Bible 110 Old Testament A. How many tribes went into Egypt?

Bible 110 Old Testament
Exodus Experience
How many tribes went into Egypt?
1. All of them (Ex. 1:5 70 persons)
2. Some of them (Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin)-other Southern tribes not
eyewitnesses to Exodus. Northern tribes knew nothing of it.
3. Those there grew strong and multiplied.
New dynasty in Egypt
1. Hyksos overthrown by native dynasty ca 1550 BC
2. Pharaoh arose who knew not Joseph 1:8 (Seti I or Ramses II). Israelites
were made slaves with hard labor. Order to kill all Hebrew males (1:1522)
Birth of Moses (Ex. 2)
1. Tribe of Levi
2. Pharaoh death threat to Hebrew boy babies
3. Basket in bulrushes to Pharaoh’s daughter
4. Name is Moshe – I drew him out of the water
Moses leaves Egypt
1. Kills the Egyptian beating the Hebrew
2. Pharaoh desires to kill Moses. But Moses escapes
3. Fled to Midian (Kenites) – takes a wife Zipporah, son, Gershom, born
4. Israelites cry in bondage to God who hears this cry
Call of Moses ch. 3
1. Burning bush – call to deliver his people
2. Moses demurs – who am I? (v. 11)
What is your name? (vs. 13-14)
They won’t believe me (4:1-9)
I can’t talk (4:10-17)
3. Moses takes family to Egypt
Circumcision of son Gershom (4:24-26)
Aaron joins Moses (4:27-31)
Moses before Pharaoh (Ch. 5-11)
Bible 110 Old Testament
Demand to let God’s people go so that they might worship him in the
Pharaoh refuses; makes them work harder – makes bricks without straw.
God promises deliverance (5:22-6:9)
Pharaoh refuses again (6:28-7:13). Moses throws down the rod.
Magicians did the same.
Plagues upon Egypt
a.) Nile turns to blood (7:14-7:24). Magicians did the same.
b.) Frogs fill the land (8:1-15). Magicians do the same. Pharaoh promises
to let the people go if Moses will take away the frogs. Pharaoh reneges.
c.) Gnats fill the earth (8:16-19). Magicians failed to duplicate it.
Pharaoh’s heart hardened.
d.) Swarms of flies on Egyptians but not in Goshen. Pharaoh says to
sacrifice to the Lord in the land; Moses says no, it must be three day journey out.
Pharaoh agrees; Moses prays to the Lord to remove the flies; Pharaoh changes
his mind, hardens his heart (8:20-32).
e.) Plague on cattle of Egyptians, not of Israelites. Pharaoh’s heart
hardened still (9:1-7).
f.) Boils on humans and animals of Egypt. Pharaoh’s heart hardened
g.) Plague of hail and fire. Pharaoh acknowledges his sin. “Entreat the
Lord and I will let your people go.” As soon as the thunder, hail, and fire ceased,
Pharaoh changed his mind and hardened his heart (9:13-35).
h.) Plague of locusts – Moses threatens locusts. Pharaoh agrees to let
men only go. Locusts cover the land. Pharaoh repents. Moses asked the Lord
to lift the locusts. Pharaoh hardens his heart again (10:1-20).
i.) Plague of darkness – darkness covers the land. Pharaoh agrees to let
them go; Egyptian God of sun is overcome by Hebrew God. Pharaoh hardens
heart again (10:21-29)
Bible 110 Old Testament
j.) Plague of death of Egyptian first born – Pharaoh lets the people leave
after the first born of the land and Pharaoh’s first born are dead. Israelites cover
doorposts with the blood of the lamb. Institution of Passover (12:1-13). Death
angel comes over (12:29-42) and the people leave Egypt.
k.) Consecration of the first born (13:1-10)
l.) Crossing Red Sea (ch. 14) – Pharaoh changes his mind, pursues the
departing Israelites. Moses leads the people across the Yam Suph. What is it?
Red Sea? Sea of Reeds? Egyptian chariots clogged or drowned in the sea.
m.) Song of Moses – Ch 15. Celebration of escape from Pharaoh.
People in wilderness at Marah. Bitter water; people murmur against Moses.
They come to Elim and good water.
n.) Manna – people murmur at Moses and Aaron for lack of food. God
promises manna (16:1-36) in morning, quail in the evening.
o.) People at Massah – demand water. Moses strikes the rock with his
rod and water flows forth. Battle with Amalekites at Rephidim (17:1-7). Aaron
and Hur hold up the hands of Moses so that Israel will prevail (17:8-13)
p.) Jethro visits Moses – ch. 18. Jethro learns the greatness of God.
Gives Moses advice about judging the people (18:13-23)
q.) Israel in Sinai wilderness. God speaks to Moses from the mountain.
New covenant promised. Moses sanctifies the people. Comes down on the
mountain in thunder, clouds, and smoke.
Passover Introduction (13:1-22)
Instruction to Moses (13:1-2) consecration first born
Instruction to people (13:3-10)
No leavened bread
Month Abib
Memorial between your eyes
With a strong hand, God –
Instruction to people (13:11-16)
When you are established in the land
Bible 110 Old Testament
First born male cattle is the Lord’s
First born among sons you will redeem (not child sacrifice)
Journey out of Egypt (13:17-22)
Not by way of Philistines
By wilderness toward Red Sea (Yama Suph?)
Pursuit of Pharaoh (14:1-4) Lord’s exaltation over Egyptians
Lord Guides Israel (14:5-31)
Pharaoh changed his mind and pursued Israel (14:5-9)
God promises deliverance for his people (14:10-18)
“Go forward, lift up your rod over the sea and divide it. I will get glory
over Pharaoh.”
Angel provides for Israel (14:19-20)
Angel and pillar of fire stood behind them
No one from host of Egypt came near Israel; cloud lit the night
Deliverance at sea (14:21-25)
Conquest of sea, conquest of chaos at Gen. 1:1ff
Lord’s victory over chaos
Destruction in the sea (14:26-29) Egyptians destroyed
Dedication of Israel in response (14:30-31)
Israel feared and believed the Lord and his servant Moses
Victory Celebrated (15:1-27)
Song of Moses 15:1-19
Praises God for mighty deeds 1-3
Proclaims God’s mighty deeds in victory at Sea 4-12
Ultimate purpose of God’s mighty deeds: establish his people in a land of
their own 13-19
Song of Miriam 15:20-21
Care of God in Bitter Waters of Marah 15:22-27
People murmured against Moses and Aaron and Lord
Bible 110 Old Testament
Moses threw a tree into the water
Provision For Hunger 16:1-36
Murmuring against the Lord’s leaders 16:1-3
Moses’ mediating with God 16:4-12
God will provide bread in the morning and flesh in the evening
Gathering of manna and quail 16:13-21
Provision for manna for Sabbath 16:22-30
Israel remembers the miracle of manna 16:31-36
Keep a jar with an omer of manna to be place before the testimony
Lord’s Provision Continues 17:1-16
Water from the rock at Massah and Meribah because the people
murmured against Moses 17:1-7.
Battle against Amalekites at Rephidim – Moses’ hands held up, Israel
prevails 17:8-16
Domestic Issues: Jethro’s visit 18:1-27
Confession: The Lord is greater than all gods
Choose men to help you judge the people and their matters. Man must be
able (physically), fear God, trustworthy, and honest or hate a bribe
Sinai Narrative: Yahweh Holy One of Israel 19:1-25
Call to covenant life 19:1-9a
Consecration of the people before they meet their Lord 19:9b-15
Coming of the Lord 19:16-25
Trumpet, thunders, lightening, thick cloud; Sinai wrapped in smoke,
trumpet grew louder; God answers in thunder
Decalogue 20:1-20
Preamble 20:1-2
No other gods 20:3
Bible 110 Old Testament
No graven images 20:4-6
Not taking the name of the Lord in vain 20:7
Remember the Sabbath 20:8-11
Honor father and mother 20:12
Not kill 20:13
Not commit adultery 20:14
Not steal 20:15
Not bear false witness 20:16
Not covet 20:17
People’s fear before God 20:18-20
Book of Covenant begins 20:21-26
Altar of earth, not hewn of wood
Civil and Criminal Laws 21:1-36
Protecting the home 21:1-6
Protecting female slave 21:7-11
Capital offenses 21:12-17
Premeditated murder 12-14, striking a parent 15, stealing a man 16,
cursing a parent 17
Bodily injury: Non-capital crimes involving blows and wounds 21:18-32
Blows between Israelite men 18-20
Beating a slave 20-21
Injury during pregnancy 22-25
Physical abuse of slaves 26-27
Ox that gores 28-32
Negligence and property loss 33-36
Property Rights Compensation and Indemnification 22:1-31
Cattle and sheep stealing 22:1
Definition of homicide 22:2-3
Abuse of another’s field or vineyard 22:5
Bible 110 Old Testament
Responsibility for fire 22:6
Money or goods held in trust 22:7-8
Disputed Ownership of property left in trust 2:9
Responsibilities of shepherds and herdsmen 22:10-13
Damaging borrowed property 22:14-15
Seduction of a virgin 22:16-17
Capital offenses 22:8-20; sorcerers, bestiality, apostasy
Ethical and moral responsibility 22:21-28
Responsibility for helpless 21-24
Compassion for poor 25-27
Honoring God and his representative 28
Religious or cultic regulation 29-31
Offerings of harvest and outflow of presses
Offerings of first born
Contaminated flesh 31
Further Laws 23:1-33
Justice and duty to one’s enemy 23:1-9
Poor 6-8
Stranger 9
Religious institutions 23:10-19
Sabbatical year 10-11
Observe Sabbath 12-13
Great feasts 14-17
Unleavened bread, harvesting, gathering
Ritual instruction 18-19
Pagan practices 19b
Instructions for entry into Promised Land 23:20-33
Experiences in Lord’s leadership 20-21
Lord’s identification with Israel 22
Conquest and settlement of land 23-33
Bible 110 Old Testament
Ratification of Covenant 24:1-14
Vision and communal meal 1-2, 9-11
Covenant sealed in blood 3-8
Blood in basins, blood thrown against altar, blood thrown on people
Confirmation through writing 12-14
Tables of stone
Moses on the mountain 15-18
40 days, 40 nights
Law and the Establishment of a People
Culmination of Exodus experience is the covenant at Sinai. The crowd
which left Egypt had no community, no structure for survival in the desert. The
covenant hammered them into a structured community. In the covenant Israel
bound herself to God, not to Moses. Gratitude to God for deliverance brought
obedience to the covenantal stipulation by the Hebrews.
Covenant is a contract between Yahweh and the people. Yahweh took
the initiative. He laid down the covenant stipulation. Israel was obligated to
obey. When Israel breached the covenant, Yahweh was morally bound to judge
them. Covenant is the permeating factor of Israelite faith.
Covenant was:
1. New
2. Absolute obedience to God, norm of interpersonal relationship
3. Yahwistic faith transcended tribal religion, created community above tribal
4. Later it became blind national religion
5. Obligation to single overlord
6. Different groups joined themselves and their diverse background to Sinai
Bible 110 Old Testament
7. Historical experience/religious symbol separation made the cultus a mere
ritual; prophets tried to link historical event and present condition of the
people in the cultus.
Two Covenant Traditions
1. Northern tradition
Kingdom of priests theology
2. Southern Tradition
Dynastic theology of covenant
David was accepted much more readily in the south because of the dynastic
tradition. After Solomon, the kingdom divided; southern kingdom is dynastic;
northern tradition became chaotic.
Ten Commandments
No other gods before me
No graven images or likeness of anything in heaven or on earth or under
the earth
Not take the Lord’s name in vain
Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy
Honor father and mother that your days may be long
Not kill
Not commit adultery
Not steal
Bible 110 Old Testament
Not bear false witness against thy neighbor
Not covet neighbor’s house, wife, manservant, maidservant, ox, ass, or
anything that is your neighbor’s
Make no gods of silver or gold to be with me; make only altar of earth 20:24 on
which you offer burnt sacrifice. If you make altar of stone, it shall not be of hewn
Covenant Code 20:22-23:33
Israelite altar
Laws concerning slaves 21:1-11
Laws protecting human beings 21:12-32
Laws dealing with prosperity 21:33-22:17
(Stealing, neglect, trusteeship)
Social and cultic laws 22:18-23:9 (protector of legally defenseless;
mercantile way of life frowned upon; no exaction of interest from
fellow Israelite; Israel’s sense of justice; justice extends to helping
your enemy)
Cultic calendar 23:10-19 Sabbath observance; pilgrimage to central shrine
– feast of harvest, feast of ingathering or booths; prohibition against
seething a kid in its mother’s milk
Conclusion 23:20-33 holy wars against enemies
Covenant ratification ceremony 24:1-17
Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 elders
Ark and Tent of Meeting
Ark is central object of the Jerusalem cultus. Called ark of covenant, ark
of testimony; this is a container which holds the two tablets of the Decalogue.
Some think that it contained fetishes or was shaped like the golden calf. Were a
cup of manna and Aaron’s rod preserved? The Ark was the unoccupied throne
of the deity. Pedestal without the image. Function; a guide on the journey;
Bible 110 Old Testament
rallying point in times of war, leading people into battle. It is always close to the
Sinaitic covenant; a portable Sinai (number 10 a primary source).
The ark entered with Joseph tribes under Joshua. It lodged at different
places. Shecham, Shiloh, Philistia, recaptured by David and taken to Jerusalem.
It was lost when Nebuchadnezzar overran Jerusalem.
Tent of Meeting – J (Ex. 33 ancient), and P (Ex. 25 modern). Tent was
placed in the middle of the camps as a rallying point. It reflects the tabernacling
presence of Yahweh. Tent of meeting is the tent of Moedh particular time or
place; definite festival occasion; special place because of special power there. It
is the tent of the revealing power of God. It is portable, a wilderness object.
Function: gives expression to the unapproachableness of God and that his
self-communication is an act of condescension; God is not at the beck and call of
man. It gives guidance in internal affairs  oracles. Nearness,
approachableness of God; visible leadership.
Unison of the ark and the tent comes with David. Tent is southern; ark is
primarily with Joseph’s tribes. Those who enter the tent are representatives of
the people. Ark, tent, and primitive priesthood make up what little is known of the
wilderness cultus. Ark is primary, tent secondary.
Dimensions and construction of ark ch. 25, dimensions ch. 26, furnishing
of tabernacle ch. 27; vestments of priests ch. 28, ordination of priests (Aaron 29);
altar of incense ch. 30; workmen to fashion and craft the ark and tent of meeting
ch. 31; H. Breaking of Covenant 32:1-35; golden calf; Moses breaks the tablets;
sin of the people; Moses intercession for the people
Moses and the people start for the Promised Land with tent of meeting
and pillar of cloud. Moses sees the backside of God ch. 33. Covenant renewed
and new tablets cut; Moses comes down from Sinai.
The making of the ark, tent, vestments, and setting up of the cultus ch 3540; whenever the cloud covered the tabernacle and filled it with God’s glory, the
people did not move; when the cloud lifted up, the people moved onward.
Tabernacling God of wilderness VS Temple God