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Physics 327 Lab 2 7/25/16 PHYSICS 327, 2009 LAB 2 - AC INTRO AND VOLTAGE DIVIDER Goals: Learn about AC voltage divider, differentiator, and practice with oscilloscope. Please read chapter 17 of Faissler before coming to the lab to familiarize yourself with oscilloscopes. Start out with some practice with the oscilloscope and function generator: Hook the function generator output to the oscilloscope input B, and obtain a trace for the generator output. Set the frequency to about 1 kHz. On the scope, check that you are set for DC coupling, dual mode (you will want both channels later), and AC sync. Set the scope time base to about 1 ms. Adjust the trigger level and find the signal. Change the various controls on the function generator to see how the signal changes. An AC voltage divider is shown below: The circuit is described by the equation V out Vin Z2 . Let Z1 be a capacitor and Z2 a Z1 Z2 resistor, i.e. Z1 = -j/ C and Z2 = R . Set up this circuit with R = 20 k and C = 1000 pF (1 pF=10-12 F) . Because the impedance Z1 depends on frequency, the output voltage V out will also depend on frequency. The angular frequency is related to the frequency f (in units of Hz) by = 2f. First, use a sinusoidal input voltage, and measure the dependence of the magnitude and phase of Vout relative to Vin, and compare to calculations. Measure data points at 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 1 kHz, ... 1 MHz, to get about 1 Physics 327 Lab 2 7/25/16 equal spacing in log(f). Graph log(Vout/Vin) vs. log(f), and the phase difference (linear) vs. log(f). Calculate how the theoretically expected Vout/Vin and phase difference should look as functions of frequency. Compare the theory to data by making graphs of Vout/Vin and phase difference which combine both the data and the theory. To investigate the exponential decay time dependence, use the function generator to make a square wave pulse. For this input to the voltage divider, estimate the time constant of the exponential decay in Vout by measuring V(t), i.e., voltage as a function of time, on the scope, and compare to the calculated time constant. Put your Vout measurements into a Origin plot and add the expected decay curve derived from the values of C and R. To see this circuit act as a differentiator, use the function generator to generate a triangular waveform. Plot both output and input voltages as a function of time on the oscilloscope screen. How close is Vout to the expected differentiated wave forms? 2