Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease
Caused by
• Atherosclerosis
– Blocked artery
• By plaque
• Arteriosclerosis
– “Hardening of the arteries”
Coronary Artery Disease
• Plaque buildup in arteries of the heart
• No outward symptoms
• Can produce a myocardial infarction
– Heart attack
– Due to blocked artery
• Third most frequent cause of death
• Blocked artery in the brain
• Due to
– arteriosclerosis
– arteriosclerosis
• Common stroke
– Blocked artery
• Hemorrhagic stroke
– Burst blood vessel
• Abnormally high blood pressure
• Best predictor of heart attack and stroke
Declining death rates in
cardiovascular disease
• Due to:
– Better diet
– Reduction in cigarette smoking
– Improved emergency care
Framingham Heart Study
• Risk factors for heart disease
– Cigarette smoking
– High cholesterol
– Hypertension
– Sedentary lifestyle
– Obesity
Framingham Heart Study
• LDL - Low-density lipoprotein
– Positively related to cardiovascular disease
– “L” = Lousy
• High-density lipoprotein
– Protection against heart disease
• Total cholesterol
– = LDL + HDL + Triglycerides
• Ratio
Total cholesterol to HDL
e.g. 4.5:1
Lower is better
Periodontal (gum) disease &
Chronic inflammation =
increased risk of CVD
Anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin)
Lowers risk of heart attack
Less smoking = lower cardiovascular
Fruits, vegetables & fish reduce heart
attack (CVD) risk
Social support
Single, divorced, or widowed men = most
at risk of CVD
Marriage & social support help
Anger increased risk of heart attack
Cynical hostility = especially harmful to
CV health
Optimistic bias
“It won’t happen to me.”
Hypertension = High Blood
Reducing it is difficult because
No visible symptoms
To reduce it:
Lose weight
Reduce salt
Better diet
Fruits, vegetable, whole grain, low-fat dairy
Regular physical activity
Effect of nonfatal heart attack
on sex
Fear of having sex
Not justified