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Harlpton Court PaLac€ ls sltuated ln the south-west of
lonalon ln the Bushy-?ark on th€ left bank of the Thanes,
It ras bul1t tn 1514 ln the relgn of ll€nry VIIT by
Tbonas rilolgey, Archbl€hop of Yorkr who becen€ a caralinal
and Loril Chanqellor, of England, The slte was acqutloal
on Lease froB the o].iler of St. John of Jerusal"en, !!o1sey
flas elreaily thr most powarful and rrqasewlftly
becontng
th6 rlche€t subjokt ln the ktngdom., Thls country house
ras planned and fur'nished wlth a nagnlficenc€ r1vaIl1ng.
lf not surpasslng, that of a royal palac€" The Carill-aal,s
householal nunbereil nearly 50O; 28O rlchly
furnish€d loons
rer€ kept always prepareil for guests; end wban a fo]lrnal
agreenent betwe€n Fr&nc6 and E)xgland.was sj.gned ln 1527
th€ trrretrchArubassadora'nd his retlnue of 4OOw€r€ €nter-1
talnsal ln Hanpton Court at the Cardlnalis axpense"
Iwo y€ars lator he wes atrtpp€d of a1] hls power and'
*
w€a1th. In a desp€rate €ffort to regaln th€ Kiagt"
favour he haal presented to Henry VIIf hts nanor of
Eampton Court with its butldlngs and fur.?18hl"ngs, lts
tapestrlss and Lts plate. But on 3oth october 1529, e1l
hls lands and. goods w€re decllaled. forfelt
io the Ktng.
ALthough h€ recelved a general perd.on 1n Febmary 15JO
aail retlr€d. to his provinc€ of York, he was arr€gteil
ln Növernb€r for hlgh treaaone but d.ted whlle ho was
bsing brought to London.,
E€nr'y VIII at once began to enlarge the house, naklng
lt ona of the rnoat lu:Eurlous palaces ln th€ ktngdon"
In turn h€ brought lnlx€ Bo1€lm, Jane seJrroour, Arln€ of
Cleyes" Cstherl-no iloward and Cstherlne Parr to th€
peLac€ as Queon"
IiAMPTON CL.i,Iil .Pl Ai:!
H€r6 Janea I preslded
AeterBlnlng
Its
over thq conference for th€
sald to be t'anisa tn the churcb.tr.
of thlngs
d€ltberatlons
to set things
d l-al iittie
rlght
Ln tüü
church, but f?on lt sprang the Authorlsed Verslen of
the Brbr.E-
6A
M
and" for a short t1me" q-3
Charl-e6 I llveal here as Klr8'
durlng the Clvli War, Aftsr hLs death, Ehen
aa priso!6l
the xoyal poss€aaionn were scld by order of Parllanent,
Ollver
th6 palacs wa.s kept for th€ us6 of th€ Protector,
rrpoplshn
CronweLl,. fts chapsll was strlpped of lts
lnag€s
s'Dal plctures
a!!d plaln glass v/as set ln lta lrj.ndöws.
Charlos II rspel.red the palac€ anil lald out thc gardens
aa€wö
lil
;1
l,,,1
rlriq!rt
of 1688 and the accesslon of
th€ r€volutlon
wtlLlarn antl Mary cans th€ soconal great rabufading
wtth
l-,_.,
,tJ,
;),ff
//t//
et Eanpton Court" S tr Chrlstopher E?en ras conlssl-onod.
because tt dld eult tha taste
to plan a Dan prlace.
o? the conyenienc€ of th€ new sov€r€lgns! ilany atestgrls
w€ro nad€u ard one echene at ]-ast li'trvol.vsd the destructioaB
of th€ wholo of th€ thell er.lstlng butl-di.ngs €xcept the
g Feat Hs1l , The Base and th6 clock court s€re aot
?ounal
chaDgeil Ln appearance., but the thficd eourtyard,
apartnents
of
which th€ stat6 Rooüs ard th€ prlvate
th€ gover€igns we?e group€dn wes torn do$,n to mak€ way
whlch now su?round.
for ths suits of rooDs end gaIl€?les
üas desl.gn€al 1!1
the Fountalll Court. Th€ new building
the c!,assle r€nelsssnce style of the day and can bo
eompareal with the ponp of such a pe].ace ae Versaj.lLes"
threw o-en the stats Roöns to
Iü 1760 Queen Vlctorla
tlnes Hanpton Court
1lk€
the pubLic" fn earller
"
by
nany gleatebouses
near f,onalonn was aDproeched
but noradays the usual approach ls by r.rad,
rat€r,
of leadent€rlng thFough th€ T?ophy qgteB built
'
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IIAMPTON
COURT?AIÄCE
Now somo interesting
slghts r
BASECoURT,the firs* courtyard, ts littL€ alte!€d.
siuce lt was built by Wols€y" Th?ough Anre Bol€ntlg
Gat€way you enter th€ Clock Courrt The bui.ld.lugs
"
surroundlng it haal bea? alter€d. sey€raI tlmes" ThEy
yulers.
ar€ ooastructeal uniler contlol of dlffer€nt
Above the s€conal-f1oor wl.ailow ls the fa,noug ASTRO]VOüICII, CIOCKnade fo! th€ KlnG oLp 1540 by Mcholeg
OursLaa" Th€ cLock inattcates the hou!, tb€ Do[th,
tb€ atay of r0ontb.,, the number of deys silncs tho beglnnlng of the y€ar, the phas€s of th€ nooD end
as r_.
its rsouthlngrr, fron whlch can be calcuLat€d tb€
; \.4,
approxülate tfue of hlgh nat€r at Lonalon Sriil&e.
4",
"t
It w1ll b6 not{ced that th6 sun revolvea roDnd the
€a!th, alnce th€ cLock ras oontILved bsfof,€ th€
illscov€rl-ss of Gall1€o and Copernlcus" lhs aliaL ls
2,56 itr alleüeteri anal three seperate copper allaos
r€volvss at differert
Tates
th€ centrel po1nt,
"ounal
tbs eartb" Tho outer edge of tbls thlra dtsc ig
narkeal 1n 35O divlslon8.
About 1840 th€ allal, ro longe? l.r worklng oral€r, tas
rgüov€al to e store.,loon, but 1879 Lt was rep].eceal
eril a Eew mechanls[ Ic88 neila. Qult€ r€cently lt
has be€r c1€an€il a|rd repalnt€d. eccordlng to the
or181Da1 colorE.
One of ths nost popular features of the nuEeroug
gardenB ia the Dase, e klnal of labyrtnth,
plantaal
1[ the relgn of Qu.€! .lrnne, Tb€ o1os6-c1lFpad
healges rhtch l-ltt€ th€ paths Br€ 6 ft (to4m) hlah
a$it 2 ft (0,6o) tbtck"
TEB GEOST
ghe llBuntsal Gal1ery, butlt by Wolsay, ov,rs lts
nelrg to ths story of tbe gbost of Cath6ll.n€ l{oreril,
r1fe " Od.!r '15 nonths aft€r hor
EsDqr VIII'E flfth
narl.LBgo she haal besn accue€al of alsconaluct anil
alreat€ at"
1
fÄtrP?oN CollFrll il i i rl',:trj
,i{u
Accordirg
to th8 story.
before Ceth€].lne ws.s e€ut
to tb6 Tow€r sh€ {as confln€al to her own chanb€ra
',
, . .- - - -= - - ' : : . , . '
of Hanpta" Court" : jli"
ii!..
she escapsal and ren along thts oorrldoffin
the hope
of speaklng 9o the K{ng, who las then hoariDg I'lass
l.! the RoyaL flos€i"
Just as ghe reaeheal tb€ Clos€t
aloor sb€ waa Eetued by th€ guard.s, lyho alregged h€f,
screärrl.ng heck along th€ galLery vhtle
tb€ K1t19, rho
tnuat havo haard. her" cotltinued. hle devotlons"
It ls
aaLd that the d€srotring
ghost af th€ Qu€en atL1l
shrloks
alorg
th€
!ial: drlr,
but no on€ toiley
s€€ns
to have hsard her !
\. tf
^ r - . ,r - l i * . . , . I , -
-v--!.,lSeSLl*/
l..t-l:.,,'-
alto
to acqulre on lease
svrlft
to su?pasa
fornal agr€elo€nt
forfsit
anlEs
eccegslon
to sult th€ tast6
sonTealeac€
southlng
spproxlmet€
to contrlvs
Eisconduct
Royal Closat
to sslze
plsc€
t.r r€nt a blrllallng fol a
eortaln tin€
quick, fa6t ( AdY.! srvlftly )
ilo or be better ths.D
T€gulsr ar'retrgeDont
suffor the Loss of s.th.
as e p!ü1lshD€nt
$lrong, out of oral€r
reaching s posLtlon ör stata
to satlsfY 6"o," s d.esir€
fre edoE fron au.fficutty
novlng southwaralE
Yer]r noar to
to al€sigfl
üoprop€r behaylour
Royal Chapaltek€ ho]"al of, sualdenl-y anal
violsntLy
(+,/..{.e.1)
=::::=d
lY'
HOIIE
:.'
I
l8
I
.
7
Base
Cou
I'
[roiffi,i
CIock
20
Coun
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rti}
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7--\
oi (-)
PARK
25
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26
rt aim Sdnnrcd'.y
'.
Hoq
It H:horonCour brido.
r. Min..r.no. (rbPhy G,Gn
lreo.
a c.rlr.
Fd krt lh.
a!.dit.it.d
t'd PtEd
S*ond rbB
ftn! wdris
chmb
ch.hb..
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ta I'nq [email protected] lr r oßnl
a rro{-r *Euqhr-bn .mn
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ra x,r'r
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t
la tnE
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Gsd..".^'t
cl.d
l&
lmrdilr ftjnc. or wrh.l orBins
il t'iic. ol w ..,.Ped
'la P'in.. ol Yv.lG'. Sr.i€
Coun rid .m.lu
c.un dwd
cöud
:gT;f
fniär-*C:i
I
The State
Apartments
Plan of Palace
and Grounds
:40i .o
F
r--1
l.
co,i''if,llf I
!ro"n,"in
e-t{n^-l
)
'----|ll
b S!.
la ouFn i [email protected] ch.n!tt ou40: Gu.d ch.hbr
R6
Ch.n'ö..
L
L
. Plinr chrhs
06.
ouon. Dr.,i.r R6o
.il ou..n'.
Pnv.t €hrtsr
txcoaouniolioic]|ky
ch.i!..
'ld
[tchrel
Gllll / Andrcrs Bertllng.
wlndsor Caatlc
the Conqucror had ßadc lrlnsclf nastcr of th'
I. 1066 tü1ltm
pert
of Enql.nd; Thie succcsa xcad to I nl-I'l't'ry
.rcitcr
fong term trsk of holdlng doun r forelgn
äämnftneit, n.lcly-thc
soon trrnsforned
popuritron"
Ht; inv.dlng forcca-wen
;;d d;üi;
' nctworlt
nacdcd
uhlch
occuprtionr
inio'e
-i.curctfrfnfv äpread lrrny of
ovar
Gtch
lts
esccndrncy
t, ;nalntain
toiträsses
öi
sl'tca €acct'd throughout
It u€rc i scrLes of slrrteglc
afgtiiit,
mndcor Cägtlc'
was
tfrc countrv. Onc of lhcsc atronqpolnts
of thc Thrnca '
rcrches
protact
nlddle
thc
,hlch ,.s intcnded to
nnottedo crltlc'
I nr!s''vc
crccted . typtcrl
In 1O?OKlng $llttaq
cnclrclcd
and
srrttounted by wooäen dcfcncea
rouna or
"eith,
aprcloue arcr protcct'd by
Beüond the dttch-lry.
i" i oit"tr.
or ürllv lihcrc you cöutd take rcfugc" The brily
i'rernrert.
sLdc of thc
ts lrrsä and narow, iytng to .lthcr
in ifi.otoi
nounO, uhich dlvtatcd lt lnto thrcc acctlonst thc Uppcrt
icntni
u:.aAfi ena Loycr ll:rds" The Uppcr end !4lddlc wrtds er' tod'y
scDrrrtcd bv the so-cat lcd Nortnan Grte' whlLc the sunkcn
ffln thc
oi thc prcscnt Dc.ncry divldcd thc ülddl'
cöüiti.ro
Loircr Wards.
Hcnry I Is knoun to h.v. lr.d r houcc ln thc
Bv 1110 Klnq-ttrnbc;-frmcd
constructl'on rnd doulctLGss lltcd
of
"ir[fi.
Uppcr thrd" it uas u3'd for the
of
the
f!.nk
north
ltc
iiono
piivitc
epertruents of 3ucc.sslvc tovcrclgns for the ncxt scvcn
ccnturlc!.
In 1165 - ?1 Xlng Henry fI forncd two acp.ratc rengea
sltc ln thc Uppcr flrrd
one oi the öriginel
.""rt,""tr.
thc north fl.nk of thc
rgiinst
n.,"
sLte
ön.
[ü otfrer
within a sl'nglc
rcstdcnccs
t;o
ncGdcd
hc
iria,
l.ce"".
of
3nd
Lowcr
fortrGss"
lhe
tlic cr3tlc auffcrcd onXy trlo 51.gc6 I'n lts long hktory"
(I.ter
Klngl
John
count
'
tn-1194
vrhcn
occuffcd
ilrst
siccc
tion'
coaur
dc
Richüd
King
broth.r
h13
rcbcllcd ;arl.nst
itrc rccond-staqc occurrcd soon eitcr thq sQrllng of uegn3 cartr
(1215) uhcn Jolin (now Klng) sccurcd thc rnnulrnent of thr ncr
bv'thcthc Popa üd thc brrons ttith hc!'p from Prancc
chütar
cegtic. Oncc rnorc thc c.stlQ h.d elthstood thc
liJicoeA
;"4 cons!.denblc drttlgc hrd becn donc to th. unfl'nlshcd
;i;;a;
dafancca.
eerly ln the ncxt ret'gn' vhan ncw
Tha dd0rsc s.3 rcp.lrrd
ü;"-H;#;
iii
iräre - ?z) ränt on to ork. cubstentLel rddittons"
gv Eonotetinq thc outcr dcfcnces ln 3toncr hG ansurcd thc
ürd
of €he Lorcr wrrcr uhcrc hc th.n rafurbithcd
.icurfl"
thcttr
to
iddlng
.prrtrGnts
Hcnry
II's
Klng
'
äiiiliv'cnferq.d
r'novet'd
he
rlso
reign
iong
Durinq
hls
nei
chepcf"
i-ioiiiolo
ln thc Uppcr wüd"
norä then oncc hls ap.rtncnts
-2-
Klng Edward III (132? - 77) rcbuilt and cnlrrgcd tbc prLvrtc
rpartlocnta ln thc Uppcr Werd along the north fl,ank and thc
crst rnd south wall,9 werc llncd lrl-th dona3tLc buLl,dings" To
dlvldc thlt rrard frorn thc Uldd!,a lü3rd a nltrt dcfcnsl,vc gatcr,r.y,
today ralg!,crdlngly callcd the Normn Gate, r.rs ercctad.
tha chapcl crectcd by Klng Henry III rras repilrcd
rnd endovrcd
.3.
collegiatc chureh"
Hcnry II|E nngc of apartncnts, {hleh hrd bccn s€vcraly
wcre dcmolishcd to
danaged by fira fif,ty years previously,
naka w-y for lodglngs for thc dean, canons and othcr clergy
who ncrc to acrvc thc ncu coXlcge.
Furthcr lgdgings for cnergy and . bclfry,
thc ao.th Bldc of thc tofler Ward.
wcrc eonstructcd
on
Aftcr yct anothar hundrcd years King gdward Iv (1461 - 83)
bcgrn thc constructlon
of the prascnt st" Gcorgcrs chrpal t
imEdiatcly
a nragnl.flcent end nuch Xergcr bulldlng
to thc
qhrpcl" ?he buildcrs have addGd a collaclrcst of thc earlier
tlon of worka of art rrhieb roake onc of, thc rLchcst rnd nost
the buL1,d1n9 ippcare
splandld churcbcs ln England. Bxtcrnelly
conprct and sytnetrLcrl "
Thc vl31torl
uauilXy cnters the chaplcx by thc aouth door
whlch frccs thc Klng Hcnry vrlx'B Gatcwry" fhc who!,c navc
ls covcrcd by rlch Tsultlng wlth mrny calvcd bosses uhlch
.ra typlc.l"
Whcn Klng Edlr.rd XV dt.d ln 1483 the eholr had
becn conpletcd, though roofed only ln r,rood.
Durlnq thc rctgn of hls son Kiirg Hcnry vfl (1485 - t5O9)
thr navc uas crcctad, thc rdoodcn roof of the cholr tcpl,aced
by stonc v.u1t, rnd thc crrlicr'chapcl
reconstructcd
tö
forn the ledy-ghapgl of, thc neu öuit aung.
(1509 - 4?) that thc aouth sldc of
It ls to Klng Hcnry vlll
prcscnt
$üd
tha touer
owcg Lts
appe*encc. Errly ln hls rclgn
hc butlt the cxistlüg
entr.n€c grte, llcnry III'e
thirtc.nth€entuty structure hrvLnE fal,llen Lnto dl,srcpar-r"
lhc nrs3lvc privatc apaltmcnts raLscd tuo ccnturica aarllcr
ln thc Uppcr vf.rd by King Edrdird III had lndccd e fürthcr ccntury
to ttrnd" Becrusc Hcnry VII nccdcd further acconodatlon for
his Quccn and grorrLng fanltry hc used thr castcrn half of r
short gap ncxt to thc Normrn Grtc in about 15OOfor a nc!,
torrar rdJoinl.ng the axlstLng .paltncnts.
Elghty yc.rs latcr
hls grüd-deughtcr
thc rcmrl.nder
Quccn Er.lz.beth I fiUcd
grllcry llnklng thls towcr to thc Nornen Gatc"
rlth.
In 1832 - 4 thcac two bu{ldings warc eonvcrted to forn p.rt
of thG prcacnt Royal Llbr.ry"
At the stert of, thc Clvin $ars ( 1642-49) thc cratlc nas seizcd
by thc plrllrtncnt.ry
forcrs,
lrho cjccted tha dean rnd canons,
thc cheptcr pLatc, strbled thelr horses in thc
rpproprL.ted
navc, lnd convertad thc lady-chrpcl
Lnto a nr.g.alnc for trna.
parts of thc cestlc wcre uscd.s r gaon for Royrllst prl'aoncts,
rnd Kl.ng Chrrles X lrlrßc!,f prsscd trro short pcrloda of captlvlty
ln h13 prl,vrtc apartmants ln thc Upf,er lr3rd"
-3-
It u.a not untl.l .fter
the Rcstoratlon ln j.66O th.t Kl.ng Edr.ld III'3
butldlngs- ln tha Uppcr Ward, nor., thrac centurlcs o!d, uöra ,,n thcLr
tuln dcnol.l,shcd"
Klng Charlcs II, whose epucstrlrn
atrtuc strnds l.n tha eurdrtnglc,
rephcäd th6rr tn 1.675-43 wlth . prlrcr
dcstgBcd by Hugh llry Lnthc frshl.onrbla b.roeuc atyle. Its Uells weie cDb;lll;hed
;tth
byGrlnlUng
clbbons,
rnd
lts
prlntlngs
cellinga
wlth
-wood-c.rvlng
by VcELo. Fulthcr the Klng letd out rn clts evcnuc to forn r
ncra approrch to thc south slde of thc crstle fron tha Grctt prrk.
lhla fanous avcnuc Ls alnost thr6c etles 1ong" lhc trGcg stood
for -n..rl.y rs lrrny centurlca,
but hrd to be icl.tcit ln 1945 oxl.ng
to dlscaae, nhan thcy wrrc rcpllced with seplLngs o! horscclrsstnut end pl.ns.
Aftar thc ptss.gc of I furthcr cantury thc Lntarlor of thc prtv.ta
.p.rtncnüs h.d f.llen
lnto dlsrcptir,
rnd Klng Gcorg. IfI ( 1?60-1820)
3ct ln hrnd a nodest prognntta of ranovrtlon and rcaonltructlon"
orre of lta farturca rr.a thc grrdurl rc-Lntroductlon
of cothlc
t,lndors to rcplrcc thc round-toppcd önca of tc.ng ChrrlGJ IIrs
baraque ptlrcc.
Tha-Ktngrg lchicvcncnt ris ccllpsed Ln sc.lc, Lf not Ln ctag|ncc,
reconr tructlon u[dart.kcn by hLs Eon, K1n9!f tnc g1.O6ttac-UpFr
(
182O-3O)
, to $hon thc prcaent tppöerrncc oi thc
9,coCg9 ry
trrrd ir l.rgaly
due. Thc nost r.dlcrl
of hts rneny chengcr weito nova tha prl,vrtc rpartlEnta of the aovcreLgtr iroa tic aunLasg
northcRn Bldc of the Uppcr tfard, wherc thcy hrd bccn rltcd srvcn
canturlca crrllcr
for defcnslvc relaons, tö its southcEn rnd
atstcrn fhnkt"
lhc buildings on thcac flanks ucrc too nürou to
rcconnodrtc an Lntsr-conncctlng
corrl,dor;
rnd for. thla lrurpolc rl aprcious grllrry
was conlructcd rlong
thc- cntlrc lcngth of thclr lnncr rrll"
Hernuhile tha rpütrüent3
on thc north fl.da lrhl,ch thc sovrrcl,gn h.d vacatcd ucra convcrtcd
lnto.ccomdatlon
for vlsltora of stetc"
lhir fundtrcntal
raconatructlon
rffordcd I idelcona opportuntty
of - rcatorlng
to thc extcrl.or of thc c.atlc
thc ncdl.vll
eppceiance
ulilch it_hrd lost thlough tbe c.rlL*
rcconstructton
of Xlng
Chülcs II" All nau ulndowg and othcr nrln fcaturc! trcrc
.ccordlngly
dcElgncd ln thc Gothlc styla, üd cxl.sting onas
rcnodcllcd uhqrc ncccssary to n.tch thcm" The unl,fofD-rogfline
of - t(1n9 Chral.s's p.I.cer-nov, rrissd by thc hctght of an
cxtra atotcy bullt for thc accornrnodrttön of serventa, wee
anllvcncd !y. lcveral, nca towcra of dLvarsc shepcs, rid by
cl,rbontc
btttlencnts
irlpoccd on thr sunnLt of-olä end näy
.l,lke. th. lqurt Round lowcr of Xlng Henry II, by aow 3ix-rndr-hrlf
ccnturl,cs old, uhlch formed lhc centrel fceturG of tha
fortrcaa,
uould havc becn rcduced to lnslgnlficanca
by thcae
naaalvc lccrcti.ons,
tf lt h.d not bccn aioulrlcd t'n hctaht.
! s rork thrt thc crstlc ou.r thc
It ,.s to Slr Jeffry ijyrtvlllc
nobulty
of lts dlstrnt
outlLnc" Hc weg eble to contrt vG r
rclldancc for thc aoverelgn so coEforteble end wcll-ordcrcd
thrt ltttla
furthcr .l.tcratlon
h.a bccn necdcd aftcr ttrc lipsc
of n.ül,y r cGntuly rnd a h.lf.
-4-
lha Castle soon bec:me and has ;€nelncd avcr slncc. ona of thc
prlnclptl
and favoulltc
residcnccs of thc sovcrcLs;, arrO l" tta
only royal rcsldsnca th.t hes rcmllncd in continu6uä u8c fron
thc errly
lddl,e Agcs to the pr.sent day" Tod3y lt is rnccstr.l
caatlc and suMer-rcaldGncc of thc Engllsh Royäl f.dly.
coEoitnant - Vcrpfllchtung,
Blndung
sccurc fortrca - slchere Befcstlgung
-fo;tsctzcn
to nalntain - .ufrccht
crhaltcn.
r3cendrnci - lbcrgswicht,
üoerrögenhcit
strongpolnt - Sttitzpunkt
llound - Erdt.al.l.
to autTlFunt - umgebcn
dltch - cnb.n
- lfrll
r.np.rt
b.ily - Rlng nlt vcrteldlgungs.nlrge
Daancrtf - Haus dca Dckrns
- Fachwcrk
tinbcr-frrncd
sovcrcl.gn
Obcrhrupt
ranga - Rclltc
to Butfar - crduldcn, ertragcn
3l.cgc - Bclrg.runE
3a.ll.ng - Versiegclung
annulnent - Annullerung, Aufhcbung
to Ecfurblsh - erncuarn
to cnlqc - vcrgröOarn
coUcgl.tc
church - Stl-ftskl.rchc
- abbrcchcn
to d.nolish
clclgy - cclstltchkalt
cholr - Chor
nrva - Klrchanschlff
vrult - cc{ölbc
- V.rfrll
dlsrcprtr
- Untcrkun t
rccoürodrtlon
r.Uolatng - benachbrrt
to Gjcct - hLnrusuarfcn
- gc€l.gnct Eeln
to rpproprlrtc
g.ol - ccfgngnls
srpllng - Jungcr B.urn
dlacaaa - VcEfaIl
horsc-chastnut - Ro8krstrntc
pl.na - Plrtana
round- toppcd - oban gcrundct
rchlcvancnt - Volkndung
- rtu|lcn
to vrcrtc
to .fford - gculhrcn
to nrtch - plßiaen
Itorcy - Stockr{crk
- bal,cban
to anlivc
ahrpc - Forn
suml't - Spltzc
to contrLvc - planGn
- Zinnc
b.ttlceant
to Lnsl,gnlfLcrnce - bcdeutungslos
1.p3c - Verfrll
::i.r;l
C-e-!*4
Dte S*adt
wurde [email protected] 4l
fude der röoieebe&
utxA el!
Lebe4s.
heJ.ße qu€l1e
bekeante
lq4dlrt rts chafgllch
schleg
für
die
d€s liöi:ters
lleß&tzüutgBt ai.a {l}io
ö6en uod kufturelleE
braft
vor
s.Chf,"
r:rd yar
bis
zulB
n.ühr.l
eilt Uer':rrr&1 deE !e1j,giE1$e €cbon bei. den Ke:lteÄ ,üsßen threr geil-
srnBie die
€ut
l{ntet(,hhunc
66drü$deü
l.{dg:l.i-e
hLeit
slr nirta€edsr
den . rrcs aL! übercquerea
üftj,ald gab.:.j sohl
dl"etes runi{scb.€r Siedlung.
liie
Kaufleute ur]d Hä!.dserhere l-J.eller sieh ent1an6 ll€r 1.oi
rrros6€s6y'i (heu*e"' Lo*doß li.rrd) jlj,eder, dlie vij.i tir.o:.,
dea Aua-
enEtea S{edtrer",
!:r nömerö gebauten
llacb Exete:, flihlte
ued be! Eath den Aqon ijberguerte"
Io Laute
der Ze1t eixtalaüd
u$ drls qqe1lc
dqir ijelltruD
.tr x Bathr
et$ lurürl-
öses Bedehaus {tKj-n806 Bsth,,1 uBd e1!t le|ilFeL zrty Versh:..;!txg dex' cötli.n
Su1l6 llillerva,
rönlecben
die
eJ. e lfer{-1..'ehitiaS d6y ke:r,tl-5chen Go.rhelg
Äqur.ra:ent
i,lt!re!.vs {$ö1:hir dei' i{eishelä
Itt iliedem [email protected] würderl Tleri3f€t
guj.j-s und j.}rreE
und . ,11u!g}
darste:Llt6.
a1s üsnk i'ül: ein6 116:.|uag dargeblacht"
,.
D6s Qüe1laa66e!
{ru}de tn eiEe
ijgrLe& e'lfgeJa$gen!
d,a€ ro)r eine& Säul,engang
uü8ebe! wero gessei:lej.iunge
führteb yor {rioyt zun Badel ,üue, das LÄ di€ser
Z6it eitr vLehtiges i{öDlrü&J.k6ir{ r:1irei1lrnn fl!::r üo 6oga? 'hl-}osophen uilteFriebteteB.
Die Aufteil.ü$g
eaa i4
8it!6
€i:Eez rä@1ßeI!eä Eadee r6ai iorer
gLej.obl
gnkl.eideraudl
l.ÄFodyt€yi-uo) r aB6eh11e1 rsd in eiB
e!ae&
Bad (Tepidartue)
Cen!1:ir
betrleboe
Bev.,r
rurde"
uuerst
sarues
eiß !3ehr h€!ßee ßed lcaLda?j.uri. i wo Kö!,pelFf,Lege
dan ir,t lca:,-len $a66er { r'rigldari."
r,1) sch!.ra6B, 61ag da!
glrgtdr sürd€ das Aad eerg!:?i lert
fepidarlu4.
l{änner
I danit
Doeb eL!!eal, iea
urdl F::auen daa Ea.l gl-eieh:aej.tig
bel1üts6n konDLesr, ohDe {ie
öffetst1i.che
Uoral
zü verl,etteir!
DLeBes Zeotruü war voD äffentfi-elie!1 Gebäudeq rr!1d v€r'nrt1ich
aueh einee
gb.eatea uegebea! eosJe vo]"nehn!6$ 5üi:ße?häuser$, Auf ie:i esdoreB FXußEeJ-te
eDtat&lld ej"n€ Vof,etsdt!
!'u!lde yon röl,l)':lchen SaidRten€räbei}1
Laas6h zehheicbe
Bath
zu Be8inn
Eltre Stedtaaue!.
reo aJ-4h :,ilmisehe ltrl_egE!.et e:sj1,.1. r}lederl{eß6i1"
der
röiliseji:en
r )r rten!
Be€jä1rsll!:li ej.D :r"e€er befirirlo
rrllrde erF;t. fldn deE j.r
llach dem Abzug der Röole! ve3fLcl-en
turden
f,ü:ri neue Baut€n EbEeträgsF^
clie€es
eheEalj.Een
dle
.{,D:fangdes 4. ;r:.
daß sl"ab Ltl
hat"
6ebaut,
1: Gebäud€, odler ihi.e SleLee
$o k.,Eji.t-^ir.Eeil aleü .,E. J0" aus Fi,agoeot€
RöDerbaCes eEtdrcLt
GeiFt
Auch
lre--cdell.
F1"':'
tmoI &u,tffidffi,u
(t leiU"l
It58t cowtc'elsh'ala
__l
I
newronT/mant
c|otsr€85
cRgfrER[ous6
cLot5TenS
clDt3T6n5 * KREu26FN6
- Ooksrl Ff
cHsgrEnHouss
aFHnp\(R0tEFOlgq:
. {kr ct(h6pfs
House
. tt^rodu6ara2Cüop{a
I
. uro^^uu'rqr\$
cCwhu^ect^erviau
4^ovu1666
(Trra*ophd
a .loulaoo'ü,r'rlsspine
a
a
[rog,^o
Coda
o( a9!' Alis\onsshoü^lcl
lL )ofiE if Lrasarac+ecl +4c,1+?,eseet
k nettotxA *o o{'es o'r .(rsge,r*ournt. c,'/ccoroüig\ {9'eauta
cf,iocesesog sl',a\one aucl Raasto+g ,19'at ßol\:"2d Ai . fßs fis! Vsflnul bishoPt uw (or"'nd'1t{&'{edcda
bishop ll€,r{rq,..{.,
cne lneü a\ocesQ,arc) ;{rs S€€ t os 0'rel a"' I$ehi!.QCXcJSquvn/
Ircv^se +gaftJarJhotft"ct ca)Äßof con/hünlca'hoh! oxd a qV
e toga!. CosIS1,0,'f&
,1O78t*;neu djo.),atd it Oos lus '(accessd'Stosrnuuct
7n
-U{,o
cÄphk)
@tLud'ra!-J*r^ns pnvshedu; ''los2 '
19,e
o{{e<i}'s ca.'.srcnal;'sn'f
Q,nlg SolalrJ
j|."r
,
I
'
daubgea !4 l';ghtt'u'ttS
"u}
()Üi$s<owud
gxfrqiu'ce q,acfu)idrz[at
brnuucl,wil+,a!! nis uv)ona'ue)
(wsl.tuYsai attcl
lh<
laXrct
a> ChauuLlotol QeoU',^
.alol,rrt
t'ktt
Lt
t'fu'oA
ü
bay
+4e
*gli.fug
Sirlf.r n( Wt uwraäl,
st-slhedo if'
so
uül
'
at'al
Ä^*l*"i
*'*ug<)
ii'** Wr'uoclep
al Sa0rhwg'Txca''oe{4e
X*
W, ur.äryutet+s
, r"c'+unt{ w &1tcnd putalv u
nnwg ol$,atöcttkednats
ouc) tut'^ ün ln a*qP '
- Scol+o?""ct
ie+t,tQr^ Jt zt - 419
co$9red,,vol'
ßishof Ro6vr0ar6dg oelctllf ffiq Jf'Os/Yh('tl'^d
o+ O!dsadr"^'
3i'te{buslol"bnscr-r, st4{ 4c saer,^
5|";*tA{L€4.
(he calhed,p!.t;as u;l+'tt"l4,eosl(e aucl e|ft^'a/'Al''!'bil0LtAR
go{il'sühAet4 a &glaer.tl <a,,seof h&!'e. lm +4e ,l3h aa\
ä okcr'*i* trcrslcr&ar 1o hnle^ & m4'r coi4,edauQern*
/mW. CohU%)r'etrlSile-
VocabuLory :
<ee - E;&hof{a;te
diocece *
Oiöze,re
s ucce,r,ror. - l/ach/olge.
con,,re
cra-fion - Vei'he
t$nfiry -,31;h,unuetrer
reaLm - Könroreich
*o.mainf ün L au/reüle rhalten,lorf,reben
'l
-
v,/tfhn )rn Jnndren
- 6{andor/Sorr<on
conrer|rcn
*-
beguem,ge/Ecn
od.juf
'
'/ v
ffi1:t,
urelüen
SIoiiilHDi'iGE
Stonehenpe vas built
ln the plaln,
Sallsbury ln l,ii1tchire.
ten mllen
to
;he north
of
ft is on1y a ruln today, but one stiI1 l{rondera !.ow thlE t.t00
year-o1d open -aix te.rple ,.{as built.
Ihene axe r. recofde florlr
prehietorlc
tlne, so the nethodg had to be found out by a:qperlr0ent,
anal €omlnonsense.
calculatlon
there are sevef,al supDositions about the orlgln of thii qtöne€.
Stoaehenge is obviously a sacred ftonuüenti whlch lvas probably
buLlt up at the end of the Stone age and the befllbnlng of the
centuxies B,c.)
tr.onze t\ge (tgth-t5th
Stonebeng€ consists of (fron the outer area to tile Luner erea)
.
a lound tranch of, 114 n diameter, a rlng of 4,1 il hlgh dtone
p111ar6, connected by 10 stones. fher:e is a secoild rLng of about
bloclrs, a liorseshoe o:l 5 glgantic
49 u?right sta-iding little
lrllithen
and anotirer hoxseshoe of 1itt1e stones" The rr]lltarstonet
ls pleced ln the üriddle of the rin8.
precieely
in the leirllthened
Ia the north-east dircqti.on,
axls of the horseßhoe, there are rna.-lis of an trA?enue",
longitudlnal
above vhlch
'
the rislng
surl of the sunüer-solstlce
fa11s on the
nLtaratone'r.
Standlng by the rrAl.trrFtqne'i you eee ttl; sun ?isj-n{ above the
nlleelstone'r oa the day of aui.'mer-solstice.
On th€ da}' of $ilteraolstlce
tlre sun set through all arch in the centrs of tire bulldinll,
'Ibe axch lE desiroyed to:iay.
may be supposed thai StoneheD$: 16 a eu!6a.netuary"
the stonoF are dlvlded into two groups:
the welg."t of the bigger stoires IF about 45 rcetric tonB and the
aroaller stones have a heiqht ot about two iletres and a \,relg,ht o"f
S'rol,rth16 foct
it
about four roetrlc tors.
Äs there are no recorcla f,ron prel'iFtoric
tine,
there are osveral
theorle8 about the !.ray Stonehenße waa built.
Ihe storJ- go€s that lr tne 5th century B.c. the l;axou Du](e il€ngigt
Xlng Vortisern.
1ed la ryar agalnst the Britlsh
In a nallclqus
nobl.men \r'ere sfa:in. The followlng
wa.J 460 Brltish
rranted to exect a monumen'r, the rlafic&n l:erllD Eaye
&inE Aurellus
hLm the follo'.{lng advlce I
{ff you lrant ts deeorate the ro€n's /Travea nlth a Jeeal, that wi1}
then 6end for ?tthe Dairce of GlgantF,ao whleh ls in
laEt forever,
becalse the"e ate atotg
a rnountaln in Ireland,
KlLl.arus ( Kildare?)
po!,rer
bulLdin.qs, vhlch üobody can nove today, 1f his intellectual
1n Dot strong enough to try lt lrlth a. t?lclr. ff they are ef,ected Ln
a ctrcle at thls pLace as they stanii tod{ry, then th6y \r1l-1 exlst
foxevex--Because 1!r these stonel: ls a secret, curatlve alainst rrtanyGuffertngs.
In foxner tlEes gigalrts ha]'e brought then from far Afxica and
erected then 1n lre].ard, the country they llved ln. And thls Ls the
deBign fox idhich tiley di.l it. They set up baths in then and if a.o.
rvas 111, tj:ey \rashed the 6tones, poured water in tne batha aF,: who
bathed ln then got healtlry no !ßatter ho!,rtll he l,ra;.t
,arurelius 6e4t his brother Uther lrith an al$y to lreland to steal
ilhe }ance of qigants.rr iiavl.ng defeated the lrl-sir arrüy, they tf,leal
ln vain to carry the atones away.
3ut vhen i{erl,$n helped ther4, pexhaps r,rith lrltchcraft"
thby were
suoceaaful. tllthout any difflcultles
they transporied the etonee
to the coaet. The stoues vere loaded on shi.ps, bröught to Stonehengs
and r,refe erected there.
llhen ^urelius alied he vas burled ln Stonehenße, anC so lra€ Uthero
r.rhofollolred him as a king and also the next 6overeigna, i{onstantln,
Ut:1er'a nephervand ätng Artu6. 'Ihat'a the l€gend"
Stonehenge !ra6 used for sul1 obFervation and sun reference vlth
a dlfierenzlal
calendax-systelr for calculation of the seeal- and
harvest tlrle.
350 hlght graves, .$hich were found around Stonehenge 6how that
Stonohenge had been a pLac6 of the eult of the dead.
GeologLsts have 6how! that tile stones came frora the Prescelly
rlountalus 11r South 'vtales- the onl-y plaee where the eaEe ktad of
rock ls found "
fn a straight 1lne tirL8 ls 140 üi1es from Stonehenpe. fhe dott€d
1lne on the r0ap ahows the rrrost probable route of
re 80 atdnes
which vrere trans?orte(l fron ',iales to Stonehenße.
0n thel? way overland they lyere probably pulled on sledfes a4d
rollera.
It ls quite üertaln, hotrever, that nlne t.rnths of tile
dlatance vaE covered by sea. the gtones tdere r1o doribt 11oat€A
along tl,e south coapt of rlales and up se?veral rlvers. lhe
-7fhe second po8slbility
seens to be f:lore probable! beeause lt
bassd on geologlcnl lnvestlgations "
nxD:.anatlon of the methods hor,l the uDrlfhts
-
is
trare l+rlsed:
the flr€t step va6 tile dlggl'tg of the ho1ee. the pl11arE r'6re put
on rollers
ans balataöed lilre a see-saw and r,rlth ä Lever they were
slovly pushed into the ho1e. The next step ras tlat the top enil
rras easily llfted \dlth t'ae l€vex and ralsed inch by lnch' becau6e
the lever was on plled logs and stayed tile stones on one slde.
The thlrd step vas the u8e of struts instead of iogs. lhe stones
were held in place by struts and puLled upri€:ht by a Broup of nen,
the last st€p 1va6tl1at the hole rvas packed vlth i-tttl.e ston€B, whloh
held the ptl.lars in thelr final p1ace,
rii-eh stanil 1n couples
stonehanße got the narne f,rom the etoneplllars,
anil ar.€ connBcted by eoverstones. fhese covetstonea gaYe ston€henge
the nane: banging stoneB.
Yocaba
colomonsense
sac?ed
trench
dlan€ter
lenrthened lonEltudinal axis
sufi[et-aolstlce
sunsanctuary
netri' tons
lrallclous
alaln
culatlTe
aleeign
pour
su!-ob8ervation
gurl }eferenee
calendar-system
aeet tlroe
ha.:rvest ttme
helght grare
sledge
roller
see-saw
a.feat of engi,neärlng
lnvestlgatlön
uprlefrt
to ale
lever
los
struts
- gesunder l{enschenverr t""trd
- h€tlig. .Iei8 tlich
- Graben
Durcl'lrnessel
- verlä.ngexte Lgngerachse
- Sonr:rereonnelwende
- Sontlenhelll,Atufl
- l,Iaßeinhelt
- helotücklssh
- ersehlagen
heiLend
- Ent!rurf,, entwerfeu, planeD
- g1eße4, schütten
- Sonneubeobachtuag
- Souneaverehrung
- KalendercBys
ten
- Saatzett
- Erntezelt
- iIügelgrab
-Schlltten
.. Ro1le
- schauk€l, I'Ilppe
- technlsche lelstuag
- Erforschu4g, I'lachforschr.a€l
- aufrecht ( hler: Fe16b1öcike,die auff4ef,lchtet
- graben
werden)
- Hebel
- HÖlzblock, -k1otz
- Strebe. sttitze
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