Requirements for Animal Life The Big “D” and “SA/V” • The demands of 3 unique environments – Marine, freshwater, terrestrial • • • • • • • Gas exchange Nutrition Distribution and transport Disposal of cellular wastes Internal water and salt balance Reproduction and development Support and movement The earliest animals…? • ~800 mya the ancestral “animal” may have been a flagellated protistan. Choanoflagellates • These formed flagellated colonies of cells. • Evidence (both morphological and genetic) links the Choanoflagellates with the sponges. Phylum Porifera Porifera- the sponges • Approx. 9000 species • Marine (8500m+), FW • Cellular level of organization • Suspension/filter feeders* • Diffusion, diffusion, diffusion • Osmoconformers • Morphology: Digital Zoology © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. General Sponge Morphology: • • • • • • Spongocoel Ostia and osculum Epidermis and porocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Amoebocytes (archaeocytes) • Skeletal: spicules/spongin/CaCO3 Pseudopodia •Can move 20,000X their vol/24h •Efficiencies of 75%–99% on plankton, 0.1–70 µm! •Others feed on larger particles, w/ one carnivorous family •Dissolved Organic Matter •Some have symbionts: chlorophyta, dinos, or cyanobacteria Asconoid Body Type Syconoid body type Digital Zoology © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Body Plan Pop Quiz What am I? Leuconoid body type Support structures • Spicules • Spongin • CaCO3 The Glass Sponges • Class. Hexactinellida (subphylum?) – “Glass” sponges; 6-rayed siliceous spicules – Syncytial tissues- (the entire sponge is one PM, many nuclei) with propagate electrical signals – Fiber-optics Spongicoloides Digital Zoology © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Poriferan reproduction Sponge Development • Asexual – Budding – Fragmentation – Gemmule formation (fw) • Sexual Micropyle Spicule – Monecious or Hermaphroditic – Sperm from choanocytes – Eggs from choanocytes or Archaeocytes Flow and environmental effects • Large sponge can filter over 2000 l d-1 • Groups of small sponges can still have major effect on water quality in embayments • Many other organisms use sponges as a substrate Sponge Bob is canceled… • Other predators – Turtles, echinoderms, fish, nudibrachs, Requirements for Animal Life 1. Gas exchange 2. Nutrition 3. Distribution and transport 4. Disposal of cellular wastes 5. Internal water and salt balance 6. Reproduction and development 7. Support and movement Digital Zoology © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.