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containers of chemicals waiting to be converted to electricity

the chemical reaction does not take place until the two reactions are connected (you turn it on)

typically create 1.5 to 9 volts

McGraw Hill Flash animation

the oxidation separated and reduction reactions are

electrodes (two different strips of metals) are placed in each electrolyte conducts electricity)

(solution that

electrons move through a wire connecting the two electrodes

salt bridge connects the reactions

chemical energy changes electrical to energy through a spontaneous redox


greater the difference in reactivity of metals means greater the voltage

the more reactive metal (higher on the activity series) is the negative electrode


oxidation occurs here causing loss of eex) Zn (s)



(aq) + 2e


the less reactive metal (lower on the activity series) is the positive electrode (cathode)

reduction occurs here causing the gain of eex) Cu


(aq) + 2e


Cu (s)

ions move through a salt bridge connecting the two electrolyte solutions to keep the ions created from building up in either of the solutions