10 amendments known as the Bill of
Rights
Bill Of Rights
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Freedom of Press, Religion, Right to Assemble,
Speech and Petition
Right to Bear Arms
No Quartering
Searches and Seizures (search warrants)
No self incrimination (plead the 5th)
Bill Of Rights
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Due Process (you get a trial)
Right to a public trial
Jury is a trial over $20
Privacy Act
Rights not given to central government are given to
the states
Articles 1,2 and 3
● Separation of Powers
● Legislature: bicameral
● Executive: president
● Judiciary: Courts
● Checks and Balances
4th and 6th Articles
● Federalism
● The relationship between the states and the central
government
7th Article
● Provides the process for Ratifying the law to change it
and update it
● There have been a total of 27 amendments to take
place
U.S. Government
Trail of Tears
● In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian
removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to
give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to
migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma.
● The Indian Removal Act saw the U.S. government
spend nearly 30 years forcing Indians to move
westward, beyond the Mississippi River.
● The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of
Tears," because of its devastating effects.
Slavery
Slavery
● After capture, Africans were packed tightly into slave
●
●
●
●
●
ships.
The death rate of the “passengers” was 50%.
Most Africans landed in Brazil with the least number
landing in North America.
Slaves were auctioned off to the highest bidder.
They learned an European language, were named an
European name, and were shown labor requirements.
In 1619, the first Africans were brought to the colony
Jamestown, Virginia by the Dutch.
Slavery
● Why weren’t Native Americans enslaved?
● Why were Africans enslaved? (Sugar, healthy, land)
● Gradual abolition of slavery in the northern colonies
● End of the Atlantic Slave Trade in 1808
● Entrenchment of slavery in the South with the
invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney
● http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-
war/1861/november/slave-map-south-carolina.htm
Compromise of 1850
● California comes in the Union (United States) as a
free state
● Utah and New Mexico territories are created-no
mention of slavery
● Outlaws slave trade in Washington, D.C.
● Fugitive Slave Act-requires northerners to return
escaped slaves to masters
The Dred Scott Decision
● Dred Scott was a slave who was taken to a free
territory by his owner.
● He sued for his freedom because he lived in the free
territory.
● His case went all the way to the Supreme Court,
where Scott loses because he was not considered a
citizen, thus could not sue in federal court. (He was
“property” and could be taken anywhere.)
Election of 1860 and the Start of the
Civil War
● Abraham Lincoln was
elected president in 1860
without any southern
electoral votes.
● Many southern states
quickly seceded from the
Union, South Carolina
leading the way.
● Southern troops fired upon
Fort Sumter, starting the
Civil War.
● The North fought to preserve
the Union, while the South
fought to preserve slavery.
● Image result for how many people died in the civil
war
● Roughly 1,264,000 American soldiers have died in the
nation's wars--620,000 in the Civil War and 644,000
in all other conflicts. It was only as recently as the
Vietnam War that the amount of American deaths in
foreign wars eclipsed the number who died in the
Civil War.
End of the Civil War and the 13th
Amendment
● The South lost, and the
states were forced to accept
the 13th Amendment to the
Constitution before they
could be readmitted into
the Union.
● 13th Amendment-It
abolished slavery in the
United States.
● It was ratified in 1865.
History
● The North would win and reunite the country.
● Lincoln assassinated.
● After the Civil war is finished many people moved
West for a new start and were helped by the building
of the Transcontinental Railroad
● Gold is found in California in 1849.
Key Historical Dates for the U.S. during
the 1900’s
● 1917 and 1918 the U.S. fought in World War I
● Great Depression in 1930s
● World War II -1941 to 1945
● Cold War
● Korean Conflict 1950 - 1953
● Vietnam
● Persian Gulf 1990 - 1991
Democratic Republic
● Democracy: people are allowed to freely vote on
government matters
● Republic: people are set apart to represent a large
number of people’s best interest
● We elect people that we believe will make the best
decisions for us.
Set up For Success
● Large amounts of freshwater
● Rivers to move goods when roads had not yet been
●
●
●
●
built
Fertile land to grow crops
Forests for Timber
Large amounts of Fish
Mineral resources
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