Anatomy Final Exam Study Guide Directions: Complete each question to the best of your ability. Part A: Label the diagrams below. 1.) The Human Skeleton 2.) The Respiratory System 3.) The Digestive System 4.) The Endocrine System Part B: Complete each question. 1.) What is the most common element in the human body? a. Oxygen 2.) What is the most common steroid? a. Cholesterol 3.) What is the active and passive process that moves water through the aquaporins? a. Active Process – Solute pumping, Endocytosis (requires ATP processing) b. Passive Process – Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion does not use the “aquaporins” 4.) Give an example of a positive feedback system in the body. a. Positive feedback systems tend to increase the original disturbance (stimulus) and to push the variable farther from its original value. i. Example: Involves blood clotting and the birthing of a baby, and operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases 5.) List and describe each type of cell junction. a. Tight Junctions – impermeable junctions that encircle the cells and bind them together into leak-proof sheets b. Desmosomes – anchoring junctions scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells and prevent cells from being pulled apart c. Gap Junction – commonly seen in the heart, mainly function to allow communication 6.) Explain the relationship between the patellar and popliteal regions. a. Patellar – Anterior knee (Front) b. Popliteal – posterior knee cap (Back) 7.) List and give a brief description of what each system does in the body. a. Urinary – eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood b. Digestive – breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces c. Cardiovascular – blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxides, nutrients, wastes, etc., the heart pumps blood d. Reproductive – overall function of the reproductive system is production of offspring e. Integumentary - forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissue from injury, synthesizes vitamin D f. Skeletal – protects and supports body organs, provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement g. Muscular – allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat, contract and shorten to move the bones h. Nervous – fast-acting control system of the body, responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands i. Endocrine – glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells j. Lymphatic – picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; houses white blood cells involved in immunity k. Respiratory – keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs 8.) What are the steps in mitosis and meiosis? Give a brief description of each step. (Be sure to put them in order) a. Mitosis: Prophase (the chromatin threads coil and shorten so that visible bar-like bodies (CRMOSOMES) appear)-Metaphase (short stage; the chromosomes cluster and line up at the center of the spindle)-Anaphase (the centromers that have held the chromatids together split)-Telophase (essentially prophase in reverse; the chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell uncoil to become threadlike chromatin again) b. Cytokinesis – the division of the cytoplasm; usually begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase c. Meiosis: 9.) How are immovable joints classified as? a. Synarthroses 10.) What is the complementary DNA strand for TAG-GCA? a. ATC-CGT 11.) Why are calcium ions necessary for skeletal muscle contractions? a. Calcium triggers the binding of myosin to actin 12.) When you are unable to flex your hip that is caused by the paralysis of what? a. Iliopsoas (found deep within the pelvis) 13.) What occurs on to your eyes when they are exposed to bright light very suddenly? a. Photopupillary Reflex – when pupils immediately constrict to prevent excessively bright light from damaging the delicate photoreceptors 14.) What hormone does alcohol suppresses the production of? What does this hormone usually do? a. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) – promotes water retention and prevents dehydration 15.) What does a fever help your body to do? a. It inhibits bacteria reproduction and speeds the repair process 16.) What type of respiration does oxygen bind to hemoglobin? What does it form? a. External Respiration – forms oxyhemoglobin 17.) What occurs when you have removed the larynx from a person? a. A person can no longer speak 18.) What has occurred to cause bile pigment in urine? a. Liver Disease 19.) What is the first cell of a new individual called when an egg is fertilized? a. Zygote 20.) What is the condition known as when the testes fail to descend into the scrotum? a. Cryptorchidism 21.) By what week of pregnancy is the placenta functioning? a. Third 22.) When the fertilized egg burrows into the endometrium lining of the uterus what is that called? a. Implantation 23.) In reference to the trigone of the urinary bladder, what is it and why is it important? a. Trigone – is the smooth triangular region of the bladder based outlined by the three openings – it is important clinically because infections tend to persist in this region 24.) What are the types of fluid found in the body? Where are these fluids found? a. Intracellular Fluid (ICF) – two-thirds of body fluid, is contained within living cells b. Extracellular Fluid (ECF) – includes all body fluids located outside the cells 25.) Define organ. a. A structure composed of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function for the body 26.) Enzymes are an example of what type of protein? a. Globular (functional) 27.) What is the function of potassium? a. Is to play a role in nerve impulse transmissions and muscle contractions 28.) How is a disaccharide broken down into a simple sugar? a. Water molecules must be added to each bond 29.) When you tear you Achilles (calcaneal) tendon, what have you injured? a. Dense Connective Tissue 30.) Define metabolism. What does it refer to? a. Metabolism – the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body 31.) What is an inorganic compound? Give a few examples. a. Inorganic Compound – a compound that lacks carbon i. Examples: Water 32.) When you examine a body you can cut the body into different sections; what are the different types of sections that you can create? a. Front View – Anterior/Ventral b. Rear View – Posterior/Dorsal c. Median – cut across the middle vertical (will separate the eyes) d. Frontal Plane – cuts across the vertical (separates the front and back) e. Transverse Plane – cuts across the middle (separates the top and bottom half) i. Example: a cut between the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity 33.) Define effector. a. Effector – the component of a control system that provides the means for the control center’s response (output) 34.) What causes “Goosebumps”? a. Caused by the contraction of the Arrector Pili Muscles 35.) The synovial membrane does what? a. Lines the fibrous capsule surrounding joints 36.) What three pigments contribute to skin color? a. Melanin; Carotene; Hemoglobin 37.) What are the different types of tissues? Which tissue can you find the adipose tissue? a. Epidermis – made up of stratified squamous epithelium and is capable of becoming hard and tough b. Subcutaneous Tissue (Hypodermis) – has essentially adipose tissue, is not considered to be apart of the skin, but does anchor the skin to underlying organs c. Stratum Corneum – is thick but it accounts for about ¾ of the epidermal thickness d. Reticular Layer – the deepest skin layer e. Papillary Layer – the upper dermal region 38.) What layer of the serous membrane covers an organ? a. Visceral 39.) What are the different types of burns? What layers of the skin are impacted? What are the symptoms? a. First-Degree – only the epidermis is damaged; the area becomes red and swollen b. Second-Degree – involves injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the epidermis; the skin is red and painful and blisters appear c. Third-Degree – destroy the entire thickness of the skin; burned areas appear blanched (gray-white) or blackened, and because the nerve endings in the area are destroyed the burned area is not painful 40.) What factors determine where bone matrix is to be remodeled? a. The stress of gravity and pull of muscles on the skeleton 41.) Upon stimulation what type of muscle tissue contracts the quickest? a. The skeletal 42.) During a muscle contraction what can actually shorten? a. Sarcomere 43.) When skeletal muscle fatigue has occurred how can you explain that? a. Due to insufficient intracellular quantities of ATP due to excessive consumption 44.) When someone has Parkinson’s disease what has occurred? a. Has resulted from a degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra 45.) a. b. c. d. What are the different types of reflex? What does each one make us do? Reflex Arcs - occur over neural pathways and involve both CNS and PNS structures Somatic Reflexes – include all reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles i. Ex: when you quickly pull your hand away from a hot object (withdrawal reflex – removal from a painful stimulus) Autonomic Reflexes – regulate the activity of smooth muscles, the heat, and glands i. Ex: Regulates body functions such as digestion, elimination, blood pressure, and sweating Patellar (aka: Knee-jerk reflex) – two-neuron reflex arc; simplest type in humans; usually tested during a physical exam to determine the general health of the motor portion of our nervous system 46.) What are the different parts of the brain? What does each part control/allow you to do? a. Frontal Lobe – allows us control over our skeletal muscles b. Borca’s Area – the part of the brain that deals with the ability to speak 47.) What are the different types of nervous systems? What does each one do for our body? a. Sympathetic Nervous System – prepares the body for the “fight-or-flight” response during the threatening situations 48.) What are our five taste sensations? a. Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami 49.) What is Addison’s disease? What are the symptoms? a. Addison’s Disease – a generalized hyposecretion of all the adrenal cortex hormones b. Symptoms – bronze skin color; hypoglycemia, and a reduced ability to cope with stress (burnout) 50.) Gustatory hairs do what? Olfactory Hairs do what? a. Gustatory Hairs – Taste b. Olfactory Hairs - Smell 51.) What is the difference between leukopenia and leukocytosis? What is the blood count for each of the diseases? a. Leukopenia – is an abnormal low white blood count – commonly caused by certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and anticancer agents b. Leukocytosis – indicates that a bacterial or viral infection is stewing in the body, a white blood count above 11,000 would indicate this 52.) Why would someone be prescribed an anticoagulant? a. To inhibit the formation of cots 53.) What is the difference between naturally acquired active immunity and artificially acquired active immunity? a. Naturally Acquired Active Immunity – when you develop a bacterial and/or viral infection and you may develop the signs and symptoms of the disease and suffer a little (or a lot) b. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity – when you get a vaccine 54.) What is the difference between naturally acquired passive immunity and artificially acquired passive immunity? a. Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity – on the placenta and enter the fetal circulation, and after birth during breastfeeding b. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity – a person receives immune serum or gamma globulin (commonly administered after exposure to hepatitis, antivenom, antitoxin) 55.) During coagulation, what are the hairlike molecules know as? a. Fibrin – they form the basis for a clot 56.) Define anemia. a. A decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood, for any reason 57.) What is the pulmonary rule in relation to arteries? a. Arteries are normally depicted as red while veins are colored blue HOWEVER in the pulmonary it is backwards 58.) What is blood pressure and osmotic pressure? What does it to the fluid in the body? a. Blood Pressure – the pressure the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels, and it is the force that keeps blood circulating continuously when between heartbeats – fluid tends to be forced out of a capillary bed b. Osmotic Pressure – directly related to the concentration of solutes in the solution, the higher the solute concentration the higher the osmotic pressure and the tendency of water to move into the solution; fluid moves into the capillary bed 59.) In the kidney what is the functional unit that filters blood and forms urine? a. Nephron 60.) What direction does ventral go in (in relation to the body)? a. Anterior – or front facing 61.) What is a physiological study? Give an example of what that may look like. a. Physiology – the study of how the body and its parts work or function i. Ex: Observing how the heart contracts to pump blood 62.) Define tissue. a. Tissue – Groups of cells that are similar in both structure and function 63.) What is the exocrine gland? What is it responsible for? a. Exocrine Gland – posses ducts that transport secretions onto epithelia surfaces 64.) What tissue(s) is found in the lining of the urinary bladder and the urethra? Which one is where stretching occurs? a. Transitional Epithelium 65.) What is the location called where the occipital bone and the spinal cord and brain all connect? a. Foramen Magnum 66.) What are the most important minerals stored in bones? a. Calcium and Phosphorus 67.) The head of the humerus fits into the ______ of the scapula. a. Glenoid Cavity 68.) Who is the epiphyseal plate associated with? a. A child 69.) What is muscular dystrophy? What occurs when a person has this disease? a. An inherited disease that causes muscles to degenerate and atrophy 70.) What are the two systems that the nervous system is divided into? What does each system do? a. Central – act as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system(Brain and Spinal Cord) b. Peripheral – consists of nerves and scattered groups of neuronal cell bodies (ganglia) found outside the CNS (Cranial and Spinal Nerves) 71.) What is the major role of the interneuron (associated neuron)? a. Connect motor and sensory neurons in their pathways 72.) What is binocular vision? What does it do? a. When two visual fields that provides for depth perception (3D vision) 73.) What is the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)? What does it do? a. Is known as vasopressin due to its effect on blood vessel diameter and blood pressure 74.) What is the function of the choroid layer of the eye? a. To prevent light from scattering inside the eye 75.) What is sensorineural deafness? What occurs when a person has this? a. Arises when there is damage or degeneration of receptor cells in the spiral organ of Corti, cochlear nerve, or neurons in the auditory cortex of the brain 76.) What is Cretinism? What are the symptoms that are associated with this? a. A disease that results in dwarfism in which adult body proportions remain childlike – can show signs of mental retardation, hair is scanty, and their skin is dry 77.) a. b. c. d. What are the different blood types? What are the rules for each type for donating blood? A – can only get A or O B – can only get B or O AB – a universal recipient (can get any blood type) O – a universal donor Rule: You can’t mix A with B because they contain anti ___ bodies which will agglutinate with the original blood type 78.) What is the brachial vein? a. It drains blood from the radial and ulnar veins, then empties that blood into the axillary vein 79.) The symptoms for acute inflammation are? a. Redness, heat, swelling, and pain 80.) What system do lymph fluid and some plasma proteins originate and then escape from? a. Blood Vascular System 81.) What does the spleen do? What does the spleen store? a. Stores platelets and acts as blood reservoir 82.) What is the difference between Type I and Type II diabetes? a. Type I Diabetes Mellitus – an auto-immune disease in which the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and as a result she does not make enough insulin 83.) What is the conchae (located in the nasal cavity)? What does it help do? a. The three mucosa-covered projections into the nasal cavity that greatly increases surface area of mucosa exposed to air 84.) What is the gallbladder? What does it do? a. Gallbladder – The sac beneath the right lobe of the liver used for bile storage – is targeted by hormone secretion and cholecystokinin to release pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine for digestion 85.) What is the liver? What does it do? a. Liver – helps to break down fats in bile - is targeted by hormone secretion and cholecystokinin to release pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine for digestion 86.) What is the total metabolic rate (TMR)? When does it increase? a. The total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities – it increases during physical exertion 87.) What is the large intestine responsible for? a. For drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces * The interventricular septum is the partition where the bundle branches are located.