Review of Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET)

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
Review of Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET)
Satish M Turkane
Research Scholar, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication,
Matoshri College of Engineering & Research Centre, Nashik,
Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
A. K. Kureshi
Principal, Vishwabharti Academy’s College of Engineering, Ahmednagar,
Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
An upcoming emerging device type of transistor is the TFET
that is Tunnel Field Effect transistors. MOSFET (Metal Oxide
Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) is generally used for
low energy usable electronics devices. The structure of TFET
is approximately closer to MOSFET, however with different
fundamental switching mechanism. Switching of TFET is
done by modulating quantum tunneling through a barrier
instead of modulating thermionic emission over a barrier as in
traditional MOSFETs. The purpose of this paper is to do
Survey of TFET from its initial stage to till today. This paper
studies and reviews various types of TFET available for
design. Surface Tunnel Transistor is first tunnel transistor
deals with speed, power and IOFF/ION ratio. Then first TFET
basic p-i-n structure is invented which deals with speed,
power, IOFF/ION, tuning range etc. After that feedback TFET,
p-n-i-n TFET, NEMFET, Raised Buried Oxide TFET,
Junctionless TFET, Double gate TFET (DG-TFET), Vertical
TFET, Dopingless PNPN TFET are studied. Along with these
different structures of TFET DG-TFET, Dopingless PNPN
TFET and Vertical DG-TFET shows superior performance
than other studied.
Ultra-low power and ultra-low voltage.
Short Channel Effects.
Reduction in the leakage currents.
Exceeding the Speed requirements due to tunneling
 Ability to work on sub-threshold and super-threshold
 Similarity in fabrication process as compared with
 Higher IOFF/ION current ratio [2].
Taking into consideration the above parameters, the MOSFET
could be replaced by a potential substitute in terms of TFET
for the purpose of high speed, ultra-low power, and energy
efficient applications in the domain of integrated circuits [2].
In this paper, we have accumulated and studied different
designs of TFET from its inception in year 1992 to till May,
2015 with a brief introduction scaling of MOSFET and
elaborated the exceeding performance of TFET with its
conventional counterpart MOSFET. Section II provides a
detail literature survey about TFET. Section III is dedicated to
the TFET device physics and operation. Section IV highlights
the different structures of TFET like feedback TFET, p-n-i-n
TFET, NEMFET, Raised Buried Oxide TFET, Junctionless
TFET, Double gate TFET(DG-TFET), Vertical TFET,
Dopingless PNPN TFET are studied. The design parameters
which have been developed in year 2015 have been explored
to a maximum extent. Section V makes a conclusion.
Keywords:TFET; MOSFET; Surface tunnel transistor; DGTFET; Junctionless TFET; Dopingless PNPN TFET;
Protection; LVTSCR (Low-Voltage Trigger SCR).
MOSFET had played a vital role in building most of the
integrated circuits while minimizing its size over the half
decade of century in the past by way of scaling its size to
nano-meters as of today. Reduction in the size of MOSFET
decade by decade, the integrated circuits build on it worked
faster at reduced power then their earlier counterparts [1].
Scaling down of the MOSFET for the sake of reducing the
power density resulted into reduction in the operating supply
voltage as well.
Tunnel Transistor has been evolved in 1992 by T. Baba, as
one of the promising alternatives to the conventional
MOSFET’s based on various performance parameters as
mentioned bellows:
 Potential for exceeding the 60mV/decade subthreshold swing.
Literature Review
The scaling of the MOSFET has various bottlenecks in terms
of its ability to work in ultra-low power, leakage currents,
short Channel Effects (SCE), speed improvements etc. had led
to limitation of the performance of MOSFET. Maintaining
intact the electric fields while scaling down the MOSFET the
channel length (Lg) and oxide thickness (tox) are scaled by
1/K while the substrate doping is scaled up by K, where K is a
scalar constant. The aforementioned dimension scaling will
enable the applied voltage to be scaled by 1/K. This type of
scaling is known as R. Dennard scaling [3].
For modern devices, R. Dennard scaling doesn't work as it
used to be in the past. The reason can be explained using
Fig.1. The figure shows the variation in supply voltage (VDD)
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
and threshold voltage (VT). Where VT is a function of
channel length (Lg) [3]. As can be seen, as the channel length
reduces below 0. 35 um the linear dependencies between
VDD and VT is no longer linear. For example, as if we reduce
initial value of VDD up to 1/5th then VT reduces to 50% of its
initial value [4].
of its initial value which results in increase in leakage power
Now as technology is scaled down up to nanometers,
transistors count per unit chip area increases therefore its
leakage power constraints are also increases. Due to this its
standby power consumption in the device is also gets
increases. The decrease in the VT is not the proper solution
from the above discussion [4].
In order to solve these issues, recent literatures have proposed
Tunnel FETs (TFETs). The advantages of TFET are low subthreshold current which leads to low leakage per device and
its high ION/IOFF ratio can be suitable for memory application,
etc. As discussed above there are limitations with VDD and VT
scaling. Fig. 2 represents the changes of leakage energy (EL)
and dynamic energy (EDYN) with supply voltage VDD for both
MOSFET and TFET [7].
Figure 1: The plot of technology generation Vs voltage (i. e.
supply voltage and threshold voltage) where reduction of VT
is quite less but reduction of VDD is occur with respect to
device parameters [5].
The most important consequence of scaling is that the gate
overdrive voltage (VGS-VT equivalent to VDD-VT) remains
almost constant for advanced technology nodes (short channel
lengths). When gate overdrive voltage decreases, the oncurrent decreases, which negatively affects device
performances such as ION/IOFF ratio and dynamic speed
(CVDD/Ion). There are two possible solutions to this problem
of low on-current of advanced technology nodes, (a) Increase
VDD (b) Reduce VT [4].
Figure 2: Showing EDYN and EL variations with supply
voltage VDD, Energy dissipation is lower for lower SS devices
(TFET) [7].
Increasing VDD
For an inverter, the dynamic power consumption [6] can be
expressed in (1)
Pdynamic = f CL VDD2
The expression for (EDYN) and (EL) are as given below [7]:
EL / V DD 2 10(-VDD/SS)
Where f is the frequency of operation and CL is the capacitive
As can be seen, with increase in VDD the dynamic loss in the
gate inverter increases. Similarly, the static power
consumption [6] is given by (2)
Pleakage = Ileak VDD
Where SS is the sub-threshold slope of the TFET. Equations
(3) and (4) states that for MOSFETs, both leakage and
dynamic energy are proportional to𝑉𝐷𝐷
. However, leakage
energy also has an additional exponential dependence on SS.
Equation (4) shows that lower the sub-threshold slope lower
will be the EL [8]. As mentioned before, changing VDD, affects
the device performance. Therefore, one way is to find a device
with lower sub-threshold slope (SS < 60 mV/dec). TFET
exhibits these characteristics. Therefore, at lower voltages
(VDD), TFET exhibits lower ET (Total energy = EL + EDYN)
compared to a MOSFET [4].
The TFET follows band-to-band tunneling mechanism with
the quantum-mechanical generation of carriers. Scaling of a
gate length in the MOSFET, it shows short channel effects for
a span of higher number of the electron wave-length. TFET is
Where Ileak is switch off leakage current of MOSFET in the
device structure. It is clear from the above expressions that
both static and dynamic power loss of the devices increases as
a function of supply voltage (VDD).
Reduce VT
Second option for keeping the high gate overdrive is to scale
down VT. For an average 60 mV/decade reduction in VT, the
off-current (IOFF) or sub-threshold current increase by 10 times
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
highly compatible for standard CMOS process flow. For
TFET optimization of the doping profile and better control of
one mask are important factors but these are not important for
the CMOS flow [9]. Therefore, TFET is an emerging
alternative type for next scaling of the gate length however
which is not affected by short channel effects [10]. As the
device structure of TFET is decreased then its static power
consumption is gets reduced ultimately [9].
In the ON state of TFET, the carriers tunnel through the
barrier which is band gap between valence band and
conduction band for the flow of current from drain-to-source.
Whereas in OFF state, available barrier maintains off current
magnitude lower than that of off current magnitude of the
conventional MOSFET. The inherent properties of TFETs
make them suitable for low power digital applications [4].
junction electric field on the gate-source voltage should be
maximized [4].
Different Structures of TFET
TFET Device Physics and Operation
Band to Band Tunneling (BTBT)
This phenomenon provides an expression for the tunneling
transmission of carriers and can be achieve by Wentzel,
Kramer’s and Brillouin (WKB) approximation and
considering the tunnel barrier as a triangular shaped potential
barrier. According to WKB approximation,
𝑇𝑡 ≈ exp [−
4 √2𝑚.
3 𝑞𝐹ђ
. (𝐸𝑔 )
Figure 3: Evaluation of Tunnel Field Effect Transistor.
A. Surface Tunnel Transistors (1992-2000)
Toshio Baba presented the surface tunnel transistor (STT)
which was a new type of tunnel device which could operate
normally even in very small structures with gate lengths of
less than 0.1µm at room temperature. The STT consists of an
n+/i/p+ diode structure with an insulated gate in the i-region.
Highly degenerated drain had a sharp doping profile for a low
doped substrate and makes a tunnel junction with the 2D
electron channel under the gate. The STTs were fabricated
using a GaAs/AlGaAs Heterojunction in order to study the
basic characteristics of this new device. Their current-voltage
characteristics exhibited transistor action without saturation
characteristics in the drain current similar to a vacuum triode
operation. These characteristics of STTs were anticipated by
the theory of interband tunneling [13].
Equation (5) is a common way to express BTBT transmission.
Here ṁ-the electron effective mass, ђ-Planck's constant
divided by 2×2π, Eg is the band gap of the semiconductor
material at the tunnel junction, and F is the electric field
measured in V/m. This equation can be improved slightly by
making it more specific to tunneling transitory [10]. There are
four important conditions in order for band-to-band tunneling
to take place:
Available states to tunnel-from,
Available states to tunnel-to,
An energy barrier that is sufficiently narrow for
tunneling to take place and
Conservation of momentum [11].
Subthreshold swing in Tunnel FETs
In order to describe the expression for the sub-threshold swing
of a BTBT device, consider the BTBT current is given below
[11-12] for reverse-biased p-n junction:
𝐼 = 𝑎𝑉𝑒𝑓𝑓 𝐸𝑒 𝐸
𝑎 = 𝐴𝑞
ђ2 𝜋 2
Where A is the device cross sectional area and
𝑏 = 4√ 𝑚 .
𝐸𝑔 ⁄2
Accordingly, the sub-threshold swing in a TFET increases
with gate-source voltage and much steeper at lower gate
voltages. The second term describes that the derivative of the
a. Thermal equilibrium
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
peak-to-valley ratio of 5 and higher current tunneling densities
than GaAs MJ-STTs that is 500-times [15].
B. Basic p-i-n structure (2004)
Toshio baba proposed tunnel FET (TFET) with the aim of
steep swing in 2004 [13]. This device structure is having
similarity to Lubistor. It requires higher doping levels and
source/drain junction to be abrupt. The TFET works like
reverse biased PN diode, where the insulated gate controls the
tunneling [16].
b. Weak carrier accumulation
Figure 5: (a) Device structure of TFET, (b) band diagram of
TFET [16].
c. Strong carrier accumulation
Figure 4 (a,b,c): Schematic cross section of an STT and band
diagram at the semiconductor surfaces [13].
Bhuwalka et al. predict that after their simulation if the gate
oxide gets broader then it will increase a SS. Addition of a
δ𝑝 + layer adjacent to the 𝑝+ terminal, it improves the electric
field in between i-to-𝑝+ . Proposed SS formula is given by
Fig. 4a shows cross sectional view of the proposed STTs
which consists of a drain, a source and an insulated gate.
Although the STT structure is match to Si-MOSFET or
HEMT, the doping polarity of the drain terminal is different
from the source terminal. This is an important difference from
conventional FETs. These are crucial factors for STT
operation [13]. As surface tunnel transistor is already
proposed and then it developed as a new NDR device for high
performance with GaAs and InGaAs materials [14].
Then new STTs were proposed as MJ-STTs (multiplejunction surface tunnel transistors). To increase its
functionality, in its structure source, gated n+/p+ tunneljunctions and drain are connected in series respectively. MJSTTs have improved in-terms of the characteristics with
added logics for multiple-valued circuits. For 6 successive
NDR characteristics of transistors operations were accurately
demonstrate with InGaAs based MJ-STTs also it has high
𝑆𝑇𝑢𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 =
𝑘𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝐸𝑔
Where BKane and D are the constants. Equation (9) shows that
for sharp swing VG should be low as possible [16]. By
considering ID with BTBT current (IBTBT), by simplifying
BTBT current equation we get equation (9). (Igen) is the semiclassical thermal generation current around the junction of
semiconductor devices which are operating at room
temperature [16]:
When IBTBT>Igen, Equation (10) gets the equation for the swing
value [16]:
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
E. Raised Buried Oxide Tunnel FET (2012)
The flow of current in the tunnel FET depends on tunneling
probability. As it has a disadvantage of ION in large band gap
silicon is lower, so Raised Buried Oxide TFET is designed.
Non equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used for the
quantum capacitance determination. A heterogate oxide and
SOI structure with Raised Buried Oxide in drain is proposed
to achieve ITRS requirement and reduced Miller capacitances.
For reduction of parasitic bipolar current and increment of
current heterogate dielectric structure is used. This proposed
structure is used to achieve:
 Maximum ION,
 Minimum IOFF,
 Maximum ION/ IOFF ratio,
 Minimum SS and
 Reduced Miller capacitance effect.
As device is operating at room temperature
)takes a
negative value then we get
which is an
intrinsic disadvantage of the structure. Also we can say that on
the purity of tunneling process a sharp swing is depend. Based
on the gate voltage polarity, one of the issues of TFET which
rises is about the gate-induced transversal field which
increases/decreases the reverse-biased tunnel of the junction
For TFET, if gate bias is applied then it works as a reverse
biased pin-diode which is an advantage of the TFET. Purity of
the surface defines the static leakage current of the diode and
diode reduces it by 2x of magnitude [17]. But it also has a
limitation that its sharp swing is present for very thin gate
voltage range, at least up to now [16].
A low band gap material improves the tunneling probability
like Ge. Hence it has maximum ION (>1mA),
transconductance (gm), output conductance, and dynamic
power consumption (Pdynamic) of 0. 067X10-5 watt achieved at
109 ION/IOFF ratio and significantly improved overshoot and
undershoots with respect to conventional TFET. Therefore,
RBO Tunnel FET is widely used for ultra-low power digital
applications [19].
C. Feedback FET (2008)
Alvaro Padilla et al. proposed the feedback FET which is
designed to achieve a steep swing. Its device structure is
closer to Lubistor; but it has under lapped gate electrode. It
has gate side walls for energy barrier purpose for electrons
around n+-i junction (source junction) and for holes i-p+
junction (drain junction). As positive gate voltage is applied
at the source and drain junction near the gate sidewalls, some
holes and electrons are trapped which lowers the potential of
holes and electrons near the drain and source junction
respectively. Due to this sudden decrement of barrier height
and an abrupt SS (~2mV/decade) occurs [16].
For transition of the OFF state to ON state it requires gate side
wall insulator to be charged. It however not a disadvantage of
the proposed device, but has some issues like:
1. The VT on the forward sweep and on the reverse
sweep is different.
2. The VT always depends on the VD [16].
F. Junctionless TFET (2013)
The proposed JL-TFET is a Si-channel heavily n-type-doped
with different isolated gates (Control-Gate, P-Gate) with
different work-functions. This is because of JL-TFET should
be similar to conventional TFET.
The subthreshold swing of JL-TFETs is lower than
60mV/decade. These are actually quantum mechanical
devices which are based on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT)
principle. It has higher electrical performance but lower
variability than MOSFET. This happens due to absence of p-n
junctions. JL-TFET is mostly attractive because of better
tunneling current and low band-gap hetero structure channel
D. p-n-i-n TFET (2011)
Wei Cao proposed a new structure which is basically a
conventional TFET with a narrow n-layer at the tunneling
junction. It has two main advantages like higher ION and lower
SS with respect to the conventional TFET. Its IV
characteristics and reliability are assured. Recent researches
note that reliability issue is one of the major hurdles for
TFET. It happens due to near tunneling junction at the
channel/dielectric interface, where there is strong electric field
in parallel and antiparallel directions [18].
The j (E) is tunneling current density is given by the nonlocal
model for the BTBT [18], i. e.
j (E) = αT(E)f(Ef1, Efr)ΔE
F-1. Asymmetric Junctionless
For efficient ON-OFF switching, source and drain are
optimized by using the asymmetric junctionless source/body
region and junctional drain/body region separately. Due to ndrain/p+body junction, the off-state tunnel barrier can be
extended into the drain due to drain/body junction. Therefore,
AJ-TFET is an alternative approach for sub-10-nm region
G. Double gate TFET (DG-TFET) (2008-2015)
The DG-TFET has an added gate which improves or doubled
the current. Due to that it’s On current gets boosted and OFF
current gets in the range of fempto amperes or Pico amperes
or it can be increases by some factor but remains extremely
low. It is a lateral n-type TFET in narrow silicon layer. The
separation of this device layer from substrate is done by using
dielectric material layer. In between intrinsic and p+ region
tunneling take place [22].
Here α-constant, T(E)-tunneling coefficient depended on
energy, f(Ef1, Efr)-state occupation factor function of quasiFermi levels at the two different tunneling junction. ΔEenergy range. The thin n-pocket increases the tunneling field
Ey. The increment is higher at center of body (x = Tsi/2) than
that of the surface of Si (x = 0. 1 nm). Thus changing in
device process, the sensitivity of the TFET characteristics may
get improved [18].
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
Subthreshold Swing in upcoming days will be highly
important parameter. So we can consider that Vertical TFET
is useful for obtaining maximum ION/IOFF ratio. This can be
useful for Si based devices, also could be applied to scaled
devices which follow Moore's law [24].
G-1. Dual Material DG-TFET
Rajat Vishnoi et al. proposed a double material gate TFET
(DMG) [23]. It has lower work function for tunneling gate
than auxiliary gate for a n-channel TFET and higher than
auxiliary gate for a p-channel TFET [32]. It has maximum ION
and minimum IOFF and SS with reduced drain saturation
voltage [23].
I. Dopingless PNPN TFET (2013-2015)
In this semiconductor device gate controls, the BTBT
tunneling current between source and channel using
modulation due to extra n pocket. For the removal kink effect
in PNPN TFET the silicon film thickness optimized [25].
The PNPN Tunnel Structure (Fig. 6) has a tunneling junction
formed in between the p+ source and fully depleted thin nlayer (n-pocket) in the gate. It helps in the reduction of
tunneling width and it creates local band bending. Addition of
thin n pocket region improves the tunneling rate, improves
subthreshold and with the same instant of time gives
maximum ION with respect to conventional design of TFET
G-2. Triple Metal DG-TFET
The main aim of the selection of three metals with different
work function is to increase ON current and make a barrier in
the channel, due to that its OFF current gets reduced. The
surface potential (𝜙𝑠𝑛 (𝑥)) under different metals and the
electric fields (𝐸𝑛𝑥 (𝑥), 𝐸𝑚𝑦 (𝑥)) (lateral and vertical electric
field respectively) are calculated for the tunneling current
value using 2-D Poisson’s equation and Kane’s model.
The surface potential under different metals is expressed as:
𝜙𝑠1 (𝑥) = 𝐴 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂𝑥) + 𝐵 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂𝑥) − 1⁄𝛼
𝑓𝑜𝑟 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿1 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑀1
𝜙𝑠2 (𝑥) = 𝐶 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1))
+𝐷 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1)) − 2⁄𝛼
𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝐿1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ (𝐿1 + 𝐿2)𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑀2
𝜙𝑠3 (𝑥) = 𝐸 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1 − 𝐿2))
𝐹 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1 − 𝐿2)) − 3⁄𝛼
𝑓𝑜𝑟(𝐿1 + 𝐿2) ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑀3
The expression for Electric Field is,
Figure 6: PNPN Tunnel Structure [26].
For Lateral Electric Field𝑑𝜙 (𝑥,𝑦)
𝐸1𝑥 (𝑥) = − 1
= −𝐴 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂𝑥) + 𝐵 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂𝑥)
Table I: Comparative analysis of PNPN TFET and Conv.
TFET [25]
𝑓𝑜𝑟 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿1
𝑑𝜙2 (𝑥, 𝑦)
𝐸2𝑥 (𝑥) = −
= −𝐶 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1))
+ 𝐷 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1))
𝑓𝑜𝑟𝐿1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ (𝐿1 + 𝐿2)𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑀2
𝑑𝜙3 (𝑥, 𝑦)
𝐸3𝑥 (𝑥) = −
= −𝐸 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1 − 𝐿2))
+𝐹 𝜂 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝜂(𝑥 − 𝐿1 − 𝐿2))
𝑓𝑜𝑟 (𝐿1 + 𝐿2) ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑀3
(KΩ/µm) (mV/dec) Ioff
Conventional TFET
(KΩ/µm) (mV/dec) Ioff
For vertical Electric Field𝑑𝜙 (𝑥,𝑦)
𝐸1𝑦 (𝑥) = − 1
= −𝐶11 (𝑥) − 2𝑦𝐶12 (𝑥)
𝑓𝑜𝑟 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿1 (19)
𝑑𝜙 (𝑥,𝑦)
𝐸2𝑦 (𝑥) = − 2
= −𝐶21 (𝑥) − 2𝑦𝐶22 (𝑥)
Therefore, PNPN is suitable for low power requirement
applications [26].
𝑓𝑜𝑟𝐿1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ (𝐿1 + 𝐿2)𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑀2
𝑑𝜙 (𝑥,𝑦)
𝐸3𝑦 (𝑥) = − 3
= −𝐶31 (𝑥) − 2𝑦𝐶32 (𝑥)
𝐼𝐷𝑠 = 𝐴𝑘𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝐷2 𝑤𝑔
𝑓𝑜𝑟 (𝐿1 + 𝐿2) ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝐿𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑀
𝐴𝑘𝑎𝑛𝑒 = (𝑒 2 𝑚0 2 ) (18𝜋ℎ2 )
H. Vertical TFET (2006-2015)
Vertical TFET have SS in very small range of mV/dec. The
doping profile and design flow situations also changes the SS.
Therefore, it is an alternative TFET to give lower
𝐵𝑘𝑎𝑛𝑒 = (𝜋𝑚0 2 ) (2𝑒ℎ)
2 )/(𝑉
2 −(𝐵𝑘𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑊𝑔
𝐺𝑆 .𝐷)
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 7 (2016) pp 4922-4929
© Research India Publications.
Sub-threshold Swing of TFET,
𝑙(𝑙𝑜𝑔𝐼𝑑 )
Sub-threshold Slope,
5.75(𝑉𝑔𝑠 +𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡)
I-2. Dopingless PNPN
The charge plasma concept is used for the design of dopingless TFET designed on a narrow i-silicon layer. Due to charge
plasma concept, doping’s are not required for source and
drain. Instead we choose different work functions for source,
drain and both metal electrodes. For fabrication of doping-less
TFET high-temperature doping/annealing process is not used
therefore ultimately it reduces the thermal budget [26].
Surface depletion width is given by[27],
𝑊𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 (𝑘, 𝑇, 𝑉𝑔 , 𝑁𝐴 ) = 𝑊𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 (𝑘)
Dopingless TFET is candidate for low-power and low-cost
applications in the future [28]. It shows promising switching
behaviour and quite decrement in PVT variations on
subthreshold swing and drive current than that of
conventional-TFET [29]. Now doping-less TFET shows very
good electrostatic control over the channel with reduced
thermal budget and process complexity.
This paper explains different types of TFET from initial stages
of its inception to till recent. Surface Tunnel Transistor is first
tunnel transistor deals with speed, power and IOFF/ION ratio.
Then first TFET basic p-i-n structure is invented which deals
with speed, power, IOFF/ION, tuning range etc. After that
feedback TFET, p-n-i-n TFET, NEMFET, Raised Buried
Oxide TFET, Junctionless TFET, Double gate TFET (DGTFET), Vertical TFET, Dopingless PNPN TFET are studied.
Along with these different structures of TFET DG-TFET,
Dopingless PNPN TFET and Vertical DG-TFET shows
superior performance than other studied.
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Satish M Turkane is Pursuing his Ph. D
and working as Associate Professor in
E&Tc Engineering at Pravara Rural
Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India. He
has more than 16 Years of teaching
experience. His area of interest is in the
field of Low power FPGA, Interconnects and Post CMOS
Devices and Circuits in Analog and Digital domain. He is a
Life Member of ISTE, IEI and IETE.
A K Kureshi had completed his Ph. D
in 2010 in the area of Low Power
Techniques and Architecture of FPGAs.
He is working as a Principal at
Vishvabharti Academy’s College of
Maharashtra, India. He has more than 19 Years of teaching
experience. His area of interest is in the field of Carbon Nano
Tubes as Interconnects and logics and in Multi-layer
Graphene domain. He is a Member of IEEE and Life Member
of ISTE, IEI and IETE.