1.Introduction . What is matter? 1.The structure of

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1.Introduction
.
2
What is matter?
1.The structure of
matter-
Any object or
substance that has mass
and takes up space.
2.
3. What are atoms?
3. Atoms are tiny particles that
make up all matter AND the
smallest particle of an element.
4. Describe the nucleus.
4. The nucleus is at the center of
the atom. The nucleus
contains neutrons and
protons. The nucleus spins.
Interesting fact: the
smallest nucleus is
located in a light
hydrogen atom; the
largest- uranium.
What are
protons?
5. Protons have a positive electric
charge, have a mass of 1, and how
many protons determine the
element.
6. What are neutrons?
6. Neutrons have no electric
charge and have a mass of 1;
located in the nucleus.
5.
What are
electrons?
7.
Electrons have a
negative electric
charge; have a mass
of almost 0; electrons
fly around the
nucleus almost at the
speed of light when in
orbit.
7.
Let’s Review
What are 8. Ions are atoms with
an
extra
or
missing
ions?
8.
electron. When ions
have a ( an):
•extra electron, the charge is
negative
•A missing electron , the charge is
positive
-----------------------------------------Remember that normal atoms
have the same number of
electrons and protons
9. What are 9. Elements are
elements? substances made
from just one kind of
an atom.
•There are 90
different types of
elements in nature.
•More than 20
elements are man
made.
Element Discussion
•There are 90 different
types of elements in
nature.
•More than 20 elements
are man made.
•It it is important to remember that when looking at
the periodic table of the elements, “naturally
occurring” does not necessarily mean “abundant.”
Many naturally occurring elements are in fact quite
rare, although some were once more abundant. Levels
of elements also change depending on where you are:
helium. For example, is rare on Earth, but abundant
around the Sun.
10. What is the
Periodic Table
of Elements?
10. The periodic
table is an
arrangement of
elements according to
their atomic numbers.
11. What is an
atomic number?
11. An atomic number
is the number of
PROTONS in the
nucleus.
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
12. What is a
chemical symbol?
12. The first letter is
always an upper case
and the others are
lower case. letter is
always upper case
and others are lower
case
A hydrocarbon ( this
atom is natural gas)
13
What is
atomic mass?
13.Atomic mass is:
• Protons + Neutrons
14. How are
metals and non
metals
arranged on the
Periodic Table?
14. Non metals are
located on the right
and metals on the
left.
What
are ionic
bonds?
15.
15. Ionic bonds are formed
by the attraction between
two oppositely charged
ions.
• Usually occurs between
positive metals and negative
nonmetals.
• Common example: table salt
What are
covalent
bonds?
16.
16. Covalent bonds are
bonds in which atoms
share electrons.
• H2O is an example
17.What is
a molecule?
17. A molecule is
formed when two
or more atoms
join together
chemically.
Methane gas
What is a
compound?
17.
17. A compound is
made of two or
more elements that
are chemically
combined.
What are
characteristics
of metallic
bonds?
18.
18.High boiling
points
• Good
conductors of
electricity
• Requires
much energy
to break apart
( usually)
19.
What is a formula?
19. A formula lists how
many of each element
that makes up a
compound.
H2O = 2 Atoms of Hydrogen and
1 atom of Oxygen
C6H12O6 = glucose
How many carbon
atoms? Hydrogen
atoms? Oxygen
atoms?
What are
mixtures?
20
20. Mixtures are
combinations of
substances that are
NOT bonded.
21. What Is a
heterogeneous
mixture?
21 A MIXTURE is a
combination of two or
more substances that are
not chemically united
and do not exist in fixed
proportions to each
other. Most natural
substances are mixtures.
-------------If broken apart, could the
parts be seen separately
( raisins, oats, etc)
22. What Is a
homogeneous
mixture?
22. Homogeneous
mixture is when
substances are mixed
evenly throughout the
solution. *Many
homogeneous mixtures
are commonly referred
to as solutions.
•What is a mixture?
23. What are
the parts of a
solution?
23. Parts of a solution
include:
 solute – substance
being dissolved
 solvent – substance
in which the solute
dissolves
Unit 4 –
Properties and
Changes
34
1.What are physical
properties?
1. Physical properties
are observed through
the senses.
35
2. Examples of Color, shape, hardness,
Physical
texture, etc.
changes
Density – amount of matter in
a given volume
Buoyancy – ability to float in
water
Ductility – ability to be
stretched, bent, etc. without
breaking
 Solubility – amount that will
dissolve in another substance
36
• The Hindenburg Disaster
37
3. What are the
characteristics of
acids?
3. Acids:
 corrode metals
 taste sour
 pH of 1-6 (7 is
neutral)
4. What is the
4. Acids form
relationship between hydrogen ions
acids and water?
when dissolved
in water
38
39
40
5. What are the 5. Bases:
characteristics of feel slippery
bases?
taste bitter
react with fats (good for
soap)
pH of 8-14
41
6. What is the
relationship
between bases
and water?
6. Bases form
hydroxide ions
when dissolved
in water (also
called alkaline)
42
43
7. Acids and 7. React to form salt and
bases………… water.
8. PH SCALE 8.
44
9. What are
physical
changes?
Physical changes
do not change one
substance to
another ( i.e.
bending, breaking)
9.
45
46
10. List
10. Solid:
the states has definite shape and volume; particles vibrate
without moving around
or phases Liquid :
of matter. has definite volume but not shape; particles are
touching and move freely
 Gas:
has no definite volume or shape ;particles are far
apart and move very rapidly
 Plasma:
superhot charged particles; stars
Bose-Einstein Condensate – super
cold and super dense solid
47
48
49
11What is
melting?
12. What is
evaporation ?
Melting occurs
when solids forms
liquids.
11.
12. Evaporation occurs when
liquids develop into gases.
50
13. What is
condensation?
13. Condensation
occurs when
gases form into
liquids.
51
14. What is
freezing?
14. Freezing
occurs when –
liquids become
solids
52
15. What is
sublimation?
15. Sublimation
occurs when
solid forms into
gas (skips liquid)
53
16. What is
deposition?
16. Deposition
occurs when
gases form into
a solid
54
55
56
57
19. Describe
chemical
reactions.
19
.
Chemicals react to form different
chemicals
All reactions either release energy or
absorb energy
 Law of Conservation of
Matter :
 matter cannot be created or
destroyed
whatever matter goes in must
come out
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60
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