WH 1 The Fertile Crescent Revisited – Guided Notes - Part 2 Same Place – New Empires The Chaldeans – The Chaldeans joined with the Medes to defeat the Assyrians. The Chaldeans formed a new Empire in the Fertile Crescent. __________________ was their capital. __________________________ was their most famous king. He was famous both as a ______________ and a ___________________. He defeated the Assyrians and fought the _______________ and the __________________ . Most of all he was famous for the rebuilding of Babylon. For his favorite wife he built ___________________________, considered to be one of the Wonders of the Ancient World. They, like the Assyrians and the Hittites before them ________________ much of the Sumer culture including language and religion. Their other major achievement included a ______________ based on the phases of the moon, beginning the science of astronomy. The Chaldean Empire was short, they were defeated in 539 BCE by the Persians. The Phoenicians – Phoenicia was located in what is now __________________. The narrow coastal rugged hills and mountains of the area made _______________ difficult, and resources were scarce. The Phoenicians turned to the sea and became _____________ and _______________. The came to dominate trade in the _________________. As they traded, the established __________________ around the Mediterranean. A ___________ is a foothold of a culture/nation in a different place. The most famous of the Phoenician colonies was ___________, which is now Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. Phoenicia was not a united kingdom, but a series of ____________________ such as Sidon, and Tyre. Despite not being an empire – they became very _____________. Phoenician Achievements – As the Phoenicians traded they carried their culture and civilization – this process is known as _______________________. The most famous part of this diffusion was the use of the Phoenician alphabet. The alphabet was borrowed and modified by both the _________ and the __________. This made writing easier. The Phoenicians were accomplished ___________. They had no maps or modern technology. They sailed out of the Mediterranean, beyond ____________ and may have circumnavigated _________. They used knowledge of the North Star and other astronomy to guide navigation at night so they would know their direction. Trade – Items that the Phoenicians traded included ___________, _________, a _________ dye prized by royalty made from the Murex shellfish, _______ and _________. They traded for _____ from Britannia, _______, ______, _______ and ______ from Africa and _______, _______________ and ___________ from India.