Marketing Strategies in travel and tourism (2007 Fall)

Marketing Strategies
in travel and tourism
(2007 Fall)
An Individual Mid-Term Take Home Exam
One group marketing project (4 persons
A Written Marketing Plan (Due in final week)
Oral Presentation (Mid-term/Final)
Engagement in Class Discussion (Assigned
Grading Basis
Mid-Term Take Home Exam: 30%
Group Project: 40%
Group Oral Presentation: 20%
Class Participation:10%
Project Topic: Basically select one destination
or festival of your country.
Introducing travel and tourism
Marketing is a subject of vital concern in
travel and tourism because it is the principal
management influence which can be brought
to bear on the size and behaviour of this
major, global market.
Accommodation sector
 Hotels/motels
 Guest houses/bed & breakfast
 Farmhouses
 Apartments/villas/cottages
 Condominiums/time share resorts
 Vacation villages/holiday centres
 Conference/exhibition centres
 Satic and touring caravan/camping sites
 marinas
Attractions sector
 Theme parks
 Museums & galleries
 National parks
 Wildlife parks
 Gardens
 Heritage sites & centres
 Sports/activity centres
Transport sector
Shipping lines/ferries
Bus/coach operators
Car rental operators
Travel organizers’ sector
 Tour operators /Tour wholesalers/brokers
 Retail travel agents
 Conference organizers
 Booking agencies ( e.g. accommodation)
 Incentive travel organizers
Destination organization sector
 National tourist offices (NTOs)
 Regional/Stat tourist offices
 Local tourist offices
 Tourist associations
International tourism-1
People who travel to and stay in countries
other than their country of residence for less
than 1 year are normally described as
international tourists.
International tourism-2
They are usually treated as the most important market
sector of tourism because, compared with domestic tourists,
they spend more, stay longer at the destination, use more
expensive transport and accommodation, and bring in
foreign currency, which contributes to a destination
country’s international balance of payments.
Domestic tourism
People who travel and stay overnight within
the boundaries of their own country are
classified as domestic tourists.
A working definition of travel
and tourism
Tourism comprises the activities of persons
traveling to and staying in places outside their
usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purposes’, (WTO: 1992-subject to
ratification by the UN).
The systematic links between demand
and supply and the role of marketing
Travel begins to occur out of sense
of adventure and curiosity
4850 B.C.-715 B.C. Egyptians travel to centralized
government locations
1760 B.C.-1027
Shang dynasities establish trade
routes to distant locations
throughout the Far East
1100 B.C.-800 B.C. Phoenicians develop large sailing
fleets for trade and travel
throughout their empire
900 B.C.-200 B.C.
500 B.C.-A.D 300
A.D300- A.D 900
Greeks develop common
language and currency and
traveler services emerge as
city-states become destinations
Romans improve roads, legal
system, inns to further travel for
commerce, adventure, and
Mayans establish trade and
travel routes in parts of Central
and North America
A.D 1096- A.D 1295
A.D-1275- A.D 1295
14th-16th centuries
European travel on failed
religious crusades to retake the
Holy Lands from Muslim control
ingroduced these military forces
to new places and cultures
Marco Polo’s travels throughout
the Far East begin to heighten
interest in travel and trade
Trade routes develop as
commercial activities grow and
merchants venture into new
A.D1613- A.D 1785 Grand Tour Era makes travel a
status symbol for wealthy
individuals seeking to experience
cultures of the civilized world
18th-19th centuries Industrial Revolution gives rise to
technological advances making
travel and trade more efficient and
expands markets; increasing
personal incomes make travel both
a business necessity and leisure
Thomas Cook organizes first group tour
in England
Wright Brothers usher in era of flight with
the firswt successful aircraft flight
Westinghouse Corporation institutes
paid vacations for its workers
Henry Ford begins mass production of
the Model T
First scheduled airline passenger flight
debuts between London and Paris
World War II ends and ushers in new era
of prosperity, giving rise to millions of
people with the time , money , and interest
to travel for pleasure and business
Diners Club introduces the first credit card
Jet passenger service inaugurated
between London and Johannesburg,
South Africa