休閒事業組織與管理 Tourism, heritage and leisure 指導教授: 陳慧玲教授 學 生: N99B0011 李佩芸 Tourism: an International perspective 近年來，全球旅遊業雖然因恐怖襲擊、地區衝突和世 界經濟低迷等因素受到一定的影響，但在2004年呈現 了強勁復甦。據世界旅遊組織公布的數據，2004年國 際旅遊接待人數達7.6億人次，境外旅遊收入達6,220 億美元，均創歷史新高，而2006年接待人數更達8.46 億人次，境外旅遊收入7,333億美元。據世界旅遊組 織預測，到2010年，全世界每年將有10億多人出國旅 遊，而2020年將達16億人。 Tourism: an International perspective Tourism 2020 Vision (by WTO) International arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion . (國際入境將達到1.6億) 1.2 billion will be intraregional and 378 million will be long-haul travellers. (1.2億為區域間，3.7億為長 程旅客) Top three receiving regions will be Europe (717 million tourists), East Asia and the Pacific(397 million) and the Americas (282 million). Tourism: an International perspective International Tourist Arrivals(入境) (2009) 1. France 2. United States 3. Spain 4. China 5. Italy 6. United Kingdom 7. Turkey 8. Germany 9. Malaysia 10. Mexico International Tourist Receipts(收入) (2009) 1. USA 2. Spain 3. France 4. Italy 5. China 6. Germany 7. United Kingdom 8. Australia 9. Turkey 10. Austria Tourism in the UK The United Kingdom= Scotland(蘇格蘭) + England(英格蘭) + Wales(威爾斯)+ Northern Ireland (北愛爾蘭) Tourism in the UK The majority of tourists in the UK are UK residents at 167.3 million in 2002 compared to overseas residents at 24.2 million. The UK government in tourism The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) Four tourist boards(旅遊局) in the UK: VisitBritain →DCMS VisitScotland →Scottish Executive(蘇格蘭行政院) Northern Ireland Tourist Board Wales Tourist Board →the National Assembly for Wales (威爾斯國民大會) VisitEngland VisitLondon Promoting tourism and destination attractions The definition of “tourism”—all aspects of the visitor experience Tourism product: transport(交通), accommodation(住宿) and meals(餐點) Tourism experience: hospitality(熱情款待), visitor destination and attractions, events Marketing tourism(旅遊行銷) has developed into a mini-industry of its own. The destination attraction is the magnet(磁鐵). The world tourism trends Tourist Trends : Day visits and VFR are seen as important sectors. 2. Middle-aged and older people are becoming more active and travel-sophisticated than in times past. (中老年市場) 3. The growth in the affluent retired market offers opportunity to promote year-round tourism. (有錢人市 場) 4. “Cash-rich, time poor” employment will be attracted to more short break holidays but require value for money and value for time.(重視品質與方便度) 1. The tourism product in the UK Innovation(創新) : Braveheart(英雄本色) →Highland of Scotland Harry Potter →the UK Lake District →the striking scenery and William Wordsworth The tourism product in the UK Creativity and culture provide means to promote not only attractions but also market regions, cities and towns. the European Capital of Culture 2008 --Liverpool Destination attractions in the UK Top 10 UK Attractions ---free 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 British Museum National Gallery Tate Modern Natural History Museum Top 10 UK Attractions ---paid 1 Tower of London 2 St Paul's Cathedral 3 Westminster Abbey Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo Windermere Lake Cruises, Bowness 4 Science Museum 5 Victoria and Albert Museum 6 Kew Gardens National Portrait Gallery 7 Chester Zoo Tate Britain 8 London Zoo British Library 9 Eden Project 10 Canterbury Cathedral Thetford Forest Park Economic impact of tourism Hotel guests’ spending has the greater “multiplier effect” (乘數效益) . Government influence and legislation have a considerable effect on tourism. Cooperative marketing(合作行銷) is a growing feature of cost-effective (成本效益)tourism promotion. Tourism involves travel: leisure transport. Two aspects are worth noting. Personal and social reasons for travel Poor people travel less Tourism and heritage worldwide 世界遺產委員會於1978年公佈第一批世界遺產名單以來 ，截至2010年8月止，《保護世界文化和自然遺產公約》 的締約國已達187國家與地區，共有911項世界遺產（ World Heritage Sites）分佈在151個國家中。依其類型 可分為文化遺產704項、自然遺產180項以及兼具兩者特 性之複合遺產27項。請注意世界遺產並不包括非物質文 化遺產(intangible heritages) 。非物質遺產並不是世 界遺產的類別之ㄧ，而是在獨立的國際公法、締約國大 會以及跨政府委員會下運作的計畫。 An intangible heritage What is handed down over the years is not the tangible heritages (物質遺產), but an intangible heritages.(非物質 文化遺產) Intangible heritages: oral traditions, customs, music, dance, rituals(儀式), festivals and traditional medicine. UNESCO proposed the creation of local and management bodies, educational programmes, legal and funding initiatives. Intangible heritages in the UK: Cornish language Cockneys(Londoners) Management of historical sites Council of Europe and World Heritage Conventions four main headings(標題) (by Pickard) management and regeneration(再生) action 2. environmental management 3. tourism and heritage management 4. sustainability (永續性) two objectives of conservation: 1. the improvement of building for housing 2. the encouragement of compatible business → revitalize(活化) a historic centre 1. Principles of sustainable management of historical centres Respect community life.(尊重社區生活) Improve the quality of life. (改善生活品質) Maintain identity, diversity and vitality(活力). Minimize the depletion(消退) of non-renewable heritage assets. Change attitudes and perceptions . Empower(授權) community action and responsibility through involvement. Provide a suitable policy framework . Define the capacity(承載量) which the historical centre can permit change. Preserving UK heritage sites 500,000 listed buildings, 17,700 scheduled monuments and 8500 conservation areas in UK English heritage the principal aims (成立目標) The Treasure Act The Portable Antiquities The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF)(文化遺產彩票基金) Tourism, hospitality and accommodation Hospitality is being hospitable(熱情好客) and proving friendly and generous(慷慨的) treatment to guests or strangers. It is an important and growing industry in many parts of the world. It is concerned with management excellence: giving quality services to customers(最佳服務品質) , provide accommodation (住宿), food and drink to customers. Hospitality industry is inextricably linked to transportation, travel agents, tour operator, visitor attractions and customers and clients from the tourism market sector. Holiday accommodation in the UK three major hotel chains Granada Whitbread Thistle Hotels budget hotels (經濟型旅館) holiday centres Butlins Holiday Camps Center Parcs holiday village Thanks for your attention …….