Cellular Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? The process of converting food energy into ATP energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP Why do plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria? Chloroplasts use energy from the sun to make glucose Mitochondria convert glucose to ATP—the energy currency of the cell What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate 5-Carbon sugar (Ribose) Nitrogenous base (Adenine) 3 Phosphate groups Energy currency of the cell The chemical bonds that link the phosphate groups together are high energy bonds When a phosphate group is removed to form ADP and P, small packets of energy are released So what? Energy is stored in these bonds. So? The breaking of the chemical bond releases the energy ATP + H2O→ ADP + P + ENERGY How is ATP used? As ATP is broken down, it gives off usable energy to power chemical work and gives off some nonusable energy as heat. Synthesizing molecules for growth and reproduction Transport work – active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis Mechanical work – muscle contraction, cilia and flagella movement, organelle movement Cellular Respiration The process by which mitochondria break down glucose to make ATP In order for our bodies to use the energy, the food must be broken down into a usable form What is the usable form of energy? What type of process breaks down molecules? Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy •The Stages of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration has two stages. •Glycolysis The first stage of cellular respiration is called glycolysis. •Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration The second stage of cellular respiration is either aerobic respiration (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen). A large amount of ATP is made during aerobic respiration. NAD+ is recycled during the anaerobic process of fermentation. Cellular Respiration Stage One: Breakdown of Glucose •Glycolysis Glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP. Cellular Respiration Stage Two: Production of ATP •Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration. •Electron Transport Chain During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain. Cellular Respiration Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen •Fermentation When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue. •Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate. Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel Releases much of the energy in food to make ATP This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life. C6H12O6+O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP Review When oxygen is present most the ATP made in cellular respiration is produced by: A. aerobic respiration B. Glycolysis C. alcoholic fermentation D. Lactic acid fermentation.