Biology 242 – Lecture
A. Lymphatic “Side of the House”(aka Structures): Generally, 4 “levels” of Structural Components:
1. Primary Structures: Myeloid tissue, Thymus, G.S.L.T., WBC’s (primarily Lymphocytes, monos,
and also the three types of granulocytes) (Specialized cells: Langerhan’s, Kuppfer’s Alveolar, etc.)
2. Secondary Structures (which are encapsulated): Lymph nodes* and the Spleen (which is the single
largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body)
3. Tertiary Structures: (which are NOT encapsulated): Diffuse lymph nodules, tonsils, G.A.L.T, appendix.
4. Lymph itself (which is a filtrate of blood) and the Lymphatic “pipeline” consisting of lymphatic capillaries, vessels (which have valves), 9 trunks (be sure you can name all of them and which ones flow into
each of the) 2 Lymphatic Ducts. (RLD, LLD = Thoracic Duct). Note: lymphatic drainage of the body is
very asymmetrical: the RU ¼ is drained by three trunks comprising the RLD; the other ¾ of the body is
drained by the other 6 trunks making up the LLD.) BE SURE TO KNOW where each DUCT empties
its lymph back into the blood.
*About Lymph nodes: know that each has many afferent capillaries/vessels entering it, but has fewer
(usually only TWO) efferent vessels exiting it. A bubo is a lymph node which is actively fighting an
immune battle: an infection. This is the origin of the name, Bubonic Plague, prevalent in late 1800’s.
B. Immune “Side of the House” (aka Functional aspects):
1. Be able to compare/contrast the terms: Resistance (general), Immunity (specific resistance), Susceptibility
2. Know the body’s non-specific (innate) defense mechanisms (by category and example of each) as well as
the specific (adaptive) defense mechanisms.
3. Be able to match each specific immunoglobulin class with its specific contribution to the grand scheme.
4. Compare and contrast (ie, place of origin, immunocompetence, maturation, and subpopulation types ) the cells
responsible for CMI (Cell Mediated Immunity) and AMI (Antibody Mediated Immunity = Humoral)
A. Review the generalized scheme of structural organization to this system: Nose and nasal cavity with its
(choana) passage into the nasopharynx (also remember the nasal concha – where they are located and what
they do); concomitant oral cavity’s passage (fauces) into the oropharynx, then laryngopharynx posterior to
the Larynx (composed of 9 cartilages: 3 unpaired: Thyroid, Cricoid, Epiglottic cartilages; and 3 paired,
the much smaller arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms.) Glottis is the opening at the superior end of the
Trachea. Trachea bifurcates asymmetrically at its carina (T5 level) into two primary (“mainstem”) bronchi:
the shorter, “steeper”, larger-diameter R primary bronchus and the longer, more horizontal, smaller-diameter
L primary bronchus. Primary bronchi serve a LUNG; Secondary Bronchi serve a Lobe; Tertiary Bronchi
serve a Segment; etc. Then how are bronchioles different from bronchi? Finally, we get to the terminal
bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, and ultimately, to the structural/functional respiratory
units called the alveoli as part of the respiratory membrane where the gas exchange takes place.
B. Know the 4 phases of Respiration and what “compartments” the gas(es) are moving from → to.
C. Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law need to be understood and recognized for explaining Pulmonary Ventilation
D. Charles’, Dalton’s, and Henry’s Laws need to be understood and recognized for explaining Internal and
External Respiration.
E. Know the role of the RBC, its hemoglobin and its enzyme carbonic anhydrase; what reactions are hastened
by this enzyme and in which direction the equilibrium of this reversible reaction is “stressed” giving us the
Bohr effect and the Haldane effect.
F. Know how O2 and CO2 are carried in the blood. (O2 is 98.5% bound to hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin, only 1.5%
dissolves in plasma; 70% of CO2 is carried as HCO3-, 23% as carbaminohemoglobin, 7% as CO2 dissolved in plasma.)
G. Respiratory terminology: Compliance, surfactant, all –pnea words, atelectasis, hypoxia, hypercapnea, etc.
H. Nervous System Control of Respiration: the medullary rhythmicity Center (DRG = MIC; VRG = MEC)
and the two centers in the Pons: Apneustic Center and the Pneumotactic Center.
I. Spirogram “regions”: RV, ERV, TV and IRV. Know what each is, how it is determined and the way in
which two or more of these Volumes are arithmetically related to the Capacities: IC, VC and TLC. Also
review MVR what is it, what is its normal value, and how is it calculated? (MVR = TV x RR)