Groups and Organizations How do groups influence you? What types of groups are there? Primary Secondary Reference In-group Out-group What are your primary groups? Small, personal, intimate – The family – First groups in our lives – Primary importance in our lives Socialization Social identity Provides comfort and security An end in itself What are your secondary groups? E.g. Microsoft Large, impersonal, formal Weak emotional ties Short duration Lawsuits increase with increasing secondary ties A means to an end What are your reference groups? Point of reference in making evaluations and decisions Family Friends Gang Professors What are your in-groups and out-groups? Your in-groups In-groups The group you are in Family Friends Clubs Your out-groups – The groups you are out of. » A social group toward which we feel competition or opposition » Lead to unfairly negative views of out-groups Do you remember? What types of groups are there? What characterizes each type of group? Can you be in several types of groups at once? What group leadership styles are there? Instrumental – Completing tasks – Emotionally distant Expressive – Collective well-being – Emotionally involved What group decision making styles are there? Authoritarian Democratic – Collective decisions on egalitarian basis Laissez-faire – Downplays position of power What kinds of formal organizations are there? Normative organizations – Voluntary organizations » Red Cross » PTA (Parent Teacher Association) Coercive organizations – Involuntary commitment – Maximum security prison or mental hospital Utilitarian organization – Company - Material benefits (money) Do you remember? What group leadership styles are there? What group decision making styles are there? What kinds of formal organizations are there? Will you conform in a group? Solomon Asch Experiment Milgram’s experiment What did the Solomon Asch experiment tell us? Comparison of lines People will compromise their own judgment to avoid being seen as different What did the Milgram experiment tell us? People follow both legitimate authority and ordinary individuals Do you remember? What did the Solomon ash experiment tell us? What did the Milgram experiment tell us?