Civil War Study Guide Northern States were called The Union. Leaders were General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and General Ulysses S. Grant. Southern States were called The Confederacy. One leader was General Robert E. Lee was Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. The economy of the South was based on farming, which requires more labor in the form of slaves. The economy of the North was industrial (factories). Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860. Afterwards, 11 southern states seceded from the union and became the Confederate States of America. Battles of the Civil War: *First Battle of Bull Run/Battle of Manassas: The first major clash of the Civil war. *Battle at Fredericksburg: General Robert E. Lee was the commander of the army of Northern Virginia who defeated union troops. *Richmond: Near the end of the war, this Confederate capital fell to General Grant and was burned. *Norfolk/Hampton: Lincoln used the Union Navy to blockade southern ports. The Monitor (Union) and the Merrimack (Confederate), two iron-clad ships, battled in Virginia waters near Norfolk and Hampton. The Union (North) won the Civil war. The war ended at Appomattox Court House, VA where Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865.