Social Influence Conformity • Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. How did you feel the first time someone asked you to smoke? Asch’s Study Conditions that Strengthen Conformity • • • • • • One is made to feel incompetent The group is at least three people The group is unanimous One admires the group’s status One had made no prior commitment The person is observed Reasons for Conforming Normative Social Influence • Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disappointment Informational Social Influence • Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Obedience Milgram’s Experiments Milgram’s Obedience Study What did we learn from Asch & Milgram? • Ordinary people can do shocking things. Group Influence on Behavior Lets look at how groups effect our behavior. Social Facilitation • Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others. •Occurs with simple or well learned tasks. •Not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered. Yerkes- Dodson Law • There is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task: • easy tasks-relatively high • difficult tasks--low arousal • other tasks-moderate level Social Loafing • The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable. Deindividuation • The loss of self-awareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Group Polarization • The concept that a group’s attitude is one of extremes and rarely moderate. As a group, both the Black Panthers and the Ku Klux Klan are more extreme than the average individual in the group. Group Polarization Groupthink • The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides common sense. How could the hazing incident at Northbrook High School be an example of groupthink? We also influence ourselves The Power of the Individual can be stronger than a group. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies • Occurs when one person’s belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief. If you think someone finds you attractive, they more likely will!!!