Groups and Organizations How do groups influence you?

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Groups and Organizations

How do groups influence you?

© Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D.

© Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D.

What types of groups are there?

Primary

Secondary

Reference

 In-group

 Out-group

What are your primary groups?

Small, personal, intimate

– The family

– First groups in our lives

– Primary importance in our lives & socialization

 Socialization

 Social identity

 Provides comfort and security

An end in itself

What are your secondary groups?

E.g. Microsoft

Large, impersonal, formal

Weak emotional ties

 Short duration

 Lawsuits increase with increasing secondary ties

A means to an end

What are your reference groups?

Point of reference in making evaluations and decisions

 Family

 Friends

Gang

Professors

What are your in-groups and out-groups?

Your in-groups

In-groups

The group you are in

 Family

 Friends

 Clubs

Your out-groups

– The groups you are out of.

» A social group toward which we feel competition or opposition

» Lead to unfairly negative views of out-groups

Do you remember?

What types of groups are there?

What characterizes each type of group?

Can you be in several types of groups at once?

What group leadership styles are there?

Instrumental

– Completing tasks

– Emotionally distant

Expressive

– Collective well-being

– Emotionally involved

– May use humor to reduce tension

What kinds of formal organizations are there?

Normative organizations

– Voluntary organizations

» Red Cross

» PTA (Parent Teacher Association)

 Coercive organizations

– Involuntary commitment

– Maximum security prison or mental hospital

Utilitarian organization

– Company - Material benefits (money)

Do you remember?

What group leadership styles are there?

 What group decision making styles are there?

 What kinds of formal organizations are there?

Will you conform in a group?

Solomon Asch Experiment

 Milgram

’ s experiment

What did the Solomon Asch experiment tell us?

Power of conformity to group pressure

Comparison of lines

People will compromise their own judgment to avoid being seen as different

What did the Milgram experiment tell us?

People follow both legitimate authority and ordinary individuals

Do you remember?

What did the Solomon ash experiment tell us?

 What did the Milgram experiment tell us?

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